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Патент USA US2407065

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Sept. 3, 1946.
2,407,065
H. P. DONLE
RAY PROJECTOR
Filed April 16, 1942
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AMPLIFIER
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AMPLIFIER
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DETECTOR
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2,407,055
Patented Sept. 3, 1946
UNITED STATES ‘PATENT QFFICE
2,407,065
RAY PROJECTOR
Harold Potter Donle, New York, N. Y.; Miriam D.
Jensen, administratrix of said Harold Potter
Donle, deceased, assignor of one-half to Daniel
J. McCarthy
Application April 16, 1942, Serial No. 439,163
10 Claims.
1
My invention relates to ray projecting means,
and especially to the projection of wave energy
within the frequency limits of the electromag
netic spectrum.
It is an object of the invention to provide
' means for determining with great accuracy the
location of an object at relatively great distances
and which may be invisible.
(Cl. 250-11)
2
quency” is intended to include such waves.
Therefore, radio waves projected from my im
proved projector maybe caused to strike an ob
ject at a distance and some of the energy of the
waves will be re?ected back toward the projec
tor.
I provide detector or receiver means at a
convenient location to pick up the re?ected en
ergy and thus to give an indication that an ob
ject has been struck by the beam from the pro
It is another object to provide very simple
means for accurately determining the position 10 jector.
Since high frequency radio waves have many
of‘ the characteristics of light, it is possible to
Another object is to provide an improved ray
use the well known “lens” effect of small aper
projector for projecting rays in a de?nite direc
tures on light. I preferably cause the waves from
tion and con?ning the ray within narrow limits.
Another object is to provide an improved ray 15 the generator to pass through one or more aper
projector, soarranged that a beam may be pro ' , tures so as to in effect focus the rays and secure
a beam having the desired characteristics; that
jected and varied as to its extent or focused
of an object at a distance.
so as to cover variable ?elds at a point removed
is to say, the beam may be focussed in such a
way as to be considerably divergent and cover a
from the projector and, in general, it is an object
to provide an improved ray projecting means. 20 relatively large target, and, one the other hand,
the focusing arrangement may be such as to
Other and more speci?c objects will be here
cause the beam to be a practically parallel beam
inafter pointed out or will become apparent to
or
pencil covering a very small target.
those skilled in the art.
In the preferred form illustrated, I have shown
In the drawing which shows, for illustrative
25 a wave generator in the form of an oscillator 5,
purposes only, a preferred form of the invention
which may be of any suitable type, capable of
Fig. 1 is a more or less schematic or diagram
producing steady oscillations of the desired fre
matic view of various elements of my improved
quency. The wave radiating or propagation
projector;
‘
means 6 which propagates Waves into the focus
Fig. 1a. is a view of a modi?ed detail;
Fig. 2 is a view of parts shown in Fig. 1, all 30 ing tube may consist of one or more rods con
nected either directly or inductively to the oscil
mounted for scanning movement;
lator, and preferably so positioned or arranged
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view of receiving
that a reasonably narrow beam of radiation is
means for re?ected waves.
Generally speaking, my improved device in
projected in the generally desired direction. The
generating relatively high frequency radio waves,
within a focusing tube 1 and preferably parallel
with the axis of the tube. The principal func
tion of the focusing tube is to decrease the side
radiation of energy from the radiator ii by causing
more or less complete form includes means for 35 radiator rod or rods will preferably be mounted
together with means for directing a relatively nar
row beam of waves in any desired direction.
Preferably, I employ what may be termed “fo
cusing means” for con?ning the beam to the de 40 the energy to be re?ected by the inner wall of the
tube, with the result that radio Waves will be
sired limits of extent and the focusing means will
projected from the end of the tube in the form
preferably be of a variable nature so that the
of a relatively narrow beam. When a tube 1 of
beam may be made to diverge or converge as de
relatively
large proportions is employed, I pref
sired. Such focusing means include a focusing
tube and one or more focusing members, later 45 erably employ one or more focusing means or
members 8-9. These focusing members may be
to be described.
in the form of disks or cups mounted within the
The character of the radio waves generated is
bore of the focusing tube and may be provided
such that they will have many of the character
with apertures therein, which may be round or
istics of light. When the frequency is sufficiently
high, say, of the order of 800 megacycles, the 50 angular, depending upon the characteristics of
the beam desired. The length of these aper
waves will de?nitely be re?ective in character in
tures is, as illustrated, preferably less than the
much the same manner that light is re?ective.
length of the focusing tube. The locations of
Hence the invention contemplates the use of
the focusing members 8-‘9 along the tube and
waves of very short length, for example, those
known in the art as “quasi-optical” waves; and 55 relatively to each other will preferably be var
iable, and means such as the screw traverse
the reference in the claims to “ultra-high-fre
game
3
.
means ii! should be provided for rapid and crit
4
.
