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Sept. 3, 1946.
w. A. DARRAH
2,407,062
APPARATUS FOR TESTING CONTAINERS
Filed Aug. 24. 1942
12 Sheets-Sheet l
Sept. 3, 1946.
2,407,062
w. A. DARRAH
APPARATUS Non TESTING CONTAINERS
Filed Aug. 24, 1942
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APPARATUS FOR TESTING CONTAINERS
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APPARATUS Fon TESTING còu'xgäugns
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Patented
3, 1946
2,407,062
_
s UNITED STATES“ PATENTv 4ortica «
William A. Dan'ah, Chicago, Ill.. assis-nor to
Owens-Illinois Glass Company, a corporation
of Ohio
Application August 24, 1942, Serial No. 455,887
15
.
1
(ci. zoe-ss)
Y
My invention relates to apparatus for gauging
bottles, jars and other hollow articles, testing
them for a variety of imperfections, and auto-`
matically discarding defective ware. In the-`
manufacture of glass bottles, jars and similar
ware, it is practically impossible to produce uni
2.
finish or imperfect neck openings. bottles out-oi
round or otherwise irregular as to size or shape,`
bottles which lean (“leaners”) , owing to round
ed, irregular or defective bottoms, bottles `with
sunken or bulged sides, oversize and undersize
bodies, bottles with moldv seams or other irregu
larities and various other defects.
formly perfect articles owing to the inherent na-->
>A further object of my invention is to provide
ture of the glass which must 4be'molded while in
testing apparatus which will operate automati
a hot plastic condition. While in such condi
tion and during the gathering and blowing of the 10 cally with the precision, accuracy and' reliability
that are attainable by the use of mechanical.
glass in the molds and the cooling, hardening
pneumatic and electrical devices for meeting the
and annealing processes, it is subject to many
.exacting requirements of such an apparatus def
influences tending to distort the glass and intro
signedÄ to discard val1 articles which are defecf
duce other imperfections.
tive or which do not `measure up to prescribed
At the present day it is the universal practice
standards for the uniform output of high quality
for trained inspectors, called selectors, to inspect
ware. Such apparatus eliminates defective ware
the ware as it is taken from the annealing leer,
discarding those articles having imperfectionsV
or reduces it to an extent impossible to attain
where manual inspection is relied upon.
rapidly handled. Modern requirements for corn--` 20 A further object of the invention is to provide
apparatus for advancing the articles in a line
mercial ware are exacting as to size, shape, ca
through a number of testing stations or zones
pacity, ñnish, etc. This is particularly true, for
arranged one in advance of another and testing
example, in regard to bottles which are to be
the articles for different defects in each zone.
illled and sealed by automatic machinery which
does not permit of any material deviations in 25 The invention further provides for concur
rently testing groups of articles in each of a plu
size, shape or finish of the bottles. Further, in
rality of testing zones and for segregating the de
the use of such automatic filling machinery, it is
fective articles from those which meet the tests.
customary to introduce a filling tube or norzle
Other objects of the invention will appear
into the neck of the bottle and for satisfactory
operation the interior of the bottle neck must be 30 hereinafter.
which are detected visually as the articles are
accurate as to size and shape.
.
' The requirements in respect to bottles and jars
for use where such automatic filling machinery
is employed, are rendered the more exacting be
Referring to the accompanying drawings
which illustrate a testing machine or apparatus
constructed in accordance with the principles of
my invention:
Fig. 1 is a plan view of the apparatus.
cause a defective container may tie up tempo 35
Fig. 2 is a sectional plan on a larger scale, of
rarily a long ñlling line, resulting in a loss many
a portion of the apparatus.
times greater than the cost of the container it
Fig. 3 is a cross-sectional elevationof the ap
self.
‘
paratus.
A further defect which is frequently found in
_Fig. 4 is a sectional `elevation of: a testing unit
' bottles >'and other glass containers relates to 40
for gauging the articlesas to height or length,
small leaks or pinhole openings through- the
and for making Ívarious other tests.
glass, which maybe the result of seeds or air
Fig. 5 is a section at the line 5_5 on Fig. 4.
bubbles embedded in the glass and breaking
Fig. 6 is an elevation of a testing unit adapted
through the walls of the container. It is impos-`
sible by the usual methods of inspection to detect 4,5 for testing the top sealing surfaces or finishes of
the bottles.
.
-\
many of the defects by which the articles fail to
meet standard requirements.
A
>
Fig. 7 is a section at the line 1-1 on Fig. 6.
` ` An 'object of my invention is to provide auto-v
Fig. 8 is a section at the line 8-8 on`Fig. 6.
matic gauging and testing apparatus which will
Fig.` 9 is a sectional elevation showing a test
register defects such as above noted and‘by which.“ 50 ing unit which provides means for vacuumizing
the articles and thereby testing them for various
the bottles or other articles which are defective
are automatically segregated and` - discarded.
defects, and also electrical means for testing wall
thickness.
’
Such defective bottles include bottles either`
Fig. 10 is a part-sectional longitudinal eleva
longer or shorter than the specified length, leaky
bottles (called “leakers"), bottles with imperfect 55 tion of the apparatus with _parts broken away.
2,407,062
Fig. 11 is a detail View of a spacing finger and
trip device.
`
'
Fig. 12 v,is a bottom plan view of one of the spring
actuated' pressure rolls distributed along the belt
conveyor.
Fig. 13 is a detail view of means for rocking the
finger shaft shown in Fig. 11.
'
Fig. 14 is a part-sectional plan view of the
apparatus with portions broken away.
sides of the bottles adjacent the lower ends there
of. The belts 40 and 4| are driven respectively
by electric motors 42 and 43 (Fig. l) . 'I'he motor
43 as shown in Fig. 10 has a driving connection
with the belt 4| through gearing including a belt
44 and vertical shaft 45 to which is connected a
pulley 43 over which the conveyor belt 4| is
trained. The belt 4| is also trained over an idler
Fig. 15 is a fragmentary plan view showing 10 pulley 41 on a shaft 48 at the intake end of the
apparatus. The driving connections from the
means for shifting the frame which can'les the
motor 42 to theconveyor belt 40 may be a dupli
article centering rolls.
cate of those just described, the belt 40 being
' Fig. 16 is a fragmentary plan view showing
trained over a. drive pulley 49 (Fig. 1) and an
means for centering and holding the articles dur
idler pulley 5U. The conveyor belt 40 is driven
ing the testing operations. i
15 continuously and the belt 4| intermittently, the
Fig. 17 is a sectional elevation of parts shown
motor 43 and belt 4| also being periodically re
in Fig. 16.
