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Патент USA US2407109

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Sept. 3, 1946.
I
‘ -
R. A. SMITH‘
’
2,407,109
PRODUCTIVON 0F STAPLE FIBER
Filed July 18, 1942
INVENTOR.
‘
Pusan?- H SM/TH
BY
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' M774”
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ATTORNEo/Va
Patented Sept. 3, ‘1946
2,407,109
“ UNITED STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE
Robert A. Smith, Ridley Park,_Pa., assignor to
American Viscose Corporation, Wilmington,
Del., a corporation of Delaware
1
Application .luly 18, 1942, Serial No. 451,486
9 Claims.‘ (01. 19-66)‘
2
This invention relates to the production of sta
ple ?bers of rayon and other synthetic ?lamen
tary material and is particularly concerned with
a process and apparatus for treating staple ?ber
during its manufacture to facilitate its subse
quent processing and to improve its ultimate
of the invention, associated with a staple
cutter, and
Figure 4 is an elevation of the embodiment of
Figure 3.
Figures 1 and 2 show one form of apparatus
adapted to accomplish the invention. As there
characteristics. -
shown, an upright obstruction 2 having a ser
rated surface 3 is arranged to receive clumps 4
In many procedures for cutting continuous ?la
of staple ?bers thrown thereagainst. Any form
mentary material to staple ?bers, a continuous
?lamentary material proceeds to the cutting de 10 of device may be employed to throw the clumps
vice as a heavy bundle such as in the form of
of staple ?bers against the obstruction, but, as
shown, there is employed a form of‘staple ?ber
a rope or tow of approximately circular, elliptical,
cutter which normally throws the clumps of
or rectangular cross-section, frequently contain
?bers cut therefrom at a fairly high velocity.
ing many thousands of ?laments and this bun
dle is then cut to discontinuous lengths thereby 15 This cutter comprises a rotating disc 5 having
forming numerous individual bunches or clumps
an axial feed channel‘ 6 communicating with a
radial channel ‘I which opens into the periphery
of ?bers- These clumps then proceed either to
of the disc, the continuous ?lamentary, material
opening, carding, spinning and like processes or
in the form of a tow being fed into the axial
to subsequent stages of treatment, such as wash
ing, bleaching, and then to the opening and other 20 channel and being delivered by centrifugal force‘
developed by rotation of the disc or by a, fluid
stages, depending upon their condition at the
time of cutting.
jet, such as of water or air, directed into the
axial channel so that the tow extends from the
In accordance with this invention, the ?ber
periphery of the disc and is brought by rotation
clumps are subjected to an opening effected by
throwing them against an obstruction presenting 25 of the disc into cutting relationship with a sta
tionary knife 8 (or a plurality thereof positioned
an indented surface composed ‘of corrugations,
about the periphery of the disc). The serrated
serrations, notches and the like. The impact
surface 3 of the obstruction is arranged in the
splatters the clump across or along the surface
path oftravel of. the ?ber clumps 4 thrown from
and the indentations assist the action by intro
ducing offset points of impingement of the clump 30 the disc 5 so that they are impacted thereupon
and splatter across the surface thereof. This
against the obstruction. By carrying out the
splattering is accentuated by the indentations of
procedure of the invention while the ?ber clumps
are in a wet condition such that the ?bers are
the surface so that considerable ~~opening is ac
complished thereby. The tow of continuous ?la
in a somewhat softened or plastic condition, there
is obtained the additional desirable characteris 35 mentary material may be in a plastic condition
at the time of cutting so that the serrated sur
tic of crimpiness simultaneously with the open
face 3 accomplishes a certain amount of crimp?
ing operation so that a subsequent separate step
ing simultaneously with the opening of the
of crimping is unnecessary to better adapt such
clumps. When the ?ber product is in a plastic
staple ?bers for subsequent textile processes, such
40 condition, it may be desirable to assist its removal
as in carding and spinning. ‘
from the surface 3, which ordinarily would occur
The opening treatment in accordance with the
readily and rapidly by gravity, by means of a
invention whether performed under conditions
?uid jet 9 which is shown above the indented
favoring crimping or not may advantageously be
surface of the obstruction with a long ori?ce
associated directly with the cutting operation by
adapted to sweep the entire surface. A duct II]
arranging the indented surface obstruction in the
is arranged beneath the obstruction 2 so that it
path of discharge of the cut ?ber clumps from
may receive the opened clumps discharged from
a cutter of the Beria type applying a rotatable
the indented surface.
member for delivering the ‘continuous ?lamen
tary tow to the cutting element by centrifugal
force. In this arrangement, crimping is obtained
along with the opening provided the tow is in a
wet or somewhat plastic ‘condition at the time
of treatment.
Figures 3 and 4 show a modi?ed arrangement 1
in which the obstruction is provided with an in
verted stepped surface l2 on which the surfaces
of the‘steps are arranged substantially parallel
to the plane of rotation of the radial channel 1
of the disc 5 of a staple ?ber cutter such as that
In the drawing, illustrative of the invention,’ 55 shown in Figures 1 and 2. Since the ?ber clumps‘
Figure 1 is a plan view of one embodiment of the
4 have a high velocity when they strike the
invention, associated with a staple ?ber cutter,
stepped under surface [2 of the obstruction l I,
Figure 2 is an elevation of the embodiment of
the various steps shear off portions of the ?ber
Figure 1,
bundles or clumps. As in the embodiment of
Figure 3 is a plan view of a second embodiment 60 Figures 1 and 2, carrying out the invention with
2,407,109
3
4
?ber clumps which are in a wet or somewhat
ing, crimping or the like, an obstruction having
anvindented surface and means, for impelling a
clump of textile ?bers of spinnable length at high
velocity in free ?ight against said surface, said
obstruction having a pitch distance'facing the
softened condition also gives rise’ to crimping
since the ?ber clump ordinarily strikes the steps
at an angle. A suitable conveyor, here shown as
a conveyor belt [3, is disposed beneath the ob-_ _
struction I l to receive the opened staple and
transfers it to the next point of operation. If de
sired, a jet of ?uid may be arranged to cooperate
clump in its ?ight less than the effective dimen
sion of the clump parallel thereto.