The improved projector, as has been indicated,
ical adjustment of one or all of the focusing
is principally useful for projecting a very narrow
members.
or angularly restricted beam; in other words, a
beam which will cover a relatively small target
The particular location or locations of
the focusing member or members will ordinarily
depend upon several factors, including the fre
and will therefore indicate with a high degree of
?delity the position of any object forming a target
area for the beam. Thus, my improved projector
quency of the waves, distance to the'target, and
the amount of beam constriction or divergence
desired, and the effect of the focusing members
will depend more or less upon their phase rela
may be employed (in connection with av detector
or receiver) in detecting the exact position of an
10 airplane, a ship at sea, a mountain, or any other
tions with the radiator.
'
Since the apertured focusing members lie in
object which would form a target area for the
the path of the relatively strong radiation from
the radiator, they absorb some of the energy, and.
proper phase relations between these focusing
members and the radiator or propagation means 15
projected beam, and my improved projector has
the advantage of being usable regardless of condi
may cause an increase or a decrease of the ra
senting a relatively small target area, say an
diated energy. ‘The focusing tube '3, may be of
airplane in the sky, is struck by the projected
tions of ' ‘darkness
or light
weatherbe clear or foggy.
and whether the
When an area repre
conducting or metallic material or of semi-con
beam, some of the energy will be reflected by the
ducting or non-metallic material, or of non-con
target area back in the direction of the trans
ducting or insulating material. The most suitable 20 mitter. VI therefore provide a receiver located
material so far tried is glass, and this is the ma
preferably close to tlie'transmitter.
terial represented in Figs. 1 and 1a, by way of
@ne form of receiving means is shown and 'de
example. The characteristics of glass in this con
scribed diagrammatically in Fig. 3. If the trans
nection are entirely different from those of metal,
mitted energy is modulated at some relatively low
due principally to three factors: first, itis a di 25 frequency, a simple receiver may be employed.
electric material; second, with metal much of the
Such a receiver .may consist of ‘any suitable type
of radio ampli?er and detector vtogether with an
energy will be absorbed by the metal; and, third,
if the tube is sufficiently long, it will in itself oscil
audio ampli?er proper for the frequency of modu
late and radiate energy at right angles to the
lation employed. Such receiver preferably has
axis of the tube. With glass there is practically 30 connected to its output a power amplifier and a
no absorption and the dielectric constant is rela
relay, as shown in Fig. ‘3. The relay may oper
tively high. The tube itself cannot oscillate and
ate, say, asignallingdevice when energy is being
there is a strong re?ective action from the side
received. The receiver also preferably has ‘a
walls of a glass tube which greatly aids in the
sensitivity control connected at‘ a suitable point
proper focusing action. There are also re?ection 35 initsgci-rcuit which will allow incomingsignals
(and refraction) effects from the focusing mem
to be reduced to zero. It will also be found con
bers as well as from the focusing tube. Thus the
venient to have connected to the output of the
focusing tube and the focusing member or mem
receiver a sensitive D. C. meter (such as one
bers preferably should be of material having con
having a maximum range of one milliampere)
siderably different waveeenergy absorption and
connected in series with a recti?er and a variable
re?ection characteristics.