.
versed for purposes set forth hereinafter.
Fig. 18 is a sectional view showing the swing
l Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, the bottles are car
ing frame which carries the intermittent con
ried to the apparatus on a horizontally traveling
veyor belt.
Fig. 19 is a fragmentary rear elevation of said
frame and its operating means.
Fig. 20 is a view of the timer mechanism.
Fig. 21 is a section at the line 2 |-2I on Fig. 20
20 conveyor 5| and transferred to the conveyor belts
40 and 4| by transfer or feeder mechanism in
cluding a disk 52 on which the bottles are received
from the conveyor 5|. Stationary guide rails 53
showing a timer cam disk and a valve operated 25 and 54 direct the bottles ihto position to be ad
vanced between the conveyors 40, 4|, each bottle
thereby for controlling the bottle feeder motor.
being arrested by a stop bar 55 when in such posi
Fig. 22 is a section at the line 22-22 on Fig. 21.
tion. Adjustable mountings 53“, 54n permit ad
Fig. 23 is a fragmentary plan view showing
justment of the rails for bottles of different di
article centering rolls and associated mechanism.
Fig. 24 is a fragmentary sectional elevation 30 ameters. The bottles are pushed forward to a po
sition between the conveyors 40, 4|, by a pusher
. showing a trap in its open position for discharg
ing a bottle.
Fig. 25 is a view similar to Fig. 23 showing a
modification adapted for gauging panel ware and
other flat or noncircular articles.
Fig. 26 is a side elevation of the mechanism
shown in Fig. 25.
Fig. 27 is a diagram of the vacuum system and
its electrical control.
Fig. 28 is a wiring diagram of the electrical
apparatus, except that shown in Fig. 27.
Fig. 29 is a timer chart showing the timing of
the various operations.
The apparatus as herein illustrated and de-scribed in detail is particularly adapted for test
ing bottles but may be adjusted and adapted for
testing various other articles.
Referring to the drawings, the bottles B are
fed into the apparatus at one end thereof and
are conveyed in a straight line extending length
wise of the apparatus, passing through the test
ing stations in succession. In the particular
form of apparatus illustrated there are provided
three testing stations numbered I, 2 and 3, (Figs.
1 and 10) each adapted to accommodate a group
of six bottles. The testing operations are car
ried on at the several stations concurrently.
After the tests have been made on the groups
finger 56 on a rock arm 51 which is pivoted at 58
to a base plate 59. A piston motor 60, mounted
- on the plate 59. is operatively connected to the
rock arm 51 and is periodically actuated for os
cillating said arm and thereby pushing the bottles
in succession into position between the feeder
belts. The base plate 59 is adjustably mounted
in inclined slideways on a stationary bracket 6|
permitting adjustment of the pusher finger for
ware of different sizes while maintaining the di
rection of force applied through the finger sub
stantially normal to the surface of the bottle at
the point of contact.
The motor 60 operates while the conveyor belts
40 and 4| are both moving in a. forward direc
tion, to impart six strokes to the pusher finger
56 thereby introducing six bottles to the testing
station I, the motor 60 then remaining at rest
until the testing operations have been eil'ected.
The operations of the motor 60 are under the
control of a timer cam C" (Figs. 20, 21) which
actuates the motor valve as hereinafter set forth.
The belt 40 is supported in part and guided by
a series of idler pulleys 62‘ (Figs. 2, 3) positioned
at short intervals along the inner surface of the
i belt.
Said pulleys are carried on bracket arms
63 attached to a frame 64 comprising channel
bars extending throughout the length of the ap
of bottles at the three stations, all of the bottles
paratus and supported on end frame members
are advanced simultaneously so that the group 60 65. The conveyor belt 4| is in like manner
at station 3 is discharged and the groups at
guided and supported on idler pulleys 52“ posi
stations | and 2 are advanced to stations 2 and 3
tioned at intervals lengthwise of the apparatus.
respectively while a new group of bottles is fed
Rolls 65 (Figs. 2, 13) are arranged at intervals
into station I.
along the strands or leads of the belts remote
The apparatus is supported by a framework in 65 from the bottle line and bear against the ex
cluding upright channel bars 35 to which are se
terior surfaces of the belts for holding them
cured horizontal lower girders 36 which extend
against the guiding rolls 52, 52‘. The rolls 62‘
the full length of the apparatus and support the
positioned along the bottle line may be yield
major portion of the apparatus. Upper longi
ingly mounted for applying spring pressure to
tudinal channel bars 31 are mounted on the up
70 the belt 4| for holding it in driving engagement
rights 35and support cross girders 33 spaced at
with the bottles. The spring mounting for these
intervals lengthwise of the apparatus.
rolls as shown in Figs. 12 and 25 comprises rock
'I'he bottles are conveyed through the testing
arms 33“, each pivoted at one end to a bracket
stations by a pair of endless V-belts 40 and 4I
66h or other stationary support. The roll 62* is
(Figs. l, 2, 3) which are arranged to engage the 75 carried on the free end of the arm and is held
2,407,062
withaspringpressureagainstthebeltbya ing defective bottles >and thereby mating
5
V
6
spring 90°, one end of which is hooked on a pin
99d on the arm il". The swinging movement of
the roll I8 is limited by a stop pin 59° (Fig. 25)
projecting from the arm into an enlarged open
-ing in the bracket 90b.
The pulleys 82n and also the end sheaves over
which the conveyor 4| is trained. are mounted
on a swinging frame 91 by which the conveyor is
periodically swung to and from operative posi
y
`
,
them from those whichpsss the‘tests. Each
bottom plate Il is carried on a rock arm 8l (Figs.
18, 17) attached to a bearing sleeve 99 which is
Joux-nailed on a rockshatt 9|. The bottom plates
are normally held in their bottle supporting po
sition by latches 92 individual thereto, each latch
Projecting beneath the forward end of the bot
tom plate. Each latch is mounted to swing on a
10
tion. Said frame includes a channel bar ex
pivot pin 90 and is actuated by anelectromagnet
94 (Figs. 3 and 16). The armature of the elec
tending lengthwise of the apparatus and end
hangers 68 which are connected by pivots 69 to
tromagnet has operating connection with the
vertical rods 10. The latter may be adjusted up
and down by means of adjusting nuts 1| threaded 15
vertical rod 91.
on the rods and supported on the framework.