2. In a devicev adapted to subject ?bers to open
with the obstruction in a manner similar tothat
in Figures 1 and 2.
e
ing, crimping or the like, an obstruction having
10 a grooved surface. and means for impelling a
The indented surface of the obstruction may be
clump of textile ?bers of spinnable length at high
arranged at various angles other than those
shown in the drawing. Such variation yields
somewhat distinct opening characteristics and
velocity in' freev?ight against said surface, said
obstruction having a pitch distance facing the
when a Wet ?lamentary material is being 013
erated upon they provide some variation of crimp
ing characteristics. The form of indentations
may be various, the serrated and stepped modi
?cations shown in the drawing being merely il
lustrative. The dimensions of the indentations
may vary widely. However, certain of the dimen
sions are preferably smaller than particular
dimensions of the clumps of staple ?bers being
cut, depending upon the manner in which the
clumps strike the indented surface. For example,
in the arrangement of Figures 1 and 2, where the‘
length of the ?ber clumps strikes transversely of
the serrations, the “pitch” of the serrations should
be smaller than the length of the clump, so that
clump in‘ its ?ight less than the effective dimen
sion of the clump parallel thereto.
3.- In a device adapted to subject ?bers to open
ing, crimpin‘g'or the like, an obstruction having
a stepped surface and means for 'impelling a
clump of textile ?bers of spinnable length at high
velocity in free ?ight against the surface, said
obstruction having a pitch distance facing the
clump in its flight less than the eifective dimen
sion of the clump parallel thereto.
4. In a device adaptedto subject ?bers to open
ing, crimping or the like, an obstruction having
a grooved surface and. means for impelling a
clump of textile fibers of spinnable length at high
velocity in free ?ight against said surface with
the length ofthe clump generally transverse of
a clump bears against a plurality of the serrations. 30 the grooves, said obstruction having a pitch dis
In the arrangement of Figures 3 and 4 where the
steps shear off portions of the clump, the height
of the steps facing the clump-s should be smaller
than the bundle thickness or diameter so that a
tance. facing the clump in its ?ight less than the
effective dimension of the clump parallel thereto.
5. In combination, an obstruction having a
stepped surface and means for impelling a clump
plurality of shearings are effected upon each
of textile ?bers of spinnable length at high
velocity in free ?ight against the surface with
As stated above the operation of this invention
the length of the clump in a plane approxi
has as its main purpose the opening of the staple
mately parallel to the corner edges of the steps,
?ber clumps when it is performedupon a dry tow
said obstruction having a pitch distance facing
so that subsequent processing can be more elli 40 the clump; in its ?ight. less than the effective
ciently'performed upon the product. However,
dimension of the clump parallel thereto.
when the invention is applied to the handling of
6. In combination, an obstruction having an
arwet continuous ?lamentary material, it has the
indented surface, means for cutting a clump of
function not only of opening the ?ber clumps but
textile ?bers from a bundle of continuous ?la
of_ crimping the ?bers within the clumps. 45 mentary material and for impelling the clump in
Previous procedures involving the cutting staple
free ?ight against said surface, said obstruction
?bersfrom a continuous ?lamentary tow in a wet
having a pitch distancefacing the clump in its
condition ordinarily sent the clumps obtained at
?ight less than the effective dimension of the
thecutting step through wet treatment processes,
clump parallel thereto.
such aswashing, bleaching and then drying. It
7. In combination, a centrifugal cutting device
has been found that the application of the pro
for simultaneouly cutting ?lamentary material
cedure of this invention to staple ?ber clumps at
and for impelling. the ?ber bundle cut therefrom
the time of their cutting while in the wet condi
and an obstruction having an indented surface
tion has resulted in making the subsequent wet
arranged-to present its indented surface to the
processing and drying treatments markedly more 55 cut ?ber bundle impelledfrom said cutter.
efficient‘ since the opened staple permits a better
8. In combination,‘ a, centrifugal cutting device
clump.
'
penetration, of the treatment liquids. and a more
uniform and rapid distribution of heat and gases
for simultaneously cuttingw ?lamentary material
and forimpelling the cut, ?ber bundle therefrom
in drying. The procedure of the present inven
and a grooved obstruction arranged in the path
tion has the additional highly important ad 60 of discharge of the cut ?ber bundle with the.
vantage of being readily combined with the cut
grooves transverseto the plane of ?ight of the
ting operation so that these two steps can for
practical purposes be considered as a single op
9. In combination, a centrifugal cutting device
bundle.
I
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c
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erational procedure.
for simultaneously cutting ?lamentary material
While preferred embodiments have been dis 65 and for impelling the cut‘?ber bundle therefrom
closed, the description is‘ intended to be illustra
tive only, and it is to be understood that changes
and variations may be made without departing
from the spirit and scope of the invention as de
?ned by the appended claims.
70
I claim:
1. In a device adapted to subject ?bers to open
and an obstruction, havinga stepped surface ar-.
ranged to receive the cut ?ber bundles discharged ,
therefrom with the corner edges of the steps in a
plane approximately parallel to the plane of ?ight
of the clump.
'
' ROBERT A. SMITH.
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