resistance, this latter for the purpose of varying
In the projector above described the focusing
sensitivity of the meter. It isalso desirable to
tube is of generally cylindrical form and the
have a variable grid bias on the last audio or
focusing members have circular apertures. In
power ampli?er tube of sufliciently high value to
some cases, however, it will be desirable to use 45 allow the grid to be biased considerably beyond
other forms of apertures, instead of circular ones
“cut off.” This adjustable cut-off device is rep
having various rectangular or other con?gura
resented in Fig. 3 as “Clipper.” Since the emitted
tions, even a thin slit. By the use of such a slit
wave energy from the transmitter or projector
or ‘slits, suitably positioned, the vertical or hori
comes to a relatively sharp point, as the projector
zontal components, or both, of the radiated wave
is moved in a sort of scanning way the biasing
may be focused separately. When the aperture
‘adjustment may be used to “clip” this relatively
of a focusing member is of angular form (as dis
sharp point at any desired value-as is usual in
tinguished from circular) the focusing tube may
the art of transmission and reception of accu"
be angular and of the same general con?guration
rately de?ned time-period pulses so that, for ex
or proportions as the aperture.
55 amplepone degree of scanning movement of the
projector may be the range of relay operation but
Under certain conditions it has been found to
by readjustment it 'might be readily increased to
be advisable to modify the radiator ii somewhat
tendegrees. It is, of course,<obvious that the con
as by connecting armatures or plates thereto.
trol could be made automatic-by using ‘any of the
Such plates ii may be of various shapes, e. g.,
well-known methods.
>
.
segment-shaped as shown in Fig. 10.. One effect
'There are numerous other uses of the inven
of these plates is to increase the end radiation,
tion. For example, my improved projector may
that is, the radiation along the axis of the tube
be mounted on an airplane and the described
and to decrease the side or non-useful radiation.
relay connected to ope-rate or to permit the opé
The effect of the plates ll upon the operation of
eration of the triggers of one or more’ automatic
theradiator is effectively to concentrate the ra
ri?es. There should, of course,-be an “on” and
diation potential or current at the ends of the
“off” vswitchbeside the pilot, or gunnner. The
rods s. Therefore, the radiation from the sides
result of such ‘an arrangement is that the relay
of the rods will be reduced to a low value and the
will respond only when the airplane is pointed
wave-energy propagation from the ends will be
at‘an enemy plane ahead 'of'it; thatis to say,
increased proportionately, as well as changed in
when the automatic ri?es are pointed directly
its electrostatic and electromagnetic con?gura
at the target. Such an arrangement will effect
tion within the focusing tube. Should but one
a tremendous saving in ammunition, since the
radiating rod be employed ‘only one plate H need
automatic ri?es can'never ?re except when cor
be used.
'
'
75 rectlyZai-med at the vtarget.
2,407,065
5
‘Another important use of my invention is in
which said focusing member is adjustable longi
tudinally of said tube and said focusing aperture
the detection of ‘the presence on the sea of a
is of the same con?guration as the inside of
submarine on the surface, an iceberg, or a ship,
said tube.
for example; in other words, any object on the
surface of the water, My improved projector can 5 - 5. In an ultra-high-frequency ray projector,
be mounted to oscillate or scan continuously
\the combination which comprises, a focusing
throughout an arc of,‘ say, 45 degrees, and any
tube, wave propagation means located near one
object on the surface of the water within that
end thereof for propagating ultra-high-frequency
range can be made to cause the sounding of an
waves into said tube, two focusing members sup
alarm.
10‘ portedwithin said tube, and a focusing aperture
in,,each_ said member through which may pass
All of the, arrangements above referred to will,
waves to be projected from said tube, said aper
of course, operate in daylight, darkness, or fog
tures being proportioned respectively one to pass
with equal facility.
more of the vertical than of the horizontal com
My improved device can also be used as a
means ofv directional communication where it is 15 ponents and the other to pass more of the hori
zontal than of the vertical components of said
desirable to aim the transmitter at a selected
waves, the material of said tube having different
' receiver, thereby minimizing'or'eliminating the
wave-energy absorption and reflection character
possibility of interception of a message by other
istics from those of said focusing members, and
receivers not in line with the focused rays or
beam.
20 adjustable means associated with at least one of
said apertures by which the vertical and hori
Clearly, my improved invention would be a
zontal components of said waves may be sepa
great aid in blind ?ying, in that objects such as
rately focused, whereby the wave energy pro
mountains would be readily detected by the pilot
jected from said focusing tube may be angularly
of the aircraft.
While the invention has been described in con 25 restricted.
6. In an ultra-high-frequency ray projector,
siderable detail and a preferred form illustrated,
the combination which comprises, a focusing tube
it is to be understood that various changes may
of insulating material, of uniform diameter and
be made within the scope of the invention as
of ?xed length and having two ends, wave propa
de?ned in the appended claims.