The frame 61 is periodically swung about the
pivots 69 by means of an air operated piston
motor 13 (Figs. 3, 19), connected by a pivot 12
to the framework ofthe apparatus. The piston
rod is connected to a rock arm 'I4 on a rock shaft
15. Rock arms 15 fixed to the shaft 15, have
slot and pin connections 'Il with pairs of lugs
18 secured to the frame 51. The motor 13 is
under the control of a timer cam and operates
periodically through the connections just de
scribed to swing the frame 61 and withdraw the
conveyor belt 4|, permitting the bottles to be
discharged.
~
latch through a link 95, bell crank 99 and a
`
ì
The electromßgnets 94 are controlled automat~
ically as hereinafter described by the correspond
ing lbottle testing umts so that the magnets are
energized selectively when defective bottles are
tested, and operate to trip the latches 92. After
a latch is tripped«the trap door is temporarily
held up by means including a pair of leaf springs
98 (Figs. 16, 17) attached to` collars 99 keyed to
the shaft 9|.- The shaft 9| is automatically ro
tated through an angle of about 90° after each
25 series of bottle tests thereby swinging the arms
98 downward. If one or more of the latches 92
have‘been tripped owing to defects in the bottles
under test. the corresponding bottom plates will
be fr_ee to swing downward with the arms 98
‘
After a group of bottles have been fed between 30 allowing such defective bottles to drop and there
the conveyors 40, 4| and Nthe preceding bottles
advanced along the line, they are accurately
spaced along the conveyors by means of spacing
fingers 80 (Figs. 3, 16, 17, 18, 23) on a rock shaft
8| which is journalled in bearing brackets 82 at 35
tached to the frame 61. As shown in Fig. 23 the
:fingers 80 are carried on collars 83 mounted on
by be separated from the remaining bottles. The
bottles are discharged through vertical chutes or
passageways |00 ‘(Fig. 14) formed by vertical
plates |0| spaced at intervals between parallel
plates |02 extending lengthwise of the apparatus.
The means for rocking the shaft 9| to with
draw the arms`99 from the trap doors, comprises
a piston motor 9|“ (Figs. 3 and 14), the piston
the shaft 8| and adjustable thereon both length
wise and rotatively of the shaft. The shaft is
rod of which is connected to a rock arm 9|b on
also adjustable lengthwise as may be required 40 a rock shaft 9|° to which are keyed gears 9|d
for positioning the spacer fingers for different
running in mesh with pinions 9|° on the shaft 9|.
sized articles which are under test. This adjust
The motor 9|“ is under the control of the timer
ment of the shaft is effected by means of an ad
justing rod 8|* (Fig. 23) connected to Aan arm
8|b journalled on the shaft, the rod being ad
justably attached to a stationary support.
The shaft 8| is periodically rocked for swing
ing the spacing fingers upward out of the path
cam C‘s (Fig. 20). .
`
The testing units are arranged in a row extend
, ing along the bottle line, each unit comprising a
‘vertical shaft or spindle |03 positioned above the
path of the bottles. These units include a group
of 6 spindles in each testing zone or station. Each
of the bottles, by means of a piston motorv 84
spindle carries a testing device or devices. These
(Fig. 3) mounted on a hanger 89. The piston rod 50 are adapted for the ‘particular tests to be made
of the motor is connected through a link 85 to a
in the respective zones. All of the spindles are
rock arm 85 on the shaft 8|. The motor 84 op
periodically lowered simultaneously to operative
erates under the control of a timer cam Cs (Fig.
position. The means for lifting and lowering the
20) as hereinafter set forth.
spindles includes a piston motor |04 (Figs. 3 and
The spacing fingers are held in their lifted
10) connected by a pivot |05 to a frame |08 which
position by a spring actuated pivoted` latch 8|*
(Fig. 11) which, when the lingers are lifted. en
carries the spindles |03. The motor piston is
connected to a rock arm |01 fixed to a rock shaft
gages behind a lug |l|b on the shaft. The latch
|08 journalled in brackets |09 on the frame |06.
is released by an electromagnet 8| c under the
Rock arms `||0 fixed to the shaft |08 are con
control of the .timer mechanism. When the 60 nectedthrough links ||| to the spindle shafts
latch is released, the shaft 9| is rocked to> lower
the spacing ñngers 80 by` means of a tension
spring 8|d (Fig. 13).
|03. The motor |04 is operated under the con
trol of a timer cam C4 (Fig. 20) which operates
the motor valve ‘as hereinafter described.
The frame |05 isl mounted for adjustment
Means providing a bottom support for the
bottles includes a series of bottom plates 81 alter 65 transversely of theapparatus, being slidable on
nating with spacing strips 80 (Fig. 16) on the
guideways |l2. 'The‘adjusting means includes a
same level therewith to provide a continuous
hand wheel ||3 (Figs. 1 and 3) dn a shaft carry
smooth surface on which the bottles slide as they
ing a worm gear ||I which meshes with a worm
are carried forward. The bottom plates are
wheel | l5 keyed to a shaft H0. Rock arms ||'|
spaced to correspond to the spacing of the test 70 on the outer ends of the shaft H0 are connected
ing spindles hereinafter described and support
« through rods ||8 to the frame |06. Rotation of
the bottles during the testing operations. The
thehand wheel ||3 operates through the worm
bottom plates are individually hinged to swing
gearing ||4 to adjust the frame` |06 andthe
downward under the control of the testing de
spindles ‘carried thereby for positioning the lat
vices and thus serve as trap doors for discharg 75 ter to correspond with the position of the axes of
2,407,062
.
7
_
the bottles under test. which position varies with
the diameter of the bottles.
Means for centering the bottles with respect to
the testing units and holding the bottles cen
tered during the testing operations, includes
groups of centering rolls individual to the umts.
Each said group comprises a roll |20 (see Figs. 16,
17) to engage one side of the bottle and a pair
8
to receive correspondingly threaded nuts |56
formed with bearing pins |51 to engage the arms
|23 and |24. The arm |24 is forked to straddle
the pin |51 so that the arm is held against swing
ing movement in either direction about its pivot.
