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Патент USA US2407078

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- Sept. 3, 1946.
2,407,078
G. M. HOL-LEY, JÉ
POWER CONTROL
Filed March :5, A1944
RN
Qm
4120249@ Mßïolley cÍÍ:
INVENT0R.
BY
Patented Sept. 3, 1946
2,407,078
UNITED STATES PATENT oiFgFicE
VPOWER CONTROL
George M. Holley, Jr., Grosse Pointe, Mich., as
-sigßnor to :George M. Holley and Earl `'Holley
Application’March '3, 1944, Serial No. 524,977
i
’9 Claims.
(Cl. 123-103)
1
`
2
.
The object of this invention is to regulate ‘the
throttle of a supercharged airplane engine Ain
which the throttle is located inthe air entrance
leading to the supercharger.
The speciñc object is Ato regulate "the‘super
charger pressure 'so that when lthe supercharger
pressure exceeds the‘pressure ofthe atmosphere
by a certain number of pounds per square inch,
A and B are two :servo motors of well known
types. The lever 3 z,engages witha button _9 which
- in- its turn .engages with a compression spring I0
which engages with a ñange of the rod I4. `Rod
Cl
I4 is connected to the diaphragm .II which forms
the right hand wall `of „a chamber `I2 which is
connected through .pipe I8 with‘an inlet manifold
I9 on the engineside of a supercharger 20 which
is connected to the air entrance `2| in which is
located the throttle 5. The rod I4 is so .con
structed and arranged »as .to act as v.aservo motor
valve for operating Athe piston ,I3 which, when
the rod I4 moves vto .the left, >also moves to >the
the air inlet throttle is closed so vas to prevent
the supercharger pressure from exceeding the
number of pounds ‘per ‘square >inch a‘bove the
atmosphericpressure selected bythe pilot.
The regulation of an engine by automatically
controlling the number `of pounds per square inch
left, compressing the »compression spring .2.2.
increase of the pressure ofthe ysupercharger and 15
Oil pressure is admitted through pipe IT .and
also the Àmanual selection of the amount of this
escapes through passage 23. When .the rod I4 is
increase is old. One example of this is the AFrench
moved to »the left, the ports ,in the rod I4 deliver
Patent No. 398,637 to Bihan et al., dated March
the oil pressure into the chamber 24.0!'1 the right
29, 1909. The defect of ‘Bihan was that `when
hand side of .thepiston I3 and the throttle 5 >con
the plane ascended ‘into'the air, there was a
loss of power due to -the ‘fall in the density fof
the air. Hence, itis necessary, `if Ysuch >a "loss'is
to be avoided, to obtain `an increasing ~difference
tinues toropen `until ,the supercharger `pressure
_in the inlet mani-fold `I9 vand in chamber I2
increases >.until the diaphragm .I.I moves to the
right restoring the valve rod I4 to its neutral
between lthe atmospheric pressureand the ‘pres
position. XOilis allowed Lto .escape `from the left
sure generated by the supercharger `with .alti 25 ‘hand sideof piston I3, `that is, from chamber 25
tude. This lpressure is `commonlt7 known `as
through passage ,2.6. past port in rod IA to the oil
“gauge pressure.” 1f >the attempt-is‘made to give
outlet 23 when the valve rod .IA iS -`left 0f .the
neutral position shown.
Before the engine begins fto operate, there is
crease in the exhaust backpressure >the netresult 3.0 no oil pressure ,and _elements I5 vand I6 are pro
a constant -absolute pressure on the engine side
of the supercharger, then because ofthe _de
is that there is Van increase of power with altitude
vided. Elements I5 and I6 are .spring loaded and
at the rate of 1.2% per 1,000 feet, approximately.
move .dOWl‘l ,and engage with the rod 14. The rod
The greatest power, however, is needed >when
I4 is connected directly to the piston I3 so that
getting koff the ground at sea `’level and, there
when this happens -there is a `rigid connection
fore, this is ‘the opposite of what is "desired,
35 from rod I4 to the _rod 4 ,so that 'the throttle 5
I, therefore, propose to vary this increase in
can be manually `opened to „start the engine.
manifold air pressure with altitude `so as to 'give
When the Loil _pressure ís .,admítte‘d, `_the elements
the maximum supercharger pressure when ‘tak
I5 and I6 are pressed upward, compressing the
ing off at sea level.
spring contained „inside ,elements I5 and 16.
