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Патент USA US2407081

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2,407,081
Patented Sept. 3, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,081
GUN PERFORATOR FOR WELL CASING
Mordica 0. Johnston, Glendale, Calif.
Application November 27, 1944, Serial No. 565,261
4 Claims. (Cl. 164-05)
1
2
ating with a special projectile acting to seal the
?ring chamber and to retard movement of the
projectile until a desired ?ring power has been
developed within the con?ned ?ring chamber.
The invention is illustrated by way of example
in the accompanying drawing in which:
This invention relates to oil well tools, and par
ticularly pertains to a gun perforator for well
casing.
In gun type perforators for well casing, as
shown in my Patent No. 2,048,451, issued July 21,
1936, and entitled “Casing perforating gun,” a
substantially cylindrical body member was pro
Figure 1 is a view in section and elevation gen
erally indicating the application of the gun per
vided which was lowered into a well casing on a
forator to a well bore and its casing.
string of pipe, the body member being formed
Fig. 2 is an enlarged view in central vertical
with a plurality of ?ring chambers sealed at their 10
section showing the construction and arrange
outer ends by a projectile and a barrel and within
ment of the ?ring chambers and barrels incor
which an explosive charge was ignited by elec
porated within the perforator body.
trically controlled ?ring mechanism. In other
Fig. 3 is an enlarged view in elevation with
types of perforating guns the barrel has been
parts broken away showing the projectile and its
made with interconnecting ?ring chambers with
sealing means.
in which the explosive charges contained in the
Referring more particularly to the drawing, l0
several chambers are successively ignited as ?re
indicates
a string of pipe ?tted with a pin II
passes through a duct from one chamber to the
at its lower end to receive a box section l2.
other. In all of these types of gun perforators
Fastened into the lower end of the box section
heretofore mentioned the construction of the ?r
is a cylindrical ?ring rod l3 carrying a ?ring unit
ing chambers and the projectiles therefor have
I4. This unit is here shown as ?tted with yield
been disposed at successive spaced intervals along
able shoes l5 by which it is centered in a well
the body member of the gun and with the axes
casing IS. The unit may be of any desired con
struction to ignite a ?ring charge within a breech
section 11. The breech section is formed with
a lower threaded pin portion I8 which engages a
threaded counterbore 19 within the gun perfo
of the barrels of contiguous ?ring units disposed
at wide angles to each other so that the ?ring
chambers could be properly sealed against the
hydrostatic head of liquid present in the well
bore. This arrangement is not altogether prac
tical since the perforations formed in the well
casing cannot be closely spaced. It is desirable, therefore, to design a gun perforator body carry
ing ?ring chambers which may be spaced closely
to each other and disposed in any desired angular
arrangement radially of the perforator body,
whereby a suitable pattern of perforations may
be formed at each ?ring period of the gun. It
is the principal object of the present invention,
therefore, to provide a gun perforator body hav
ing individual ?ring chambers and barrels so con
structed as to receive a novel projectile adapted
to seal the ?ring chamber and to insure suitable
?ring power while the radial angular positions
of the barrels are disposed close together and
need not be at wide angles to each other as is
now usually the case. '
The present invention contemplates the provi
sion of a gun perforator body substantially cy
lindrical in shape and of a diameter to be lowered
conveniently through a well casing to a point of
rator body generally indicated at 20. This body
may comprise any desired number of perforating
units 2| which are threaded to each other at con
tiguous ends and are longitudinally aligned. The
lowermost one of these units is ?tted with a cap
22. This cap forms a protecting end for the unit
and also seals the lower end of a ?ring duct 23.
The ?ring duct extends longitudinally and cen
trally through each of the perforating units 2|,
and since the units 2| are fastened end to end the
?ring duct 23 will extend entirely from the breech
section I‘! to the lowermost end of a duct 23 which
is covered by the cap 22. Disposed along the
length of each of the body members 2| is a series
of ?ring chambers 24. These chambers extend
transversely within a body member 2| and are
45 disposed radially with relation to the longitu
dinal axis of the body member and the ?ring duct
23. The ?ring chambers 24, as shown in Fig. 2
of the drawing, are cylindrical in cross-section
and are of a length to intersect the longitudinal
operation, said body being formed with a plural— 50 axis of the body member 2| and the duct 23 so
that sections of the duct 23 will establish com
ity of explosive chambers at desired spaced levels
munication between successive ?ring chambers.
throughout the length of the gun body and being
The longitudinal axis of the ?ring chambers 24
disposed at any desired degree of axial spacing
may be arranged at any selected degree so that
with relation to each other, the ?ring chamber
any desired ?ring pattern may be produced.
being equipped with a removable barrel cooper
3
2,407,081
Each of the ?ring chambers 24 has a cylindri
cal side wall 25 which terminates in a dead end
wall 26 at one end.
