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Патент USA US2407118

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Sept. .3, 1946.
I
.
'
H. F. WATERS '
2,407,118
METHOD OF MAKING SHALLQW BAKING PLATES OF CELLULOSE MATERIAL
Original Filed Aug‘. 15, 1940
"
BY
‘
,
INVéNTOR;
HERB)’ F.’ WATERS
a. 72011?“ ~
HTTORNEY‘
Patented Sept. 3, 1946
2,407,118
UNITED STATES: PATENT OFFICE
METHOD; OF‘MAKING SHAIZIJOW BAKING
PLATES‘OFCELLULOSE MATERIAL
Harry, FrWaters, New York, N. Y.
‘ Original? applicationAugust 15,‘ 1940; Serial‘ No.
352;67’9. Divi‘d'ellland this application-April 20',
1:9”;42‘,;.Serial No; 439,638
2.Cl'aims.. (01. 93-49.)
1..
2
The present invention. relates to a: method of
vented the: materials baked therein frornadher
ing' to the inner surface so. that this pan wasin
many respects- asreffectivelasra dish of metal.- A:
making ‘shallow- cooking‘ and bakingutensils and;
mone‘particul-arly, to-ai baking: pan of novel. and‘
improved character.
.
r
practically identical *b‘aking utensil; is disclosed. by
Stuart‘ in his Patents Nos. 2,027,296-andv2;170;O40
'
This application is: a‘ division of my; ‘ application.
Serial No‘; 352-,6?9,,?led-. August 151,. 1940:,- for Bak
ing utensil;
As- those. skilled» in ‘the art‘ know, heretofore
pans, dishes and similar-‘receptacles constituted
of metal were used for baking pies, cakes; and 1.0:
similar bakery products. Whenmanuf'acturing
and distributing pies; andother products of thev
describedcharacter- on a commercial scale; it was
customary tense the metal pans in which" the
pie or cake wasbakedlfor delivering-the'product
therein. Due .to thefact-that these metallic pans.
were rather. expensive, it‘. wastnecessary tow return
the. pans to the baker atterthe baked-productlwas
soldl Of. course, thisnecessitated returning a
large number of'heavy metal; trays-or pans to.- the
baker and cleaning“ and sterilizing. the, same. prior
to their repeatedjuse- which.v involved.inconven—
ience. and expense. ,It. was- already. suggestedito
employ pans or trays constituted-o:f=.pulp, card-v
board, or some other ?brous cellulosic. product
Which.is likewise produced from a foil-coated
cellulosic material by means of. pressure'drawingv
operations. While the baking pans of the Fisher
type could effectively resistrbaking: and-‘cocking
temperatures’ and were-inexpensive enough, great
difficulties were experienced in- manufacturing.
them'on: apractical. and-commercial scale. The
principal reason for these difficulties was thatthe
unavoidable; drawing operations employed; in
~; making. the pans or. dishes from ?at stock would
expose the material to substantial drawing and:
stretching stresses. This would break down the
structureof the material ‘andwas vparticularly in
jurious to‘ the extremely thintand- weakmetallic
‘ foil covering at» leastthe inner surface thereof.
The metallic foil would. break andv crack and
would cause discontinuities of the protective layer
between the pie and the paper pan through which.
the semi-liquidconstituents ofthe pie- could leak
i into-thepaper. Of wcoursepthisiwas detrimental
and to transfer thepie. or. cake from. the metal
pan in which. it.was baked .ontosuch. receptacles.
These paperor cardboard receptacles were gen
erally cheap enough to be discarded after aisingle '
use, However, transfer. of variouspies, particularly those containing fruit and. having a. rela
tively soft or fragile structure, involved di?i
cnlties, and the pie or other bakery product thus
transferred didnot. offer the. same. attractive ap
tothe'quality of the ?nishedproduct, In addi
tion, the drawing operation employed in manu
facturing. these. pans. Would-cause the production
of wrinkles. on the inner surface of‘ the. pane
These wrinkles. were. not only objectionable from
the. point of View ofappearance of the panbut
also causedstrong adherence. of the baked prod
uct to. the panso that the‘ pie. or cake couldbe
removed only with difficulty andwould break. or
pearance'as those sold'inthep-ans.inwhich they 35 crumble duringremoval. Although various other
were baked. Moreover, such transfer of the pie
from one'receptacle into‘ another required a con
siderable amountof labor. andhad. to be executed
with great care.