>
The figure shows the preferred form of my in
4.0 When this happens, the `rod 'I 4 is ,free and, there
fore, _the piston I3 responds to the _oil pressure,
or `rather the .dinerence .between the oil .pressure
is a link connecting it with a lever 3 which -is
in pipe ,I‘I andthe .Oil pressure in rpipe „23. The
connected through suitable Voperating means -in
result is that the piston responds to the .mote
cluding the mechanismV enclosed in casing AA `to 4.5 `ment of rod ‘I4 whereas the rod I4 `vcould exert
a rod 4 which is connected to a :throttle
Bar
„only a relativelysmall .pressure on piston I3,.but
ometric element 6, connected through vsuitable
a large >pressure is now 4exerted»and so the .throttle
operating `means including the device B- to a c_am
5 opens until the pressure iin `the pipe IB 'is large
'I,V controls the fulcru-m 8 so that the position
.enough to generate .sllllicient _snpercharger `pres~
of the fulcrum 8 varies with altitude. Manual
sure in `chamber .I2 -toloppose the ,compression .of
the spring I0 when the diaphragm II and the
control modilied by altitude is thus available.
The roller 8 is mounted on »a connecting rod 35
rod I4 move into their neutral positions and the
which slides in the stationary .element 3.1 «and
throttle v5 =.ceases ~to open. -The liquid ‘-.entering »at
which connects the roller 4llw-ith .a pin 36. Pin
I.'I Aîlowfs through a ¿port 4.3, which engages withA
Vention.
In the figure, Ivis the `pilot’fs hand control. '2
36 is the fulcrum for the lever 3.
.
55
efgrßvveMI-inzthe rod M, ,Whenfrod |¿4 is moved
_
.
n
,
4
3
to the left, the oil under pressure is thus admit
ted to chamber 24 from the port 44 through
a chamber, a moving Wall associated therewith, a
passage connecting said chamber with the engine
ports 45, 46 and 41.
side of said supercharger, spring loading means
engaging with said moving wall in opposition to
When the rod I4 is moved to the right, oil un
der pressure in groove 44 flows into chamber 25
the supercharger pressure, the pressure on the
other side of said wall being atmospheric, man
along ports 48, 49 and 26. Meanwhile, the liquid
from the opposite side of piston I3 escapes to the
ually controlled means for controlling said spring
outlet 23 as follows: when piston I3 is moved to
the left by oil pressure in 24 as a result of mov
loading means, barometric responsive means for
modifying said spring load on said moving wall
at
all positions of said manual means, a connec
10
ing rod I4 to the left, then port 48 is put in com
munication with a groove 52 in rod I4, which is
in communication with a port 53, which is con
tion from said moving wall to said throttle lever
whereby the position of the throttle is controlled
by the movement of said moving wall in response
nected with the outlet port 23.
to changes in the pressure of the supercharger
When piston I3 is moved to the right by oilV
pressure in 25 as a result of moving rod I4 to the
and this supercharger pressure is balanced by
15
right, a groove 50 in rod I4 is put in communica
said spring loading means which is regulated
tion with the port 45 and so through the port
jointly by the manual control means and by said
5I with the outlet port 23.
‘
barometric means.
The casings A and B, as well as the housing 54
containing the chamber I2, are all stationary.
Altitude control
The roller 8, which acts as the pivot for lever
3, is held in engagement with the cam 1 by the
spring 21. The expansion of the barometric ele
ment 6 moves valve rod 28 to the right which
permits oil pressure to escape from the right hand
side of piston 29 to pipe 3|. Oil pressure is then
admitted through a pipe 30 to the left hand side
of piston 29. IThe piston 29 then rotates the cam
1 clockwise. The piston 29 is pushed to the left
by the compression spring 39 and pushes the yoke
38 to the right and thus pushes the rod 49, which
engages with a slot 42 in the lever‘1, which has
a fulcrum 4I in the stationary .element 31. A
groove 55 in piston 29 is in communication with
the low pressure pipe 3|. When valve 28 moves
to the left, the pressure in chamber 55 to the
left of piston 29 falls to the pressure in pipe 3l
20
25
Z. A device as set forth in claim l in which a
servo motor is interposed between said movable
wall and said throttle.
3. A device as set forth in claim 1 in which a
servo motor is interposed between said baro
metric means and said spring loading means.
4. A device as set forth in claim l in which a
servo motor is incorporated in said connection
from said moving wall to said throttle a'nd in
which a servo motor is incorporated between said
barometric responsive means and said spring
loading means.