I claim:
30 gation means positioned near one end of said
tube for propagating radio waves therein, the
1. A ray projector including, generating
other end of said tube being open for projection
means for generating ultra-high-frequency radio
therefrom of a focused beam of ultra-high-fre
waves, a focusing tube of non-conducting mate
quency waves, and a focusing member having
rial through which generated waves may pass,
wave propagation means located near one end of 35 different wave energy absorption and re?ection
characteristics from those of said tube and sup
said tube for propagating waves within said tube,
ported by and within said tube and having a
connections coupling said generating, means to
focusing
aperture therein through which sub
said propagation means, and means for angularly
stantially
all of said projected waves pass, the
restricting the wave energy projected from said
of said aperture being less than the length
focusing tube comprising said focusing tube, and 40 length
of said tube, whereby the wave energy pro
a focusing member within said tube, said mem
jected from said focusing tube may be angularly
her being of material of considerably different
restricted.
conductivity from that of said tube and having
7. In the combination according to claim 6,
an aperture therein through which said waves
may pass.
2. A ray projector including, generating means
for generating ultra-high-frequency radio waves,
5 a second focusing member having different wave
energy absorption and reflection characteristics
from those of said tube, supported by and within
said tube and having a focusing aperture therein
through which substantially all of said pro
a focusing tube of non-conducting material
through which generated waves may pass, propa 50 jected waves pass, at least one of said focusing
gation means located near one end of said tube
members being adjustable longitudinally of said
for propagating waves Within said tube, connec
tube for adjusting the degree of focusing of said
tions coupling said generating means to said
projected beam.
propagation means, and means for angularly re
8. In an ultra-high-frequency ray projector,
stricting the wave energy projected from said 5 5 the combination which comprises, a focusing tube
focusing tube comprising said focusing tube and having two ends, wave propagation means for
a focusing member adjustable longitudinally
propagating ultra-high-frequency waves into one
within said tube, said member being of material
end of said tube, at least one focusing member
of considerably different conductivity from that
supported within said tube, and a focusing aper
of said tube and having an aperture therein
ture in each said member through which pass
60
through which said waves may pass,
substantially all of the waves projected from the
3. A ray projector including, a generator of
other end of said tube, the material of said focus
ultra-high-frequency radio waves, a glass focus
ing members and the material of said tube hav
ing tube of ?xed length through which said waves
may pass, wave propagation means located with
in one end of said tube, connections coupling said
generator to said propagation means, and a
focusing member within said tube, said member
being of material having considerably different
ing different wave-energy absorption and re?ec
tion characteristics, whereby the wave energy
projected from said focusing tube may be angu
larly restricted.
9. In an ultra-high-frequency ray projector,
the combination which comprises, a focusing
wave energy absorption and reflection charac
tube of semi-conducting material, wave propa
teristics from those of said tube and having a 70
focusing aperture therein through which sub
gation means positioned near one end thereof
for propagating ultra-high-frequency waves into
said tube, a focusing member supported within
said tube, and a focusing aperture in said mem
4. A ray projector according to claim 3 of, 75 her through which may pass waves to be pro
stantially all of the projected waves pass, where
by the wave energy projected from said focus
ing tube may be angularly restricted.
2,107,065
78
jected ‘from said tube,‘ said ~Yfocusing member
of said tubefdnpropagating .waves within- said
being of material having (different wave energy
from
connections cmiplingrsaid generating means
tosaid propagationimeanaiandza, focusing mem-_
those of said tube, whereby the wave energy
projected from said focusing tube may be angu
ber within vsaid‘tube,said‘membier being of mate
rial cf considerably differentizdielectric constant
larly restricted.
means for generating ultra-.high-frequency radio
from ‘that :of said tube rand having an aperture
therein through‘ which ‘said "waves may pass,
whereby the wave energy projected from said
waves, afocusing tube of non-conducting mate
focusing Ctube ;may be angularly restricted.
absorption -- and re?ection characteristics
- 10.‘ A
ray
projector including,
1
generating
rial through which generated waves vmay pass,
wave propagation means located ‘near one end
‘HAROLD :POT'IEER DONLE.
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