‘
proposals and‘suggestions were made to solve the
outstanding, problem and to. providethe art with
a. completely satisfactory, simple,v attractive. and
inexpensive, single-use baking pan,.none, as far
Another suggestion for solvingthe outstanding 40 as I am aware, of these suggestions and proposals.
problem involved the application of. baking uten~
was completely satisfactory and successful when
sils‘ whichwhile su?iciently resistant to‘ heat to
permit baking of the .pie or cake therein, were in
expensive. enough to be used. only once. Such
bakingpans or. trays ‘were ‘described,- forexample,
in U. S. Patent 206,099 to Fisher. The Fisher
baking pancomprises a compound sheet obtained
by facing asheet of.’ paper. withla second sheet of
thin,.soft andpliable material; such as a metallic
foil; This. compound sheet was converted into a
pamshaped- article by means. of suitable dies.
carried into practice on a practical and commer
cial scale.
‘
r
.
I have discovered a simple and completely sat
isfactory solution of the outstanding problem;
It is’ an object of the present invention to pro
vide a method of making a single-use baking pan
which eliminates the disadvantages and imper
fections of prior products.
It is another object of the present‘ invention to
similar fluids constituting the product to be baked
Without softening under their‘ action. even when
provide a method of ‘making a baking‘ pan of novel
and improved character which is constituted‘ of
a fibrous» cellulosic. material and which isin all
respectsequaf or superior to conventional metal
highlyheated: The lining; or.- facing of; foil'pre-r 55.
bakingpans.
The dish. thus made-retained the fruit ?uids or
‘
‘
2,407,118
3
4
It is a further object of the present invention
to provide a method of making a baking pan for
hold said pleats together and to maintain the
?nished product in its desired shape.
baking pies, cakes and similar bakery products
which is integrally formed of a single sheet of
Great variations are possible in the materials
employed for making the baking pans of the in
cellulosic material by means of folding opera
vention. Generally speaking, most good quality
tions.
It is also within the contemplation of the in
vention to provide a method of making a baking
cellulosic boards such as virgin board, ground
wood board, etc., are satisfactory and capable of
resisting baking temperatures. In some cases it
may be advisable to add small amounts of ?re
or cooking utensil formed from sheet-like cellu
proo?ng agents such as ?re clay, certain silicates
losic material by means of folding operations
and the like for further improving the heat re
which is constituted of plane and smooth walls
sistant properties of the cellulosic board. In ad
at least on the inner surface thereof and is free
from wrinkles and other detrimental irregulari
dition, it is in most cases desirable to cover or to
coat at least the inner surface of the pan with a
ties of surface.
The invention also contemplates a method of 15 suitable coating or laminating material in order
making a baking utensil constituted of cellulosic
to prevent direct contact between the article to
be baked and the cellulosic body of the pan. Pre
sheet material, laminated with metallic foil
ferred materials for this purpose are especially
which is extremely simple in structure, satisfac
tory in operation and sufficiently low in cost to be
aluminum foil as this is suggested in the Fisher
discarded after a single use.
patent, but also certain synthetic resins of a suf?
ciently high melting point which may be applied
Other and further objects and advantages of
the invention will become apparent from the fol
to such surface in the form of a layer or lamina
lowing description taken in conjunction with the
tion or in the form of a coating. Those skilled in
accompanying drawing in which:
the art of resins have no di?iculty in selecting
Fig. 1 illustrates a plan view of a blank for 25 such coating or laminating materials keeping in
forming a preferred embodiment of the cooking
mind that such materials must have a melting
point over 400° F., must not be injurious to health
utensil of the invention;
Fig.‘ 2 depicts a perspective view of the ?nished
and. must not possess any objectionable odor.
cooking or baking utensil;
Examples of such materials are vinyl resins, cel
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on 30 lulose acetate, and the like.
line 3--3 of Fig. 2, the thickness of the layers
A similar coating or lamination of foil, etc.,
therein being greatly exaggerated for clarity of
may be provided on the outer surface of the pan.
illustration ;
This may further improve the appearance of the
Fig. 4 shows an enlarged and fragmentary per
?nished product although it is generally unneces
spective view of the underside of one of the pleats 35 sary. Various adhesives, laminating agents and
coating agents may be used as those skilled in the
incorporated into the utensil of the invention;
and
art will readily understand. Obviously, the ad
Fig. 5 is a plan view of fragmentary character
hesive and the laminating agent must be of such
of a portion of a blank forming a modi?ed em
character as to be capable of resisting baking
40 temperatures and at present a large number of
bodiment of the present invention.