The arm |23 is formed with a finger |59 which
contacts the pin |51 and limits the inward move
ment of the roll |2| thereon but permits outward
movement thereof against the tension of /a coil
of rolls |2| at the opposite side of the center
line of the bottle. 'I'he rolls |20 are all mounted 10 spring |60.
on the under side of a stationary bar |22 ex
'I'he posts |28 within the ilrst zone or station |.
tending lengthwise of the apparatus, and are `
in addition to serving as carriers for the centering
made of steel or other hard material to provide
rolls |2|, also provide a mounting for gauging
a fixed point of contact with the bottle under
devices, each of which comprises a micro-switch
test. The rolls |2| of each group are made of
|6| (Fig. 17) carried on a rod |62 adjustably
rubber or other yieldable material and are jour
secured to the post`|20. Each of these devices
nalled on the inner ends of a pair of arms |23,
comprises a contact piece |63 adapted to engage
|24 which swing on pivots |25 on a pair of ears
the
side wall of the bottle under test. During
|26 formed on a block |21. The latter is adjust
ably mounted on a vertical shaft or post |28 20 the testing operation the bottle is rotated about
its own axis as hereinafter set forth and if the
supported on a frame |29. 'I'his frame extends
bottle is out-of-round or non-circular at the line
lengthwise of the apparatus and provides a sup
of contact with the gauging device or if the di
port for all of the shafts |28 and is mounted for
ameter is either greater or smaller than the re
periodic movement in a direction transverse to its
length for moving the centering rolls |2| into and 25 quired diameter, the contact piece |63 operates
the micro-switch. 'I'he latter controls the corre
out of operative position. For this purpose the
sponding
electromagnet 94 as more fully set forth
frame |29 is slldably mounted on a stationary
hereinafter
and actuates it for effecting a dis
frame | 30 (Figs. 3, 14, 15) which extends par
charge of the defective bottle in the manner above
allel therewith.
described. The rod |62 may be adjusted to any
The means for shifting the frame |29 includes
an air operated pistonmotor |3| (Figs. l0, 15) 30 desired position lengthwise of the post; Also if
desired a plurality of these gauges may be
mounted on the frame | 30 and having a piston
mounted on each of the posts for testing the bot
rod |32 extending in opposite directions from the
tles at different heights.
,
motor cylinder.
The outer ends of the piston
in Fig. 16.
A
The posts |28 within the third zone or station 3
rod are connected to cam slide blocks |33 which 35
also carry bottle testing devices. These may con
are slidable in guideways |34 on the frame |30.
sist of electrodes in the form of needles |64,
Each slide block is formed with a cam track or
brushes or the like, (Figs. 9 and 24) carried on
groove |35 in which runs a cam follower roll |36
rods |65 attached to the posts. These contacts
on the slide frame |29. The motor |3| is oper
are connected in a high tension electrical circuit
ated periodically under the control of a timer
cam C5 (Fig. 20) and actuates the cams for 40 for testing the wall thickness of the bottles as
more fully set forth hereinafter.
moving the frame |29 and the centering rolls |2|
Gauging devices are provided at station | for `
to and from the bottle centering position shown
The stationary frame |30 is manually adjust
able forwardly and rearwardly for positioning the
' guide rolls |2| to accommodate articles of various
sizes. For this purpose the frame is mounted by
means of end brackets |31 (Figs. 14, 15) fixed to
the frame and slidable along guides |38. Clamp
ing bolts |39 extending through slots in the 50
brackets serve to clamp the frame in its adjusted
position. When the bolts are loosened the frame
may be adjusted by means of a hand wheel |40
(Figs. 3 and 14) attached to a worm shaft |4|
which drives a worm wheel |42 on a shaft |43
(see Fig. 10) extending lengthwise of .the appa
ratus. The shaft |43 is journalled in the main
frame of the machine and carries worm gears |44
adjacent its opposite ends, each of which meshes
with a worm wheel |45. Each of the worm wheels 60
|45 is keyed to a screw shaft |46 journalled in
the' main frame and threaded through a nut |41
attached to the frame |30.
Figs. 16 and 23 show adjustments of the center
ing rolls |2| for testing bottles of comparatively 65
large and small diameters respectively. Adjust
ing devices individual to the pairs of rolls, each
includes a hand crank |50 attached to a shaft
testing the height or length of the bottles, size
of the neck openings, and for making certain other
tests. These devices are al1 of the same construc
tion which will now be described, reference being
had particularly to Figs. 3, 4 and 5. Each shaft
|03 is mounted for up-and-down movement in
bearing sleeves |66 on the frame |06. The lower
end portion of the shaft |03 is screw threaded to
receive the upper threaded end of a tubular shaft
|61 which forms an adjustable extension of the
shaft |03. The parts are locked in adjusted posi
tion by a nut |60.
Mounted for up-and-down movement within
the shaft |03, |61, is a tubular shaft |69 formed
with a collar |10 and yieldingly held in its lowered
or extended position by a coil spring |1| held
under compression between the collar |10 and
the lower end of the shaft |03. The shaft |69 is
held against rotation within the shaft |61 by
means of a pair of lugs |12 which are threaded
through the shaft |61 and project into grooves
|13 in the shaft |69. A rod |14 is mounted in the
shaft |69 and is adjustable up and down therein
and held in adjusted position by a clam-ping screw
|15.
The lower end of the rod is formed with a head
|16 adapted to seat on the upper end surface or
finish of the bottle under test. Said head also 1
provides a shoulder to limit the movement of the
rod |14 within the tube |69. A plunger tip |11
|5| which has a bearing in a plate |52 secured
to the frame |29. 'I'he inner end of the shaft 70
carries a worm |53 (Fig. 17) which meshes with
a worm gear |54 keyed to a shaft |55 journalled
which is threaded into the head |16, is adapted to
in the gear box or block |21. The shaft |55 is
enter the neck of the bottle and serves to hold
formed with right and left-hand screw threads 70 the bottle in position while being gauged for
amigos:
,
9
‘
10
~
height and also serves for testing the, bottle for
various defects as will presently be pointed out.
