Патент USA US2407065код для вставки
Sept. 3, 1946. 2,407,065 H. P. DONLE RAY PROJECTOR Filed April 16, 1942 “ti-ii. (C R-F. .r 01. AMPLIFIER AUDIO vowsn RELAY _-,>%IU'~‘I_PGT AND AMPLIFIER AMPLIFIER __> DETECTOR CLIPPER INVENTOR ?a?oéz' 1Q ?qnle B ATTORNEYS. 2,407,055 Patented Sept. 3, 1946 UNITED STATES ‘PATENT QFFICE 2,407,065 RAY PROJECTOR Harold Potter Donle, New York, N. Y.; Miriam D. Jensen, administratrix of said Harold Potter Donle, deceased, assignor of one-half to Daniel J. McCarthy Application April 16, 1942, Serial No. 439,163 10 Claims. 1 My invention relates to ray projecting means, and especially to the projection of wave energy within the frequency limits of the electromag netic spectrum. It is an object of the invention to provide ' means for determining with great accuracy the location of an object at relatively great distances and which may be invisible. (Cl. 250-11) 2 quency” is intended to include such waves. Therefore, radio waves projected from my im proved projector maybe caused to strike an ob ject at a distance and some of the energy of the waves will be re?ected back toward the projec tor. I provide detector or receiver means at a convenient location to pick up the re?ected en ergy and thus to give an indication that an ob ject has been struck by the beam from the pro It is another object to provide very simple means for accurately determining the position 10 jector. Since high frequency radio waves have many of‘ the characteristics of light, it is possible to Another object is to provide an improved ray use the well known “lens” effect of small aper projector for projecting rays in a de?nite direc tures on light. I preferably cause the waves from tion and con?ning the ray within narrow limits. Another object is to provide an improved ray 15 the generator to pass through one or more aper projector, soarranged that a beam may be pro ' , tures so as to in effect focus the rays and secure a beam having the desired characteristics; that jected and varied as to its extent or focused of an object at a distance. so as to cover variable ?elds at a point removed is to say, the beam may be focussed in such a way as to be considerably divergent and cover a from the projector and, in general, it is an object to provide an improved ray projecting means. 20 relatively large target, and, one the other hand, the focusing arrangement may be such as to Other and more speci?c objects will be here cause the beam to be a practically parallel beam inafter pointed out or will become apparent to or pencil covering a very small target. those skilled in the art. In the preferred form illustrated, I have shown In the drawing which shows, for illustrative 25 a wave generator in the form of an oscillator 5, purposes only, a preferred form of the invention which may be of any suitable type, capable of Fig. 1 is a more or less schematic or diagram producing steady oscillations of the desired fre matic view of various elements of my improved quency. The wave radiating or propagation projector; ‘ means 6 which propagates Waves into the focus Fig. 1a. is a view of a modi?ed detail; Fig. 2 is a view of parts shown in Fig. 1, all 30 ing tube may consist of one or more rods con nected either directly or inductively to the oscil mounted for scanning movement; lator, and preferably so positioned or arranged Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view of receiving that a reasonably narrow beam of radiation is means for re?ected waves. Generally speaking, my improved device in projected in the generally desired direction. The generating relatively high frequency radio waves, within a focusing tube 1 and preferably parallel with the axis of the tube. The principal func tion of the focusing tube is to decrease the side radiation of energy from the radiator ii by causing more or less complete form includes means for 35 radiator rod or rods will preferably be mounted together with means for directing a relatively nar row beam of waves in any desired direction. Preferably, I employ what may be termed “fo cusing means” for con?ning the beam to the de 40 the energy to be re?ected by the inner wall of the tube, with the result that radio Waves will be sired limits of extent and the focusing means will projected from the end of the tube in the form preferably be of a variable nature so that the of a relatively narrow beam. When a tube 1 of beam may be made to diverge or converge as de relatively large proportions is employed, I pref sired. Such focusing means include a focusing tube and one or more focusing members, later 45 erably employ one or more focusing means or members 8-9. These focusing members may be to be described. in the form of disks or cups mounted within the The character of the radio waves generated is bore of the focusing tube and may be provided such that they will have many of the character with apertures therein, which may be round or istics of light. When the frequency is sufficiently high, say, of the order of 800 megacycles, the 50 angular, depending upon the characteristics