30
5. A throttle control for a supercharged air
craft engine comprising an air entrance to said
engine, a throttle valve therein, a lever therefor,
an air chamber, a moving wall associated with
35
said chamber, operative «means connecting said
wall with said throttle lever, a passage connect
ing said chamber with the engine side of said
supercharger, spring means engaging with said
wall, the pressure on the other side of said wall
due to the restriction 51. yj58 is a corresponding
being atmospheric, a control lever engaged with
40.
restriction between the high pressure line- 39 and
said spring means, manually controlled means for
the chamber 59 to the right of thepiston 29.
moving said lever, barometric responsive means
When starting the engine, before oil pressure
for varying the fulcrum of said control lever
becomes available, the spring loaded element 32
whereby the spring load on said movable wall is
locks the cam 1 in place so that until oil pres
regulated jointly by the manual control means
sure is obtainable, the fulcrum 8 is held in a
' and by said barometric control means and the
fixed position. Oil pressure admitted from pipe
throttle lever is opened and closed until the
30 unseats the locking device 32.
supercharger pressure balances said spring load.
6. A throttle control for a supercharged air
Operation
craft engine comprising an air entrance, a throttle
50
Whenever the throttle valve 5is in equilibrium,
valve therein, a lever therefor, a servo motor hav
that is to say, when the pressure in the inlet
ing a piston connected to said lever so constructed
manifold I9 is high enough to balance the com
and arranged as to open and close said throttle,
pression of the spring _I0 determined by the
an air chamber, a moving wall associated there
position of the manual control lever I and the
with, a passage connecting the air chamber with
altitude cam 1, the diaphragm II is in the posi 55 the engine side of said supercharger, a valve
tion shown in the drawing. Hence, the spring
controlling said servo motor, said valve being con
I0 is compressed against the flange of the rod I4
nected to said moving wall, spring loading means
which assumes a fixed position whenever the
associated with said moving wall, the pressure on _
throttle 5 is in equilibrium. Hence, the position of
the other side of said wall being atmospheric,
the lever 3 determines the position of the throttle 60 a control lever engaging with said spring load
5 and the position of the lever 3 is determined
ing means, a barometric responsive device, a
jointly by the position of the manual control lever
servo motor associated therewith and connected
I and the position of the altitude cam 1 which
to the fulcrum of said control lever, manual
automatically increases the Vgauge pressure with
means for moving said lever whereby the spring
65
altitude. More specifically, the position of the
loading means is controlled both manually and
lever 3 determines the differential pressure be
automatically.
tween the manifold air pressure and the atmos
7. A device as set forth in claim 6 in which the
pheric pressure and this pressure differential is
servo motors are so constructed and arranged
modified by the lever I manually and by the bar
ometric capsule 6 automatically through` the 70 that in the absence of oil pressure to operate
said servo motors, the ñrst servo motor is oper
cam 1.
What I claim is:
-
V1. A throttle control for a supercharged air
ated mechanically by said moving wall and the
moving wall is positively moved by said control
craft engine comprising an’air entrance to said
lever and the second servo motor is inoperative
I
« l.
'
engine, a throttle valve therein, a lever therefor, 75 ‘ to move said fulcrum.
2,407,078
6
.
8. Throttle control for supercharged aircraft
9. Yieldable throttle control means for super»
charged aircraft engines comprising, a manually
.engines comprising, yielding means, throttle con
trol means responsive to said yielding means and
operated lever, yielding means associated there
to the amount of supercharger pressure- rela
with, throttle control means responsive to the
tive to the atmospheric pressure, said super Ul said yielding means and to the amount of super
charger pressure being arranged so as to act
charger pressure relative to the atmospheric
pressure, said yielding means being adapted to
in opposition to said yielding means, an induc
oppose said supercharger pressure, an induc~
tion throttle valve for said engine connected to
tion throttle valve for said engine connected to
said throttle control means, so that an increase
in supercharger pressure closes the throttle valve, 10 said control means, so that an increase in the
means responsive to changes in the atmospheric
yielding means opens the throttle, and an increase
pressure, so constructed and arranged as to vary
in the supercharger pressure closes the throttle,
means responsive to changes in the atmospheric
the said yielding means directly, and thus indi
rectly the supercharger pressure opposed thereto,
pressure, so constructed and arranged as to vary
so as to vary the position of said throttle Valve
with altitude, manual means so constructed and
said yielding means and the said supercharger
arranged as to cooperate With said atmospheric
pressure responsive means in the control of said
yielding means directly and thus indirectly ci
said supercharger pressure so that at any given .
pressure, so as to vary the position of said `throttle
valve With altitude at every position of said man~
ual control means, manual control means so
constructed and arranged as to cooperate 'with
said atmospheric pressure responsive means in
altitude the throttle is closed by said supercharger
the control of said yielding means and of said '
pressure as said pressure »rises above that of said
yielding means selected by said manual `control
supercharger pressure.
means to oppose said supercharger pressure.
' GEORGE M. HOLLEY, JR.
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