A micro-switch |18 is attached to the tube |81
by a -pair of straps |19 and carries a flexible ïarm
|80 provided` with a cam follower roll |8|. A
cam |82 formed with an inclined cam surface with
which the roll |8| contacts, is mounted on a post
The sleeve |91 is formed with a plate I 99 which
provides a mounting for micro-switches 200 and
4 24| positioned at opposite sides of said sleeve.
|89. The cam is adjustable up and down on the
post and held in adjusted position by a set screw
|84. The post is carried in a bracket |89 secured
to the shaft |99.
,
.
The operation of the gauging device shown in
Figs. 3 and 4 is as follows:
i
‘
When the motor |04 operates to lower the
rods |09, -each plunger tip |11 enters the neck
The micro-switch 240 is adapted to be actuated
by an arm 202 mounted by means of a pivot 298
on an arm 204 attached tothe plate |99. The
arm 202 has a finger 209 extending inwardly
from the pivot and >provided with a knife-edge
bearing 209 adapted to rest on the bottle.
An `
arm 201 for actuating the micro-switch 20| has
a contact ñnger 208 also provided with a knife
edge bearing. The arm-- 292 is arranged to op
erate its switch when swung outwardly whereas‘
an inward movement of the arm 201 is required
for operating its switch.
The operation of the means for testing the
cf a bottle which is held centered thereberieath
bottle finishes is as follows:
by the guide rolls l2|, and the head |19‘seats on
When the shaft |09 is lowered the rod |94
the bottle. If the bottle is of normal height and
seats on the bottle ñnish and the tip |92' holds
shape, the downward movement of the shaft |69
carrying the cam |82 is arrested shortly before A20 the bottle centered. During this test the bottle
is rotating and
the top surface or finish is
the rod` |03 completes its downward movement
perfectly level an smooth the switch operating
so that there is a final movement of the shaft
arms 202 and 201 are held in such position that
section «s1 relative to the shaft m and cam m
the micro-switches are not operated. If the sur
This brings the cam roll |8| to a position on the
cam determined by- the height of the bottle. If 25 face under test has a iin, seam or other irregu
larity which causes the finger 205 to be swung
this height is within the required limits `deter- ‘
upward about its pivot 208 the switch 200 is op
mined by the adjustment of the apparatus, the i
micro-switch remains open. - If the bottle is
erated, thereby causing the corresponding elec
tromagnet 94 to be actuated so that the bottle is
inward far enough to operate the switch. `This 30 discarded. In like manner any depressions or
any irregularities in the surface under test which
establishes a circuit for the corresponding elec
would permit the finger 208 to move downward
tromagnet 94 so that the bottle is eventually dis-.
relative to the rod |94 would operate the switch
carded.
20 I, causing the electromagnet to be actuated for
If a bottle is below the prescribed height a
above normal height the switch arm |80 is moved
micro-switch | 81 (Fig. 5) is operated.` This
discarding the bottle, as the electromagnet is
switch is mounted on a hanger |89 attached to
and depending from the frame |08. An arm |89
under the control of both switches.
with it the arm |89 are carried downward to a
ducing the air pressure therein and then testing
‘
At station 8 the bottles undergo further tests.
i One of the testing units at this station is illus
(Fig. 5) attached to the post |89 extends out
trated in detail in Fig. 9. A test made at this
wardly over the micro-switch. When the height
of the bottle is below normal the shaft |99 and 40 station comprises evacuating the bottle or` re
the wall thickness at any desired point or points
point at which the arm |89 actuates the micro
by means of an alternating current, preferably
switch |81 before the head |19 seats on the
of high voltage. The air is exhausted from the
bottle. The micro-switch |81 also controls the
electromagnet 94 and causes its operation and 45 bottle by applying suction` through a vacuum line
including a suction pipe 2|0 of rubber or other
thereby effects the discharge of the bottle.
nonconducting material, connected to a metal
When the plunger tifp |11 is prevented from
head 2|| having a passageway 2|8 extending
passing downward its full length into the bottle
therethrough and opening into a tubular con
neck owing to any defect such as a neck open
`ing below normal size, a crooked neck, a neck 50 nector 2|2 attached to said head. An insulating
shell 2li has an insulating disk 2|4 secured
opening out-of-round, or any defect such as a
therein and is attached to the lower end of the
rounded or inclined bottom which causes the
connector 2|2 by means of a metal plate 2|5 se
bottle to tilt, the'cam |84 operates in the same
cured to the disk and having a nipple 2|6
manner as when the bottle is above normal
threaded into said connector. A tubular metal
height, to effect the discharge of the bottle.
stem 2|1 which is threaded into the plate 2|5,
The testing units at station 2 are equipped
serves as a nozzle to be projected into a bottle
' with means particularly adapted for testing the
and through which the air is exhausted. Said
top surfaces or iinishes'of the bottles and dis
nozzle also serves as an electrode in the high
carding those defective in this respect. The
defects may include seams, projections, uneven 60 tension circuit. 'I'he disk 2 I4 is provided with a
liner 2| 9 adapted to seat onv the bottle when
or inclined surfaces and other irregularities.
The construction of one of these testing units `
is shown in detail in Figs. 6 to 8 inclusive. It
includes Va centering head |90 having a stem |9|
threaded into the lower end of the shaft |69. 1
The head |90 is provided with a ‘tapered or
truste-conical tip |92 divided into four sections
by means of slots |93 which are perpendicular to
each other. A horizontal rod ‘|94 extends
through one of said‘slots and is attached to the
lower ends of a `pair of straps |95 which are
secured by screws |99 to a sleeve |91 keyed on
the shaft |99. The gauging head |90 is heldl`
against rotative movement by screws |98 which
projectinto vertical slots in said head.
the testing unit is lowered, thereby 'forming a
seal and permitting the air to be exhausted from
the bottle.
_
The liner. may consist of material such as used
commercially for liners for bottle and jar caps,
for sealing the containers. This permits a test
for leakage under conditions similar to those met ,
with in practice. The disk is preferably made of
comparatively hard material permitting a re
liable test which will detect minute imperfectionswhich might `not be disclosed by the use of a
softer sealing material.` When the air has been
exhausted from the bottle, a valve in the vacuum
r line is closed by means of a timer cam permit
ll
2,407,002
ting tests for leakage as hereinafter described.
The head 2| |- is connected to the lower end of
12
-
the positive main 252 through conductors 25|.
