Патент USA US2407118код для вставки
Sept. .3, 1946. I . ' H. F. WATERS ' 2,407,118 METHOD OF MAKING SHALLQW BAKING PLATES OF CELLULOSE MATERIAL Original Filed Aug‘. 15, 1940 " BY ‘ , INVéNTOR; HERB)’ F.’ WATERS a. 72011?“ ~ HTTORNEY‘ Patented Sept. 3, 1946 2,407,118 UNITED STATES: PATENT OFFICE METHOD; OF‘MAKING SHAIZIJOW BAKING PLATES‘OFCELLULOSE MATERIAL Harry, FrWaters, New York, N. Y. ‘ Original? applicationAugust 15,‘ 1940; Serial‘ No. 352;67’9. Divi‘d'ellland this application-April 20', 1:9”;42‘,;.Serial No; 439,638 2.Cl'aims.. (01. 93-49.) 1.. 2 The present invention. relates to a: method of vented the: materials baked therein frornadher ing' to the inner surface so. that this pan wasin many respects- asreffectivelasra dish of metal.- A: making ‘shallow- cooking‘ and bakingutensils and; mone‘particul-arly, to-ai baking: pan of novel. and‘ improved character. . r practically identical *b‘aking utensil; is disclosed. by Stuart‘ in his Patents Nos. 2,027,296-andv2;170;O40 ' This application is: a‘ division of my; ‘ application. Serial No‘; 352-,6?9,,?led-. August 151,. 1940:,- for Bak ing utensil; As- those. skilled» in ‘the art‘ know, heretofore pans, dishes and similar-‘receptacles constituted of metal were used for baking pies, cakes; and 1.0: similar bakery products. Whenmanuf'acturing and distributing pies; andother products of thev describedcharacter- on a commercial scale; it was customary tense the metal pans in which" the pie or cake wasbakedlfor delivering-the'product therein. Due .to thefact-that these metallic pans. were rather. expensive, it‘. wastnecessary tow return the. pans to the baker atterthe baked-productlwas soldl Of. course, thisnecessitated returning a large number of'heavy metal; trays-or pans to.- the baker and cleaning“ and sterilizing. the, same. prior to their repeatedjuse- which.v involved.inconven— ience. and expense. ,It. was- already. suggestedito employ pans or trays constituted-o:f=.pulp, card-v board, or some other ?brous cellulosic. product Which.is likewise produced from a foil-coated cellulosic material by means of. pressure'drawingv operations. While the baking pans of the Fisher type could effectively resistrbaking: and-‘cocking temperatures’ and were-inexpensive enough, great difficulties were experienced in- manufacturing. them'on: apractical. and-commercial scale. The principal reason for these difficulties was thatthe unavoidable; drawing operations employed; in ~; making. the pans or. dishes from ?at stock would expose the material to substantial drawing and: stretching stresses. This would break down the structureof the material ‘andwas vparticularly in jurious to‘ the extremely thintand- weakmetallic ‘ foil covering at» leastthe inner surface thereof. The metallic foil would. break andv crack and would cause discontinuities of the protective layer between the pie and the paper pan through which. the semi-liquidconstituents ofthe pie- could leak i into-thepaper. Of wcoursepthisiwas detrimental and to transfer thepie. or. cake from. the metal pan in which. it.was baked .ontosuch. receptacles. These paperor cardboard receptacles were gen erally cheap enough to be discarded after aisingle ' use, However, transfer. of variouspies, particularly those containing fruit and. having a. rela tively soft or fragile structure, involved di?i cnlties, and the pie or other bakery product thus transferred didnot. offer the. same. attractive ap tothe'quality of the ?nishedproduct, In addi tion, the drawing operation employed in manu facturing. these. pans. Would-cause the production of wrinkles. on the inner surface of‘ the. pane These wrinkles. were. not only objectionable from the. point of View ofappearance of the panbut also causedstrong adherence. of the baked prod uct to. the panso that the‘ pie. or cake couldbe removed only with difficulty andwould break. or pearance'as those sold'inthep-ans.inwhich they 35 crumble duringremoval. Although various other were baked. Moreover, such transfer of the pie from one'receptacle into‘ another required a con siderable amountof labor. andhad. to be executed with great care. ‘ proposals and‘suggestions were made to solve the outstanding, problem and to. providethe art with a. completely satisfactory, simple,v attractive. and inexpensive, single-use baking pan,.none, as far Another suggestion for solvingthe outstanding 40 as I am aware, of these suggestions and proposals. problem involved the application of. baking uten~ was completely satisfactory and successful when sils‘ whichwhile su?iciently resistant to‘ heat to permit baking of the .pie or cake therein, were in expensive. enough to be used. only once. Such bakingpans or. trays ‘were ‘described,- forexample, in U. S. Patent 206,099 to Fisher. The Fisher baking pancomprises a compound sheet obtained by facing asheet of.’ paper. withla second