At the opposite end of the
?ring chamber a reduced outlet bore 2'! is formed
which is of circular section. The outer end of
this bore terminates in a sealing seat 28 which
is at the bottom of an enlarged threaded bore
29 designed to receive a removable barrel 30.
This barrel is formed with a muzzle bore 3|
through which a projectile passes and by which 10
the projectile is directed to impinge against the
4
frusto-conical wall around and beyond the por
tion 38' of the projectile 35.
V
In operation of the present invention the gun
perforator is assembled as shown in Fig. 1 with
a desired number of body sections 2| forming the
gun perforator body 25. The gun is then loaded
by introducing a charge of explosive 31' into each
of the explosive chambers 24. This charge of
explosive is here shown as being in the form of
a cylindrical stick of explosive material having
a diameter substantially agreeing with the di
ameter of the bore 21 leading from each of the
face of the well casing. The outer end of the
threaded bore 29 is ?nished by a counterbore 32
‘explosive chambers 24. It will be recognized that
which is of a depth‘ su?icient to shield the con
the explosive elements 31 are of lesser diameter
vexed end 33 of the barrel 30. The opposite end 15 than the diameter of the explosive chambers 24,
of the barrel 30 is formed with a cylindrical coun
thus providing a combustion and expansion space
terbore 34 which agrees in diameter with the
59 around the explosive charge 37 and within
bore 28 formed in the perforator gun body 2!,
the chamber 24. The length of the stick of ex
said bores being concentric with the longitudinal
plosive 3111s greater than the length of the ex
axis of the ?ring chamber 24 and the barrel 3B.
20 plosive chamber 24, andin fact extends entirely
The ?ring chamber and barrel construction,
through the bore 27 and rests against the end
as previously described, are designed to accom
face 43 of theprojectile when the gun is loaded.
modate a projectile 35, a sealing and shear ring
Prior to loading the gun the projectiles ‘35 are
36, and an, explosive charge 31'. The projectile is
assembled with the rings 36. The sealing and
formed with a main cylindrical portion 38 which 25 shear ring 35 is made of metal, and in View of the
agrees substantially in diameter with the muzzle
fact that its cylindrical bore 45 is less in diameter
bore 3|. One end of the portion 38 is formed with
than the diameter of the cylindrical portion 38
a nose 39 which may be of any desired shape, de
of the projectile 35 it is necessary to force the
pending upon the perforating Work to be done.
projectile through the ring and to temporarily
The opposite end of they projectile is formed with 30 stretch the ring until the bore 45 registers with
an annular groove 43 which occurs a desired dis
the recess 4d, at which time the reduced portion
tance from the exact end of the projectile and is
of the ring occurring between the faces 46 and
formed in the cylindrical face of the portion 38.
15‘! will snap into position between the shoulders
This groove has opposite'square shoulders All and
M and 112 of the recess 40 and will form a tight
42 and an intermediate cylindrical face. The 35 seal therewith. The projectile and ring thus
depth of the groove is determined, for a purpose
assembled, as shown in Fig. 3 of the drawing, is
to be hereinafter described, and is represented by
then positioned within the bore 28 of the body
a critical dimension. At the exact end of the
member 2| so that the end face 49 of the ring will
portion 38 of the projectile 35 a short cylindrical
rest against the bottom face of the bore 28. The
portion 38’ occurs. This is of the same diameter
barrel 3!) is then screwed in place with the body
as the main portion 38 and provides an end face
38 of the projectile 35 extending outwardly within
43 against which the explosive force of the ex
the muzzle bore 3!.