250, 25|, contact 255. coil I4 and conductors 252,
a shaft |59* which is made of insulating material
263 to the main 251. The trip magnet is thus
and is connected to the shaft |03 to permit up
and-down movement of the sealing head and for 6 operated to effect a discharge of the defective
bottle. It will be noted that there are provided
seating the liner 2|9 on the bottle. Where high
at station 3 a number of galvanometers Cil equal
voltage. currents are to be employed an insulating
to the number of testing units; namely 6, each
disk |58b may be attached to the shaft I89‘.
having associated therewith a relay magnet 25|
The electric current may be supplied through an
and trip magnet“, the circuits for the galva
alternating current step-up transformer Tl (Fig.
nometers being arranged in parallel as are also
28) , the primary coil of which is connected to the
the circuits for the coils 250 and the circuits for
mains 245, 245 of a commercial circuit or other
the trip magnet coils 54.
source of alternating current supply. The sec
An important feature of the present invention
ondary coil 241 of the transformer together with
relates
to the use of an alternating current of
the testing head and all charged wires may be
sufficiently high voltage to produce at the contact
enclosed or surrounded by a wire mesh cage, `to
I 64, a brush discharge or corona | 54‘. 'I'his serves
meet any required safety standards. External
to
increase the eifective area of electrical con
conductors including the contacts |64 are prefer
tact between the contact element and the surface
ably grounded. The connector l2|2 (Fig. 9) is
of the glass and correspondingly increases the
made of conducting material and comprises re1 20 capacity
of the condenser and the volume of cur
atively rotatable sections having swivel connec
rent
induced
in the transformer circuit. I have
V tion permitting the shell 2|3 to rotate with the
found that in this manner a current of sumcient
bottle during the tests.
volume for practical purposes is readily obtained
The electrical circuit includes a conductor 220
with the use of a transformer on an ordinary
connected to the head 2| |, the circuit being ex 25 commercial
line; for example a 60 cycle circuit.
tended downward through the connector 2|2 to
This has substantial advantages over the use of
the nozzle 2|1 which serves as an electrode. 'I'he
a comparatively low voltage requiring a corre
contact element |84 which may be either a needle,
spondingly high frequency.
brush or other form of contact or electrode, is
A further method of electrically testing the
preferably held against the bottle during the 30 wall
thickness comprises the application to the
test. If round bottles or articles are under
electrodes 2|1 and |54, of an electromotive force
test they are rotated to bring the entire circum
of sufllciently high voltage to cause a disruptive
ference thereof under the test. In testing fiat
discharge by which the wall of the bottle is
or non-round bottles, they may travel with the
pierced, when the wall thickness is less than a
conveyors and thereby cause the contact element 35 predetermined permissible minimum thickness.
to move transversely across the surface under
When the wall is thus punctured the electrical
test
discharge is sufllcient to actuate the micro-switch
The electrical test is made after the air has
for effecting the operation of the trip magnet.
been withdrawn from the bottle or rareiied to such The puncturing of the container wall in this
a degree that when _the alternating current is 40 manner
also permits leakage and dissipation of
applied there is an ionized condition resulting in
the
vacuum.
This may be utilized for causing
an electrical charge on the entire interior surface
operation of the vacuum testing means as de
of the bottle. 'I‘he electrodes 2 I1 and |64 are con
scribed elsewhere, for discarding the defective
nected in circuit with the high tension secondary
bottles.
241 (Fig. 28) of the transformer. This circuit
The transformer T1 is preferably connected in
may be traced through conductors 248, 248“, elec
circuit only for the time interval required for
trode 2|1, bottle B, electrode |64, a galvanometer
making the high tension electrical tests during
G1 or ammeter, and conductors 249, 249e. The
each cycle of operations. The means for opening
bottle, together with the electrodes, serves as a
and closing the transformer circuit includes a
~condenser so that an alternating current is pro
timer disk 258 on a continuously rotating timer
50
duced, which current is indicated by the galva
shaft 210, the disk having a contact segment 25!
nometer G1. The volume of the current will de
which periodically opens and closes the primary
pend upon the wall thickness at the point of
circuit of the transformer.
contact of the electrode |54, and also upon the
The term “vacuum" is herein used as a rela
frequency of the current.
tive term, rather than to connote an absolute
When the current ilowing through the galva
vacuum, and may be defined as a degree of rare
nometer G1 exceeds a value determined by the
faction well below atmospheric pressure. The
minimum permissible wall thickness of the bottle
term “vacuumize” is likewise used to indicate such
under test,` the galvanometer needle operates to
a rarefaction.
close a circuit, or actuates a micro-switch to close
Although the tests for wall thickness, using high
such circuit, which includes a relay magnet coil 60
tension currents have been described in connec
250. This coil is in circuit with the secondary 25|
tion with the use of a vacuum, it is to be under
of a step-down transformer T2, the primary of
stood that said tests may be made by the use of
which, as shown, is connected across the mains
relatively high voltages without vacuumizing the
245, 246. 'I'his circuit may be traced from one
containers or reducing the air pressure therein.
terminal of the transformer through conductors
-I have found however that there are substantial
252, 253, galvanometer G1, coil .250, and conductors
254, 255 back to the transformer. The coil 250
advantages obtained in the use of vacuum in co
operation with the high voltage electric currents.
being thus .energized closes a contact 256 in the
by the use of a comparatively high fre
circuit with the trip magnet coil 94 individual 70 Further,
quency electromotive force the importance of
to the bottle under test. The coil 94 as shown,
using a vacuum in testing the wall thickness is
is connected in a direct current circuit compris
correspondingly reduced. The higher frequen
ing the mains 251 and v258 of a commercial cir
cies also make it possible to reduce the voltage
cuit or other source of current supply. The cir
while attaining equally accurate tests.
cuit for the trip magnet coli may be traced from 75
The term “high voltage" as herein used refers
asomo»
-
,
a.
13
n
,
,
to `voltages ranging :romeo to so nimm er
14.`
.
heretofore described. The switches |10 and |01
(Figs. 4 and 5) are comprised in the testing units
higher. The term “high frequency” refers to fre
quencies which are well above the range of the,
for testing the height of the bottles. The trip
standard `6|) cycle commercial circuits. and may’
magnets 04 at station 2 are likewise connected in
parallel circuits each including switches 200 and
20| in the units for testing the bottle finishes.