sheet of thin,.soft andpliable material; such as a metallic foil; This. compound sheet was converted into a pamshaped- article by means. of suitable dies. carried into practice on a practical and commer cial scale. ‘ r . I have discovered a simple and completely sat isfactory solution of the outstanding problem; It is’ an object of the present invention to pro vide a method of making a single-use baking pan which eliminates the disadvantages and imper fections of prior products. It is another object of the present‘ invention to similar fluids constituting the product to be baked Without softening under their‘ action. even when provide a method of ‘making a baking‘ pan of novel and improved character which is constituted‘ of a fibrous» cellulosic. material and which isin all respectsequaf or superior to conventional metal highlyheated: The lining; or.- facing of; foil'pre-r 55. bakingpans. The dish. thus made-retained the fruit ?uids or ‘ ‘ 2,407,118 3 4 It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method of making a baking pan for hold said pleats together and to maintain the ?nished product in its desired shape. baking pies, cakes and similar bakery products which is integrally formed of a single sheet of Great variations are possible in the materials employed for making the baking pans of the in cellulosic material by means of folding opera vention. Generally speaking, most good quality tions. It is also within the contemplation of the in vention to provide a method of making a baking cellulosic boards such as virgin board, ground wood board, etc., are satisfactory and capable of resisting baking temperatures. In some cases it may be advisable to add small amounts of ?re or cooking utensil formed from sheet-like cellu proo?ng agents such as ?re clay, certain silicates losic material by means of folding operations and the like for further improving the heat re which is constituted of plane and smooth walls sistant properties of the cellulosic board. In ad at least on the inner surface thereof and is free from wrinkles and other detrimental irregulari dition, it is in most cases desirable to cover or to coat at least the inner surface of the pan with a ties of surface. The invention also contemplates a method of 15 suitable coating or laminating material in order making a baking utensil constituted of cellulosic to prevent direct contact between the article to be baked and the cellulosic body of the pan. Pre sheet material, laminated with metallic foil ferred materials for this purpose are especially which is extremely simple in structure, satisfac tory in operation and sufficiently low in cost to be aluminum foil as this is suggested in the Fisher discarded after a single use. patent, but also certain synthetic resins of a suf? ciently high melting point which may be applied Other and further objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the fol to such surface in the form of a layer or lamina lowing description taken in conjunction with the tion or in the form of a coating. Those skilled in accompanying drawing in which: the art of resins have no di?iculty in selecting Fig. 1 illustrates a plan view of a blank for 25 such coating or laminating materials keeping in forming a preferred embodiment of the cooking mind that such materials must have a melting point over 400° F., must not be injurious to health utensil of the invention; Fig.‘ 2 depicts a perspective view of the ?nished and. must not possess any objectionable odor. cooking or baking utensil; Examples of such materials are vinyl resins, cel Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on 30 lulose acetate, and the like. line 3--3 of Fig. 2, the thickness of the layers A similar coating or lamination of foil, etc., therein being greatly exaggerated for clarity of may be provided on the outer surface of the pan. illustration ; This may further improve the appearance of the Fig. 4 shows an enlarged and fragmentary per ?nished product although it is generally unneces spective view of the underside of one of the pleats 35 sary. Various adhesives, laminating agents and coating agents may be used as those skilled in the incorporated into the utensil of the invention; and art will readily understand. Obviously, the ad Fig. 5 is a plan view of fragmentary character hesive and the laminating agent must be of such of a portion of a blank forming a modi?ed em character as to be capable of resisting baking 40 temperatures and at present a large number of bodiment of the present invention. Broadly stated, according to the principles of such substances is available on the market. Referring now more particularly to the draw my invention, I completely abandon and discard all prior concepts and procedures heretofore em ing, a preferred embodiment of the invention ployed in the manufacture of single-use cellulosic