of the beam desired. The length of these aper waves will de?nitely be re?ective in character in tures is, as illustrated, preferably less than the much the same manner that light is re?ective. length of the focusing tube. The locations of Hence the invention contemplates the use of the focusing members 8-‘9 along the tube and waves of very short length, for example, those known in the art as “quasi-optical” waves; and 55 relatively to each other will preferably be var iable, and means such as the screw traverse the reference in the claims to “ultra-high-fre game 3 . means ii! should be provided for rapid and crit 4 . The improved projector, as has been indicated, ical adjustment of one or all of the focusing is principally useful for projecting a very narrow members. or angularly restricted beam; in other words, a beam which will cover a relatively small target The particular location or locations of the focusing member or members will ordinarily depend upon several factors, including the fre and will therefore indicate with a high degree of ?delity the position of any object forming a target area for the beam. Thus, my improved projector quency of the waves, distance to the'target, and the amount of beam constriction or divergence desired, and the effect of the focusing members will depend more or less upon their phase rela may be employed (in connection with av detector or receiver) in detecting the exact position of an 10 airplane, a ship at sea, a mountain, or any other tions with the radiator. ' Since the apertured focusing members lie in object which would form a target area for the the path of the relatively strong radiation from the radiator, they absorb some of the energy, and. proper phase relations between these focusing members and the radiator or propagation means 15 projected beam, and my improved projector has the advantage of being usable regardless of condi may cause an increase or a decrease of the ra senting a relatively small target area, say an diated energy. ‘The focusing tube '3, may be of airplane in the sky, is struck by the projected tions of ' ‘darkness or light weatherbe clear or foggy. and whether the When an area repre conducting or metallic material or of semi-con beam, some of the energy will be reflected by the ducting or non-metallic material, or of non-con target area back in the direction of the trans ducting or insulating material. The most suitable 20 mitter. VI therefore provide a receiver located material so far tried is glass, and this is the ma preferably close to tlie'transmitter. terial represented in Figs. 1 and 1a, by way of @ne form of receiving means is shown and 'de example. The characteristics of glass in this con scribed diagrammatically in Fig. 3. If the trans nection are entirely different from those of metal, mitted energy is modulated at some relatively low due principally to three factors: first, itis a di 25 frequency, a simple receiver may be employed. electric material; second, with metal much of the Such a receiver .may consist of ‘any suitable type of radio ampli?er and detector vtogether with an energy will be absorbed by the metal; and, third, if the tube is sufficiently long, it will in itself oscil audio ampli?er proper for the frequency of modu late and radiate energy at right angles to the lation employed. Such receiver preferably has axis of the tube. With glass there is practically 30 connected to its output a power amplifier and a no absorption and the dielectric constant is rela relay, as shown in Fig. ‘3. The relay may oper tively high. The tube itself cannot oscillate and ate, say, asignallingdevice when energy is being there is a strong re?ective action from the side received. The receiver also preferably has ‘a walls of a glass tube which greatly aids in the sensitivity control connected at‘ a suitable point proper focusing action. There are also re?ection 35 initsgci-rcuit which will allow incomingsignals (and refraction) effects from the focusing mem to be reduced to zero. It will also be found con bers as well as from the focusing tube. Thus the venient to have connected to the output of the focusing tube and the focusing member or mem receiver a sensitive D. C. meter (such as one bers preferably should be of material having con having a maximum range of one milliampere) siderably different waveeenergy absorption and connected in series with a recti?er and a variable re?ection characteristics. resistance, this latter for the purpose of varying In the projector above described the focusing sensitivity of the meter. It isalso desirable to tube is of generally cylindrical form and the have a variable grid bias on the last audio or focusing members have circular apertures. In power ampli?er tube of sufliciently high value to some cases, however, it will be desirable to use 45 allow the grid to be biased considerably beyond other forms of apertures, instead of circular ones “cut off.” This adjustable cut-off device is rep having various rectangular or other con?gura resented in Fig. 3 as “Clipper.” Since the emitted tions, even a thin slit. By the use of such a slit wave energy from the transmitter or projector or ‘slits, suitably positioned, the vertical or hori comes to a relatively sharp point, as the projector zontal components, or both, of the radiated wave is moved in a sort of scanning way the biasing may be focused separately. When the aperture ‘adjustment may be used to “clip” this relatively of a focusing member is of angular form (as dis sharp point at any desired value-as is usual in tinguished from circular) the focusing tube may the art of transmission and reception of accu" be angular and of the same general con?guration rately de?ned time-period pulses so that, for ex or proportions as the aperture. 