The bottle‘vacuumising and testing system will
now be described. reference being had to Figs. 9
include frequencies within the range of 1000 cycles
per second or higher.
‘l
The timer mechanism shown in Fig. 20 com
prisesa series of timer cams designated C1, C’. C’.
etc., mounted on the timer shaft 210. The shaft
and 21. The air is exhausted from the group of
is rotated continuously and makes one complete l0 bottles under test at station l. through a main
rotation during each cycle of operations of the
vacuum pipe line 200 which is connected through
bottle feeding, testing and other devices. The
a manifold pipe or header 200 with the branch
timer may be driven from the motor “through
pipes 2u individual to the testing unit’s. A mmf gearing including a sprocket chain 21 I . and speed
vacuum valve zu in the une zes is pénodissuy
reduction gearing 212. The timer mechanism also .
opened by the timer cam C1 for .vacuumizing the
group ofbottles imder test. The valve is then
closed and the vacuumised bottles subjected to a
includes an electrical timer device 210 which may
be of conventional >construction comprising a sta
tionary casing enclosing the electrical contact `
test for leakage during a certain time interval. A
-vacuum releasevalve 200 is then `opened by the
disks shown in Figs. 27, 28, and which are mounted
to rotate with the timer shaft for controlling the
timer cam C’ to admit atmospheric air and dis
sipate the vacuum.
Each branch pipe 2|0 has therein a self-closing
valve 200 which remains closed except when
openedby an electromagnet coil 000. The cir
cuits `for the coils "000 are arranged in parallel
various electrical circuits as hereinafter described.
An adjusting device including a hand crank 214
'operating through a screw threaded shaft 215
serves for adjusting the casing with the station
ary contacts orbrushes carried thereby.
The timer cam C" as shown in Figs. 21 and 22
and each connected to receive current from the
. >secondary ycoil of a transformer T’; Each said cir
controls the piston motor 00 (Fig. 2) whichoper
ates the bottle feeder as heretofore described._ l
The timer cam includes an annular supportiiu,1 ~
cuit includes therein a switch 00| which is closed
>by thebottle when the latter is brought to test
ing position, and a relay contact 002 which is nor
mally in closed position but is opened‘by an elec
Plate 210 formed on a hub 211 which is keyed to `
the shaft 210. A pair of cam rings'210 and 210
is clamped to the plate 210 by screw bolts 200. ‘ \ tromagnet coil 00,0 when the latter is energized
The rotative position of the ring 210 may be de- ‘
as presently described. The circuits for the coils
termined by a positioning screw 20|. The cam
ring 210 is formed with cam lobes 202 which oper
>000.also.each includes a switch 004.' `All oi' the
“switches 004. are opened and closed by means in
ate a valve lever 200 of a valve 204 which con
trols a supply of air under pressure or other oper
ating fluid to the motor 00 (Fig. 2). Each cam
-. _cluding’a rod 000 connected to the switches and
reciprocated by means of the timer cam C3 Voper
ating through a rock arm 000 connected to said
lobe operates the valve and causes a complete
reciprocation of the motor piston so that the
number of bottles fed into the apparatus is equal
¿of Each of the branch pipes 2|0 hasconnected
justably varied. The construction of the severa'.
thereto at a point'between the valve 200 and the
nozzle 2|1, a vacuum gauge 301 which registers
the `degree of vacuum produced within the bottles.
The gauge pointer operates to open the circuit
for the coil 000, or actuate a micro-switch in said
circuit. when the vacuum reaches a certain pre
timer cams may be identical except as to the
length and number of the cam surfaces and their
determined degree. The circuit 'for the magnet
vcoil 000 extends through a timer segment 000
rotative positions which are determined by the re- >
`on a timer‘disk 210".
to the number of cam lobes. The cam rings 210
and 219 may both be provided with cam-lobes so
that by shifting one ring relative to theL other the
effective length of the cam surfaces may be ad
.
The operation of the lvacuum control system
quired time of operation, during each cycle, ofthe s
motor or other device controlled thereby.
Referring to Fig. 28 the intermittently oper
ated motor I0 derives its current from the mains
201,- 250 and is periodically reversed as hereto
fore described, under the control of timer disksV s
210* and 210". 'I'he disk 210* carries-contact seg
`ments 200 and 201. The‘ disk 213i* carries contact
segments 200 and 200. Brushes 200 run on the
timer disks, andr as shown the motor terminals
are connected to the positive and negative mains
respectively through the contacts 200 and 200.`
As the timer rotates, the brushes 200 run off said
segments so that the motor is stopped. After the
that one bottle is missing at the fifth testing unit
`from the left (Fig. 27) so that the switch "I in
said unit remains open. When the bottles have
been positioned for the test, the timer cam Cs
operates the rod 005 and closes thel switches 004.
This establishes a. circuit for each of the coils 000,
required time interval the motor is again started,
the valves 290 except the valve for the testing‘
but in the reverse direction, by engagement of the
brushes with the contact segments 201 and 200 ‘
connected respectively with the negative and posi
tive mains.
y
The motor 42 receives its current.`
i
through a continuous contact ring 20| on a timer
disk 210° so that‘the motor runs continuously.
The trip magnet coils 00 at station | are con- l
nected in parallel circuits (Fig. 28) each of which
includes switches |0|, |10 >and |01. The switch
may be described as follows: When ‘a group of
bottles has been fed into station l each bottle
closes its switch 00| as shown. It will be noted
which circuit may be traced from the »main 205 `
through conductor 000, contact 002, switch 00|,`
coil 000, switch 004 and conductor #|01 to main
240.
The coils 300 are thus energized and `open '
unit where' the bottle is missing and the circuit
remains open at the switch 30|. The valve 200
being kept closed where a bottle is missing, pre
vents air entering the vacuum system through the
open nozzle 211.
.
‘ The timer cam C1 now operates to openthe
vacuum valve 201 and vacuumize vthe bottles.
The timer cam C3 then operates to .open‘the
switches 000 so that the coils 000 are deener
IGI (see Fig. 17) is comprised in theïtesting device , ` gized and all ythe valves 200 are closed. The‘cam
by which theroundness of the bottles is tested as 75 C1 also causes the vacuum valve 201 to close about
„
15
.
this time. Following the closing of the vacuum
valve 291 the vacuum release valve 2931s opened
by its cam. The electrical timer 213d operates to .
establish the circuit through the transformer sec
ondary about the time or shortly after the bottles
have been vacuumized and the valves 299 closed.