will be described. baking pans. While all of these prior attempts _ Fig. 1 illustrates a blank constituted of a suit for the production of baking pans from cellulosic able cellulosic material such as cardboard of a generally circular shape and denoted by refer materials involved a close imitation of the curved ence character In. Blank I0 is provided with and circular shape of conventional metallic bak score lines H de?ning a hexagon-shaped area [2 ing pans, I have discovered that practically all of the difficulties encountered in the manufacture of 50 which subsequently is going to form the bottom pans of the described character may be elimi wall of the ?nished pan. Further score lines IS in parallel-spaced position with respect to score nated by dispensing with curved surfaces in the lines II are provided and de?ne together With pan. Thus, I have found that an integral and sheet-like blank of cardboard or pasteboard may score lines ll side walls 9 of the ?nished mm. It be converted into a satisfactory baking pan ex 55 will be noted in Fig. 1 that score lines 13 do not clusively by means of scoring and folding opera meet with each other but end at score lines l4 and I5 respectively forming a generally V-shaped tions. A regular polygonal shape has been found especially advantageous. Accordingly, a pre con?guration at each corner of bottom wall l2. The angle enclosed by score lines It and I5 de ferred embodiment of my invention comprises a bottom wall of polygonal shape, upwardly sloping 60 pends on the slope which is desired to be im parted to the ?nished pan. This angle is the side walls surrounding said bottom wall and a greater the greater the desired slope of the ?n marginal or top ?ange. I have discovered that ished pan. In addition to score lines [4 and I5, such polygon-shaped pans may be formed by radially disposed score lines “5 are provided in means of folding operations from an integral each V-shaped pair of score lines bisecting the sheet, such folding operations being greatly fa angle therebetween. cilitated by the previous provision of score lines After the blank has been properly scored in in suitable con?guration. This folding operation accordance with the arrangement shown in Fig. will cause the production of excess material in 1, it may be readily converted into the erected the corners of the polygonal side walls and this . form illustrated in Fig. 2. The necessary folding excess material may be taken up by means of operations may be accomplished by means of suitable pleats which at the same time Provide hand manipulations although, of course, in most additional reinforcement of the ?nished product. cases it will be preferred to employ suitable tools A suitable heat-resistant adhesive, staples, and or folding devices for obtaining the desired result. the like fastening elements may be employed to In fact, in some cases it is possible to dispense 2,407,118 6 with some or all of the score lines shown in Fig. 1 and to rely on suitable folding members or jaws the invention and a completely smooth and plane inner surface is assured which provides ideal con to fold the ma‘wrial into the desired position. ditions for baking and causes the production of One practical method which was found satisfac an attractive, tasty crust. tory included pinching the material of the blank It is also to be observed that the pan of the within the space de?ned by the divergent score invention is integrally formed from a single sheet lines Ill and I5 to bring lines l4 and [5 into of material by means of folding operations and closely adjacent position and to cause the pro without expensive moulding or pressure drawing duction of a fold or pleat which takes up the operations. As is known, folding, if properly excess material de?ned by said score lines. This 10 carried out, preserves the originally smooth sur pleat ll’ (Figs. 2 and 4) may then be folded into face of the material and avoids the danger of the plane of ?ange I8 which comprises the por the formation of detrimental wrinkles and other tions of the circular blank defined by score lines defects which were inseparable from prior single I3 and the terminal portions of score lines It use pans made by drawing processes. Thus, due and I5. It is preferred to bend the ?ange por 15 to the presence of completely smooth inner sur tions into a position in which they are substan faces the pie will not adhere to the inner surface of the pan but may be readily removed therefrom tially parallel with bottom wall I2. either integrally or by portions without injuring the delicate and flaky crust. 