As the barrel 3!) is screwed
plosive charge 3‘! is directed.
tightly into place within the threaded bore 29
Made separately and subsequently mounted
the outermost portion of the ring 38 will register
upon the projectile 35 is the sealing ring 36. This 45 With the counterbore 34 in the end of the barrel
ring is cup-shaped and is formed with an outer
and pressure will be exerted to form a tight seal
cylindrical face 44 which agrees substantially with
between the barrel and the face 46 of the ring
the diameter of the bore 28 in the perforator body
and a tight seal between the end of the bore 28
2! and also agrees in diameter with the counter
and the face 49 of the ring. At the same time the
bore 34 formed in the barrel 30. The length of 50 end face 42 of the projectile will be drawn against
the sealing ring 36 is slightly greater than the
the end of the stick of explosive 37 so that the ex
combined lengths of the bore 28 in the gun per
plosive will be held in place ?rmly. After the gun
forator body 2| and the counterbore 34 in the
perforator has been completely loaded it may be
barrel 30. The ring 36 is formed at one end with
lowered into the well to a desired level, after
a cylindrical bore 45 which agrees in diameter 55 which the mechanism within the portion [4 is
with the diameter of the cylindrical portion of
manipulated to produce initial ignition of explo
the recess All) which is formed on the body por
sive within the breech block ll. This explosive
tion 38 of the projectile 35-. The length of the
will then burn downwardly through the ?ring
cylindrical bore 45 agrees in dimension with the
ducts 23 and successively although substantially
distance between the shoulders 4i and 42 of the 60 simultaneously produce ignition of all of the ex
plosive charges 31 in the various explosive cham
recess 40 on the projectile 35 and is de?ned by
bers 24. When an explosive charge 31 is ignited
the end face d6 of the ring and a shoulder 41
it will begin to burn and create gaseous pressure
within the ring. The shoulder '41 has a diameter
within the chamber 24. The immediate move
agreeing with the diameter of the portion 38 of
the projectile 35. A tapered counterbore 48 is 65 ment of the projectile 35, however, will be re
strained by the shear ring until suf?cient ?ring
formed within the ring 36 and extends from the
power has been built up within the explosive
shoulder 41 to the end face M) of the ring, which
chamber 24. This ?ring power is of course deter
face is parallel to the opposite end face 46. The
mined by the amount of explosive 31, the size of
taper of the side wall of the counterbore 48 is
70
the explosive chamber 24, the thickness of the
here indicated as being approximately nine de
wall represented between the faces 46 and 41 of
grees, for purposes to be hereinafter explained.
the sealing ring 35, and the character of the
It will of course be understood that this angle
metal
from which the ring is made. It is to be
might be changed to create di?erent conditions
that while the sealing and shear ring
as desired. This forms an outwardly ?aring 75 understood
36 has been described as being separate from the
2,407,081
5
projectile that in certain instances it might be
circular cross-section with its longitudinal axis
disposed in a plane normal to the longitudinal
axis of the body, one end of said chamber being
closed and the opposite end being formed with a
restricted outlet opening, a counterbore at the
outer end of said outlet opening providing a seal
muzzle bore 3i to strike the well casing or forma
tion encountered in its path. Thus, the casing
ing shoulder and against which shoulder the seal
will be perforated, and if the ?ring power is great
ing and shear ring of the projectile rests, a
enough an opening will be made in the forma
threaded counterbore extending beyond the ?rst
tion to facilitate in the flow of cognate ?uid from 10 named counterbore, and a threaded barrel adapt
ed to be mounted within the threaded counter
the formation.
bore with its muzzle bore receiving the outwardly
It will be understood that due to the fact that
found desirable to form it integral with the pro
jectile. When the explosive force is suf?cient to
shear this wall thickness the projectile 35 will be
released and will be forced outwardly through the
the ?ring duct 23 is disposed centrally of the body
projecting portion of the projectile, the inner face
2| it is possible to easily locate the ?ring cham
of the barrel cooperating with the shoulder of the
bers 24 and the barrels 39 in any desired angular
counterbore to grip the sealing ring.
.