55 amplepone degree of scanning movement of the projector may be the range of relay operation but Under certain conditions it has been found to by readjustment it 'might be readily increased to be advisable to modify the radiator ii somewhat tendegrees. It is, of course,<obvious that the con as by connecting armatures or plates thereto. trol could be made automatic-by using ‘any of the Such plates ii may be of various shapes, e. g., well-known methods. > . segment-shaped as shown in Fig. 10.. One effect 'There are numerous other uses of the inven of these plates is to increase the end radiation, tion. For example, my improved projector may that is, the radiation along the axis of the tube be mounted on an airplane and the described and to decrease the side or non-useful radiation. relay connected to ope-rate or to permit the opé The effect of the plates ll upon the operation of eration of the triggers of one or more’ automatic theradiator is effectively to concentrate the ra ri?es. There should, of course,-be an “on” and diation potential or current at the ends of the “off” vswitchbeside the pilot, or gunnner. The rods s. Therefore, the radiation from the sides result of such ‘an arrangement is that the relay of the rods will be reduced to a low value and the will respond only when the airplane is pointed wave-energy propagation from the ends will be at‘an enemy plane ahead 'of'it; thatis to say, increased proportionately, as well as changed in when the automatic ri?es are pointed directly its electrostatic and electromagnetic con?gura at the target. Such an arrangement will effect tion within the focusing tube. Should but one a tremendous saving in ammunition, since the radiating rod be employed ‘only one plate H need automatic ri?es can'never ?re except when cor be used. ' ' 75 rectlyZai-med at the vtarget. 2,407,065 5 ‘Another important use of my invention is in which said focusing member is adjustable longi tudinally of said tube and said focusing aperture the detection of ‘the presence on the sea of a is of the same con?guration as the inside of submarine on the surface, an iceberg, or a ship, said tube. for example; in other words, any object on the surface of the water, My improved projector can 5 - 5. In an ultra-high-frequency ray projector, be mounted to oscillate or scan continuously \the combination which comprises, a focusing throughout an arc of,‘ say, 45 degrees, and any tube, wave propagation means located near one object on the surface of the water within that end thereof for propagating ultra-high-frequency range can be made to cause the sounding of an waves into said tube, two focusing members sup alarm. 10‘ portedwithin said tube, and a focusing aperture in,,each_ said member through which may pass All of the, arrangements above referred to will, waves to be projected from said tube, said aper of course, operate in daylight, darkness, or fog tures being proportioned respectively one to pass with equal facility. more of the vertical than of the horizontal com My improved device can also be used as a means ofv directional communication where it is 15 ponents and the other to pass more of the hori zontal than of the vertical components of said desirable to aim the transmitter at a selected waves, the material of said tube having different ' receiver, thereby minimizing'or'eliminating the wave-energy absorption and reflection character possibility of interception of a message by other istics from those of said focusing members, and receivers not in line with the focused rays or beam. 20 adjustable means associated with at least one of said apertures by which the vertical and hori Clearly, my improved invention would be a zontal components of said waves may be sepa great aid in blind ?ying, in that objects such as rately focused, whereby the wave energy pro mountains would be readily detected by the pilot jected from said focusing tube may be angularly of the aircraft. While the invention has been described in con 25 restricted. 