2, it may be permanently retained in shape by 20 Moreover, due to the polygonal shape of the means of suitable fastening elements I9. These baking pan of the invention, the ?nished bakery fastening elements may be in the simplest case product, pie or cake, may be readily cut into metallic staples bonding certain portions of the pieces or segments of uniform size. Furthermore, flanges or inserted in the pleats ll underneath it will be noted that the pan employing the inven the flange. The latter procedure is generally 25 tion is extremely simple‘ in structure and inex preferred since it prevents the possibility of con pensive to manufacture so that it may be dis After the blank has been shaped and folded into the desired polygonal form illustrated in Fig. tact of the baked product with the staple. It is also possible, however, to use a textile thread stitched around the circumference of the ?ange or a suitable adhesive capable of resisting baking 30 temperatures without deteriorating or softening. The physical appearance of pleats I‘! will be best observed in Fig. 4 which is an enlarged frag mentary view illustrating the underside of the carded after a single use. Thus, for the first time in the history of the art a completely satisfactory single-use baking utensil has been provided hav ing superior properties and permitting to bake, transport and to sell the bakery product, particu larly pies, in the same receptacle. Although the present invention has been de scribed in connection with a preferred embodi baking pan of the invention. As it has been 35 ment thereof, variations and modi?cations may be resorted to by those skilled in the art without pointed out in the foregoing, the sheet-like ma departing from the principles of the present in terial of the pan is preferably laminated with a vention. Thus, while a baking pan of hexagonal metallic ‘foil or the like as this is clearly shown shape has been illustrated, square, pentagonal, in Fig. 3. It will be observed that a metal foil, octagonal and similar regular or even irregular preferably aluminum, 20 is laminated or other shaped pans may be made. I consider all of these wise secured to cellulosic base 2|. A similar lam variations and modi?cations as within the true ination or its equivalent may be provided on the spirit and scope of my invention as disclosed in bottom surface of the pan. the foregoing description and de?ned by the ap Blank [0 has been described in the foregoing . as of a generally circular shape. In case the cir- - . pended claims. I claim: 1. The method of making shallow plates from cumference of the blank is a perfect circle, the formation of pleats l'I will slightly distort the circular shape. This may be compensated for, sheets which comprises providing an integral if desired, by providing corresponding protruding _ blank of sheet-like cellulosic blank, folding said portions in the regions of the blank which are . blank along a plurality of lines to form a hex subsequently forming the pleats. In most cases, however, the distortion is slight enough to be disregarded and does not require such corrective measures. Fig. 5 illustrates a portion of a modi?ed blank Illa which is in most respects similar to theone _ shown, in Fig. 1 and includes score lines H-—a, agonal ?at bottom panel, upwardly sloping side walls constituted of a plurality of plane side panels, and a circular ?at marginal flange having a hexagonal inner edge, and folding the excess material between said side panels into closed pleats whereby a plate having an inner surface constituted of plane surfaces is obtained. 2. The method of making shallow plates from l3-—a, l5-a and l6--a corresponding to score sheets which comprises providing an integral lines ll, [3, l5 and IS in Fig. 1. The difference resides in the omission of score lines M. This 60 blank of sheet-like ?brous cellulosic material having a generally circular shape, scoring said will cause but little change in the finished prod circular blank along a plurality of straight lines uct and will merely cause that the side wall. to de?ne a hexagonal bottom wall panel, a plu adjoining pleat I‘! from the side where score line l4 was omitted, will form a continuous and un 65 rality of side wall panels and triangular areas between adjoining side wall panels, and folding broken surface including the underside of the said scored blank to form a plate having a plane pleat (see Fig. 4). The result is a somewhat bottom wall surrounded by sloping plane side stronger and more rigid structure. walls terminating at the top thereof in a con It will be noted that the baking pan of the tinuous ?at circular marginal ?ange having a invention provides a number of important ad 70 hexagonal inner edge and having a closed pleat vantages. First of all, as a result of its polygonal in each corner of said side walls constituted of shape, both the bottom wall and all of the side said triangular areas. walls of more or less sloping character are com pletely plane surfaces. Thus, curved surfaces are completely absent from the novel structure of 75 HARRY F. WATERS.