3. In a gun perforator adapted to ?re a projec
radial relation to each other, since individual ?r
ing mechanism is not necessary and the explosive
tile which is cylindrical in cross-section and
charges do not need to be wired individually. It
which carries a sealing and shear ring adjacent
will also be seen that due to the design of the
the inner end thereof, a gun body adapted to be
sealing ring 39 and the parts between which it is 20 lowered into a well bore and having ?ring means
gripped it is possible to seal the ?ring chamber
associated therewith to be controlled from the
against induction or eduction of fluids under pres
ground surface of the well, an explosive chamber
sure, Whether it be the gases developed within the
formed in the gun body, said chamber being of
firing chamber or the hydrostatic pressure of
circular cross-section with its longitudinal axis
?uid within the well bore, and it is also to be 25 disposed in a plane normal to the longitudinal
pointed out that the design of the sealing ring
axis of the body, one end of said chamber being
36 may be made to absolutely establish the mag
closed and the opposite end being formed with a
nitude of ?ring power developed within the ex
restricted outlet opening, a counterbore at the
plosive chamber 24 before the projectile is re
outer end of said outlet opening providing a seal
30 ing shoulder and against which shoulder the seal
leased and ?red.
It will thus be seen that the gun perforator con
ing and shear ring of the projectile rests, a
struction here disclosed makes it possible for pro
threaded counterbore extending beyond the ?rst
jectiles of simple and cheap construction to be
named counterbore, a threaded barrel adapted
made and to be ?red by an explosive which may
to be mounted within the threaded counterbore
be easily handled, and that furthermore the gun
with its muzzle bore receiving the outwardly pro
may be quickly and easily loaded and when ?red
jecting portion of the projectile, and a counter
will develop any desired ?ring power.
bore in the inner face of the barrel to cooperate
While I have shown the preferred form of my
with the counterbore in the body to receive and
invention as now known to me, it will be under
grip the sealing and shear ring.
stood that various changes may be made in com 4-0
4. A gun perforator adapted to ?re a cylindrical
bination, construction and arrangement of parts
projectile having an enlarged annular cup-shaped
by those skilled in the art, without departing from
ring on its trailing end, said gun including a ?r
the spirit of my invention as claimed.
ing unit, a cylindrical body member carried at the
Having thus described my invention, what I
lower end thereof and being formed with a cen
claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
tral ?ring duct communicating with the ?ring
1. In a gun perforator, a body member having
unit, a plurality of explosive chambers arranged
an explosive chamber therein to receive a charge
at spaced intervals along the length of the body
of explosive, said chamber lying in a plane nor
member and intersecting the ?ring duct whereby
mal to the longitudinal axis of the body and in
communication will be established between con
tersecting said axis, the inner end of said cham 50 tiguous ?ring chambers, said ?ring chambers be
ber being closed and the outer end being formed
ing circular in cross-section and having their in
with a restricted outlet opening, a seat formed
around the outer end of the outlet opening to
receive an annular ?ange portion of a projectile,
ner ends closed, an opening at the opposite end
of the ?ring chamber of reduced diameter, a
counterbore at the outer end of said opening
a threaded bore extending outwardly beyond said 55 forming a ?at shoulder lying in a plane normal
seat, a threaded barrel having a central muzzle
to the longitudinal axis of the chamber, an en
bore and adapted to be mounted within the
larged threaded opening extending outwardly and
threaded opening to receive the outer end of the
being disposed concentrically of the longitudinal
projectile in the muzzle bore and to cooperate
axis of the ?ring chamber, a barrel formed with
with the seat in the body member in engaging the 60 a central muzzle bore and threaded to be seated
?ange of the projectile and thus holding the pro
within said threaded bore, and a counterbore in
jectile until the ?ring power of the explosive
the inner end of said barrel concentric with said
shears said ?ange from the projectile.
muzzle bore and cooperating with the face of the
2. In a gun perforator adapted to ?re a pro
counterbore within the body of the gun to grip
jectile which is cylindrical in cross-section and 65 the sealing and shear ring carried by the projec
which carries a sealing and shear ring adjacent
tile and to thus seal the explosive chamber while
the inner end thereof, a gun body adapted to be
restraining movement of the projectile until an
lowered into a well bore and having ?ring means
explosive force has been created within the ex
associated therewith to be controlled from the
plosive chamber having su?icient magnitude to
ground surface of the well, an explosive chamber 70 shear the ring from the projectile.
formed in the gun body, said chamber being of
MORDICA O. JOHNSTON.
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