-
16
operated. On the othèr hand, if the side oi' the
bottle is sunken or shaped to permit the ilnger
3I0 to move inwardly -the switch 323 is actuated.
These switches are connected in. circuit with
the trip magnets for eifecting the operation of
the latter. 'I'he Opposite side of the bottle is
This establishes circuits for the magnet coils 303,
tested by means of a contact finger 324 which is
each of which circuits may be traced from the
adapted to operatemicro-switches 325 and 326
' transformer through conductors 3| I, 3I2, switch
in the same manner as the switches 322 and 323
in vacuum gauge 301, coil 303 and conductor 3I3, 10 ~are operated. The plate 32| carry.ng the
timer segment v303 and conductor 3II. If the
switches 322, 323, is carried on a rod 321 adjust
bottle under test retains the required degree of
ably supported on the -'post I 28. The plate 324*
vacuum the gauge 301 holds the circuit open so
carrying switches 325, 329 may be mounted on a.
that the coil’303 remains dormant.
post 323 carried on the bracket 66h, said plate
If, on the other hand, the degree of vacuum 15 being adjustable up and down on the post.
is below normal the switch at the gauge 301 is
Operation
closed so that the coil 303 is energized and oper
ates to open the contact 302 and at the same time
The operation may be summarized as follows,
close a contact 3| 3 in a circuit containing the trip
reference being made to the timer chart, Fig.
magnet coil 34, which circuit is connected across 20 29, which indicates the timing and sequence of
the mains 243 and 249. The trip magnet there
the operations taking place during a complete
fore operates to eii‘ect a discharge of the bottle.
cycle. With the parts as indicated at the left
This situation is indicated in the third unit from
hand end of the chart the gauge spindles |03 are
the left. Fig. 27, where the switch on the pressure
in their lowered position (Figs. 3 to 9) and the
gauge remains closed and the coil 303 has oper 25 tests at the several stations are in progress. The
ated to close a circuit for the associated magnet
high tension current is on, under the control of
coil 94. At the unit where the bottle is missing
the timer disk 268 (Fig. 28) so that the bottles
the coil 303 is likewise energized and operates the
at station 3 are undergoing the electrical test
corresponding trip magnet.
for wall thickness, etc. 'I'he bottle at this time
The valves 239 are retained in their closed 30 has been evacuated and the vacuum valve 291
position for a‘predetermined length of time. If,
is in closed position under the control of its timer
during this time, there is a slow leakage in any
cam C1. The belt frame 61 (Fig. 3) carrying the
of the bottles the vacuum may be dissipated to a
belt 4I is in its inward or operative position to
sufficient degree to close the circuit for the asso
which it has been moved by the motor 13 under
ciated magnet coil 303 and effect a discharge of 35 the control of the timer cam C’. The conveyor
the bottle. Such leakage may occur when the
belt ll is at this time running backward, that
finish of the bottle is defective and also when
is, in a direction reverse to its bottle conveying
the bottle is cracked or contains a pinhole open
movement. This movement of the belt 4| is un
ing as sometimes occurs, or is otherwise defective
' der the control of the electrical timer disks 213*
in a manner to cause leakage. After the test, the 40 and 213h (Fig. 28). The frame |29 (Figs. 3, 16)
cam C3 again closes the switches 304 momentarily
carrying the centering rolls is at this time in
so that the valves 233 are opened to admit atmos
its forward or operative position, having been
pheric pressure to the bottles and release themv
moved to such position by its motor I 3| under
from the spindles.
the control of the timer cam C5, so that the
Just before this operation of the cam C3 to
bottles are held centered with respect to the
close the switches 304, the timer 213‘ opens the
gauging spindles. The bottles are also being
circuit for the secondary oi' transformer T3. This
leaves the circuits for all the magnet coils 303
open so that all the contacts 302 are closed. This
Y allows the circuits for all of the coils 300 to be
completed and the valves 299 opened when the
switches 303 are closed. The operation of the
timer 213d to open the circuits as just described,
insures the full release of vacuum from any de
fective bottle which might otherwise be held with
a low vacuum.
Without such operation of the
timer, a slow leaker, for example, might allow the
gauge 301 to close its switch and energize the coil
303 which would then open the contact 302 in the
circuit of coil 300 and prevent opening of the valve
293 and release of the low vacuum.
Testing devices as shown in Figs. 25 and 26
may be employed for testing panel ware or other
noncircular or flat sided bottles B1. As here
shown the arms |23 and |24 carry holding fingers
3I3 which serve in place of the rolls I2I. These
iingers may be mounted to swing on pivots 3I1
rotated about their axes by the oppositely travel
ing belts 40, 4I. While the electrical and vacuum
tests are going on at station 3 -the bottles at
station I are being gauged for height and tested
for various defects by the testing units shown in
Figs. 4 and 5. The bottles at station 2 are un
dergoing the tests for defects in the bottle finish,
etc., by the testing units shown in Figs. 6 to 8.
y When the tests are completed the high ten
sion current is cut ofi.' and the vacuum release
valve is opened to restore atmospheric pressure
within- the bottles and release them from the
suction grip of the spindles. Shortly after this
the belt frame 61 (Fig. 3) is swung outwardly,
withdrawing the belt 4| from the bottles. The
centering roll frame |29 is also at this time
withdrawn. This leaves the bottles free so that
any defective bottles which have been registered
can drop into the discard when the trap doors
onwhich they are supported are dropped, which
takes place about this time or immediately after
on the centering arms and are adjustable by
the belt frame and centering roll frame have
means of adjusting screws 3I3. Means for test
been withdrawn. The trap doors are opened
ing one of the side surfaces of the bottle B1 com
and closed by the motor 9|* (Fig. 3) operating
prises a contact linger 3I9 pivoted at 320 on a 70 under the control of the timer cam C".
supporting plate 32| which carries a pair of
Following this operation the intermittently
micro-switches 322, 323. If the side of the bottle
under test is bulged, or shaped to move the
operating belt." is started in a forward direc
tionv and the belt frame 61 is moved inward to
iinger 3I3 outwardly the micro-switch 322 is 75 its
operative position so that the bottles in the
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