Broadly stated, according to the principles of
such substances is available on the market.
Referring now more particularly to the draw
my invention, I completely abandon and discard
all prior concepts and procedures heretofore em
ing, a preferred embodiment of the invention
ployed in the manufacture of single-use cellulosic
will be described.
baking pans. While all of these prior attempts
_ Fig. 1 illustrates a blank constituted of a suit
for the production of baking pans from cellulosic
able cellulosic material such as cardboard of a
generally circular shape and denoted by refer
materials involved a close imitation of the curved
ence character In. Blank I0 is provided with
and circular shape of conventional metallic bak
score lines H de?ning a hexagon-shaped area [2
ing pans, I have discovered that practically all of
the difficulties encountered in the manufacture of 50 which subsequently is going to form the bottom
pans of the described character may be elimi
wall of the ?nished pan. Further score lines IS
in parallel-spaced position with respect to score
nated by dispensing with curved surfaces in the
lines II are provided and de?ne together With
pan. Thus, I have found that an integral and
sheet-like blank of cardboard or pasteboard may
score lines ll side walls 9 of the ?nished mm. It
be converted into a satisfactory baking pan ex 55 will be noted in Fig. 1 that score lines 13 do not
clusively by means of scoring and folding opera
meet with each other but end at score lines l4
and I5 respectively forming a generally V-shaped
tions. A regular polygonal shape has been found
especially advantageous. Accordingly, a pre
con?guration at each corner of bottom wall l2.
The angle enclosed by score lines It and I5 de
ferred embodiment of my invention comprises a
bottom wall of polygonal shape, upwardly sloping 60 pends on the slope which is desired to be im
parted to the ?nished pan. This angle is the
side walls surrounding said bottom wall and a
greater the greater the desired slope of the ?n
marginal or top ?ange. I have discovered that
ished pan. In addition to score lines [4 and I5,
such polygon-shaped pans may be formed by
radially disposed score lines “5 are provided in
means of folding operations from an integral
each V-shaped pair of score lines bisecting the
sheet, such folding operations being greatly fa
angle therebetween.
cilitated by the previous provision of score lines
After the blank has been properly scored in
in suitable con?guration. This folding operation
accordance with the arrangement shown in Fig.
will cause the production of excess material in
1, it may be readily converted into the erected
the corners of the polygonal side walls and this .
form illustrated in Fig. 2. The necessary folding
excess material may be taken up by means of
operations may be accomplished by means of
suitable pleats which at the same time Provide
hand manipulations although, of course, in most
additional reinforcement of the ?nished product.
cases it will be preferred to employ suitable tools
A suitable heat-resistant adhesive, staples, and
or folding devices for obtaining the desired result.
the like fastening elements may be employed to
In fact, in some cases it is possible to dispense
2,407,118
6
with some or all of the score lines shown in Fig. 1
and to rely on suitable folding members or jaws
the invention and a completely smooth and plane
inner surface is assured which provides ideal con
to fold the ma‘wrial into the desired position.
ditions for baking and causes the production of
One practical method which was found satisfac
an attractive, tasty crust.
tory included pinching the material of the blank
It is also to be observed that the pan of the
within the space de?ned by the divergent score
invention is integrally formed from a single sheet
lines Ill and I5 to bring lines l4 and [5 into
of material by means of folding operations and
closely adjacent position and to cause the pro
without expensive moulding or pressure drawing
duction of a fold or pleat which takes up the
operations. As is known, folding, if properly
excess material de?ned by said score lines. This 10 carried out, preserves the originally smooth sur
pleat ll’ (Figs. 2 and 4) may then be folded into
face of the material and avoids the danger of
the plane of ?ange I8 which comprises the por
the formation of detrimental wrinkles and other
tions of the circular blank defined by score lines
defects which were inseparable from prior single
I3 and the terminal portions of score lines It
use pans made by drawing processes. Thus, due
and I5. It is preferred to bend the ?ange por 15 to the presence of completely smooth inner sur
tions into a position in which they are substan
faces the pie will not adhere to the inner surface
of the pan but may be readily removed therefrom
tially parallel with bottom wall I2.
either integrally or by portions without injuring
the delicate and flaky crust.