6. In an ultra-high-frequency ray projector, siderable detail and a preferred form illustrated, the combination which comprises, a focusing tube it is to be understood that various changes may of insulating material, of uniform diameter and be made within the scope of the invention as of ?xed length and having two ends, wave propa de?ned in the appended claims. I claim: 30 gation means positioned near one end of said tube for propagating radio waves therein, the 1. A ray projector including, generating other end of said tube being open for projection means for generating ultra-high-frequency radio therefrom of a focused beam of ultra-high-fre waves, a focusing tube of non-conducting mate quency waves, and a focusing member having rial through which generated waves may pass, wave propagation means located near one end of 35 different wave energy absorption and re?ection characteristics from those of said tube and sup said tube for propagating waves within said tube, ported by and within said tube and having a connections coupling said generating, means to focusing aperture therein through which sub said propagation means, and means for angularly stantially all of said projected waves pass, the restricting the wave energy projected from said of said aperture being less than the length focusing tube comprising said focusing tube, and 40 length of said tube, whereby the wave energy pro a focusing member within said tube, said mem jected from said focusing tube may be angularly her being of material of considerably different restricted. conductivity from that of said tube and having 7. In the combination according to claim 6, an aperture therein through which said waves may pass. 2. A ray projector including, generating means for generating ultra-high-frequency radio waves, 5 a second focusing member having different wave energy absorption and reflection characteristics from those of said tube, supported by and within said tube and having a focusing aperture therein through which substantially all of said pro a focusing tube of non-conducting material through which generated waves may pass, propa 50 jected waves pass, at least one of said focusing gation means located near one end of said tube members being adjustable longitudinally of said for propagating waves Within said tube, connec tube for adjusting the degree of focusing of said tions coupling said generating means to said projected beam. propagation means, and means for angularly re 8. In an ultra-high-frequency ray projector, stricting the wave energy projected from said 5 5 the combination which comprises, a focusing tube focusing tube comprising said focusing tube and having two ends, wave propagation means for a focusing member adjustable longitudinally propagating ultra-high-frequency waves into one within said tube, said member being of material end of said tube, at least one focusing member of considerably different conductivity from that supported within said tube, and a focusing aper of said tube and having an aperture therein ture in each said member through which pass 60 through which said waves may pass, substantially all of the waves projected from the 3. A ray projector including, a generator of other end of said tube, the material of said focus ultra-high-frequency radio waves, a glass focus ing members and the material of said tube hav ing tube of ?xed length through which said waves may pass, wave propagation means located with in one end of said tube, connections coupling said generator to said propagation means, and a focusing member within said tube, said member being of material having considerably different ing different wave-energy absorption and re?ec tion characteristics, whereby the wave energy projected from said focusing tube may be angu larly restricted. 9. In an ultra-high-frequency ray projector, the combination which comprises, a focusing wave energy absorption and reflection charac tube of semi-conducting material, wave propa teristics from those of said tube and having a 70 focusing aperture therein through which sub gation means positioned near one end thereof for propagating ultra-high-frequency waves into said tube, a focusing member supported within said tube, and a focusing aperture in said mem 4. A ray projector according to claim 3 of, 75 her through which may pass waves to be pro stantially all of the projected waves pass, where by the wave energy projected from said focus ing tube may be angularly restricted. 2,107,065 78 jected ‘from said tube,‘ said ~Yfocusing member of said tubefdnpropagating .waves within- said being of material having (different wave energy from connections cmiplingrsaid generating means tosaid propagationimeanaiandza, focusing mem-_ those of said tube, whereby the wave energy projected from said focusing tube may be angu ber within vsaid‘tube,said‘membier being of mate rial cf considerably differentizdielectric constant larly restricted. means for generating ultra-.high-frequency radio from ‘that :of said tube rand having an aperture therein through‘ which ‘said "waves may pass, whereby the wave energy projected from said waves, afocusing tube of non-conducting mate focusing Ctube ;may be angularly restricted. absorption -- and re?ection characteristics - 10.‘ A ray projector including, 1 generating rial through which generated waves vmay pass, wave propagation means located ‘near one end ‘HAROLD :POT'IEER DONLE.