2, it may be permanently retained in shape by 20 Moreover, due to the polygonal shape of the
means of suitable fastening elements I9. These
baking pan of the invention, the ?nished bakery
fastening elements may be in the simplest case
product, pie or cake, may be readily cut into
metallic staples bonding certain portions of the
pieces or segments of uniform size. Furthermore,
flanges or inserted in the pleats ll underneath
it will be noted that the pan employing the inven
the flange. The latter procedure is generally 25 tion is extremely simple‘ in structure and inex
preferred since it prevents the possibility of con
pensive to manufacture so that it may be dis
After the blank has been shaped and folded
into the desired polygonal form illustrated in Fig.
tact of the baked product with the staple. It
is also possible, however, to use a textile thread
stitched around the circumference of the ?ange
or a suitable adhesive capable of resisting baking 30
temperatures without deteriorating or softening.
The physical appearance of pleats I‘! will be
best observed in Fig. 4 which is an enlarged frag
mentary view illustrating the underside of the
carded after a single use. Thus, for the first time
in the history of the art a completely satisfactory
single-use baking utensil has been provided hav
ing superior properties and permitting to bake,
transport and to sell the bakery product, particu
larly pies, in the same receptacle.
Although the present invention has been de
scribed in connection with a preferred embodi
baking pan of the invention. As it has been 35 ment thereof, variations and modi?cations may
be resorted to by those skilled in the art without
pointed out in the foregoing, the sheet-like ma
departing from the principles of the present in
terial of the pan is preferably laminated with a
vention. Thus, while a baking pan of hexagonal
metallic ‘foil or the like as this is clearly shown
shape has been illustrated, square, pentagonal,
in Fig. 3. It will be observed that a metal foil,
octagonal and similar regular or even irregular
preferably aluminum, 20 is laminated or other
shaped pans may be made. I consider all of these
wise secured to cellulosic base 2|. A similar lam
variations and modi?cations as within the true
ination or its equivalent may be provided on the
spirit and scope of my invention as disclosed in
bottom surface of the pan.
the foregoing description and de?ned by the ap
Blank [0 has been described in the foregoing .
as of a generally circular shape.
In case the cir- -
. pended claims.
I claim:
1. The method of making shallow plates from
cumference of the blank is a perfect circle, the
formation of pleats l'I will slightly distort the
circular shape. This may be compensated for,
sheets which comprises providing an integral
if desired, by providing corresponding protruding
_ blank of sheet-like cellulosic blank, folding said
portions in the regions of the blank which are
. blank along a plurality of lines to form a hex
subsequently forming the pleats. In most cases,
however, the distortion is slight enough to be
disregarded and does not require such corrective
measures.
Fig. 5 illustrates a portion of a modi?ed blank
Illa which is in most respects similar to theone _
shown, in Fig. 1 and includes score lines H-—a,
agonal ?at bottom panel, upwardly sloping side
walls constituted of a plurality of plane side
panels, and a circular ?at marginal flange having
a hexagonal inner edge, and folding the excess
material between said side panels into closed
pleats whereby a plate having an inner surface
constituted of plane surfaces is obtained.
2. The method of making shallow plates from
l3-—a, l5-a and l6--a corresponding to score
sheets which comprises providing an integral
lines ll, [3, l5 and IS in Fig. 1. The difference
resides in the omission of score lines M. This 60 blank of sheet-like ?brous cellulosic material
having a generally circular shape, scoring said
will cause but little change in the finished prod
circular blank along a plurality of straight lines
uct and will merely cause that the side wall.
to de?ne a hexagonal bottom wall panel, a plu
adjoining pleat I‘! from the side where score line
l4 was omitted, will form a continuous and un 65 rality of side wall panels and triangular areas
between adjoining side wall panels, and folding
broken surface including the underside of the
said
scored blank to form a plate having a plane
pleat (see Fig. 4). The result is a somewhat
bottom wall surrounded by sloping plane side
stronger and more rigid structure.
walls terminating at the top thereof in a con
It will be noted that the baking pan of the
tinuous ?at circular marginal ?ange having a
invention provides a number of important ad 70 hexagonal inner edge and having a closed pleat
vantages. First of all, as a result of its polygonal
in each corner of said side walls constituted of
shape, both the bottom wall and all of the side
said triangular areas.
walls of more or less sloping character are com
pletely plane surfaces. Thus, curved surfaces are
completely absent from the novel structure of 75
HARRY F. WATERS.
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