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Патент USA US2407134

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sePt- 3, 1946.
j
E. CHANDLER
2,407,134
ENGINE SIGNAL APPARATUS
"
ÍF'íledßug. lll, 1945
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INVENTOR.
MIEVONECHANDLER .
AGE NT
Sept. 3, 19,46. »
M. E'. CHANDLER
ENGINE "SIGNAL APPARATUS
Filed Aug. 1l, 1943
»
2,407,134
`
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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` AGENT
' sept. 3, 1946.
_
M_ E, CHANDLER '
2,407,134
ENGINE SIGNAL APPARATUS
Filed Aug. 11, 1945
1,72
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5 sheets-sheet :s
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AGENT
Patented Sept. 3, 1946
2,407,134
» nuire-n` STATES Ilr'lri'i‘lëz'N"1"" OFFICE
to Chandler-Evans Corporation, `South Mer
iden, Conn., a corporation of Delaware
Application A_ug‘ust 11, 1943", serial No. 498,138'
(ci. 17T-311)
The present invention relates to safety signal"
apparatus for use on aircraft, and particularly to
signal apparatus for indicating to the pilot of
an> aircraft that the mixture of fuel and air being
supplied to an engine of the aircraft is~ of im
proper proportions.`
-
2
or not the mixture control lever is in the proper ‘
position for the existing ñight conditions.
Another object of the present invention is to
provide a signal system responsive to the attitude
of an aircraft and to the position of a carburetor
mixture" control lever, nfor indicating to the pilot
.
On most modern aircraft, a control lever is pro'
vided «by which the `pilot may determine Whether
the carburetor is to supply the engine with a rich
when the mixture control lever is in the wrong
position for the flight of the aircraft in its exist
ing'. attitude.
„
Another object is to provide asignal system
fuel and air mixture, or a lean mixture. It is de
sirablefor reasons of economy’ to operate with a
responsive to the rate of climb of an aircraft and
lean“ mixture under most flight conditions. How
ever, if the engine is operated with a lean mix-`ture under conditions of high power requirements,
it may overheat. Furthermore, it may not pro'
duce the required power. Therefore a control
lever is provided by whichthe pilot may cause the
engine to be supplied with a rich mixture under
such conditions as take off or climbing', while he
to the position of a carburetor mixture control
lever, for indicating to the pilot when the mixture
control lever is in the wrongposition for the flight
of the aircraft at its existing rate of climb.
Another object of the present invention is to
provide a signal system responsiveto the position
of an aircraft carburetor mixture control lever
and tov the altitude of the aircraft for indicating
may select a‘lean mixture for normal or cruising 210 to the pilot when the mixture control lever is in
an improper position for operation of the aircraft
at th'e particular altitude at which it is flying.
A further object is to provide, in a carburetor
the lever is usually moved to the'rich position for ,
equipped with altitude compensating means, an
take olf, it maybe left at that position for a con 26 arrangement .for utilizing that altitude compen
sating means >in a signal system of the type de
siderable time after the plane has reached its
cruising altitude. This results in excessive fuel
scribed.
Y
consumption, and may result in .the plane’s fuel
Other cbjects` and advantages of the present
supply running low before its destination isV
invention willbecome apparent from a considera
reached, with consequent necessity of a forced 30 tion of .the appended specification, claims, and
drawings in which
landing. Where a landv plane is operated over
water, for example, the plane and all its occu-` Y
Figure 1 represents, somewhat diagrammati
pants may be lost merely because the pilot forgot
cally, an aircraft carburetor provided with a sig
to restore the mixture control lever to the lean
nal system built in accordance with the principles
position for cruising operation.
,
of my invention,
Figurez illustrates an improved switching de
On the other hand, if the pilot' allows the lever
to remain in the lean position when it should
vice which may be used in the system of Figure 1,
be moved to the rich position; theengine may not
Figures 3 and >4 are electrical wiring diagrams
produce suilicient power to take olf, climb, or p‘er
40 showing the circuits of Figures 1 and 2, respec
form some other desired maneuver.
flight.
.
It has been found that pilots sometimes forget
to operate this lever at the proper time. Since
and
It is well known that an engine’runs vccole'i` witha rich fuel and airl mixture' than with aleanmix-
ture. At high altitudes, thenorrnal cooling ap’-y
paratus of an engine does not'fun'ction as wellfaes
at lower altitudes>` because `of the" lower density
and lower specific thermal capacity of the air.
Consequently, aircraft engines are usually oper
ated with a rich mixture at` high altitudes so las
to provide‘a cooler operating temperature for the
engine.
,
,4
`
_Y
1
,
l
It is therefore an object of the presentinvem
tion tov provide. a signal system _for use> with an
aircraft carburetor havinga mixture controller
,
, .
tively.
,
I
,
In Figure 1, there is shown a carburetor body
portion I0 thru which air flows from an inlet .II
thru` a passage I 2. to an outlet I3. In iiowing
thru the passage I2, the air passes a Venturi re
strictionM, a throttle I5, and a fuel discharge
nozzle
I6.Y
,
,
„
`A second air passage connects the inlet II and
the. throat `of the Venturi restriction I4. This
50 second air passage may be traced from the inlet
I I thru a plurality of impact tubes I‘I, whose open
ends project into the inlet I I, a vent ring passage
I8 interconnecting the impact tubes I'I, a conduit
20, an expansible lchamber 2| in a fuel regulator
ver, which systemindicates to the pilot whether` 55 unit 22, a restriction 23, an expansible chamber
2,407,134
3
2d in the regulator unit 22, a conduit 25, an ex
pansible chamber 25 in an altitude responsive
switch unit generally indicated at 21, a conduit
28, a chamber 30, and a conduit 3i to the throat
of Venturi restriction Ui.
A bellows 32 is mounted in the chamber 3%, and
4.
is in the position shown in the drawing, both out
let ports are open, and the mixture control is said
to be in its rich position. When the mixture con
trol is in the dotted line position shown in the
drawing, wherein the port 55 is closed but the
port 51 is open, the mixture control is said to be
in its lean position. When both the ports 56 and
operates a valve 33 which controls the now of air
from the passage 23 into the chamber 3i). The
51 are cut oif by the disc valve 58, the mixture
bellows 32 is preferably filled with nitrogen or
control is in its cut-off position.
Fuel flowing thru the conduit B2 passes thru a
other inert temperature responsive fluid, so that 10
the position of valve 3;’ is determined by the tem
’ 'fixed restriction or jet 63 in the jet system 31 to
perature and pressure of the air in the chamber
the conduit 38. Fuel flowing thru the conduit 6l
33, and hence by the density of that air.
' passes thru a Fixed restriction 64 and a second
The valve 33 restricts the flow of air thru the
fixed restriction 65 to the conduit 3B. Fuel en
second passage just described in such a manner
tering the jet system 31 thru the conduit 62 may
that the pressure differential between chambers ' also flow thru a restricted passage 66 to the up
2i and 2@ is an accurate measure of the mass of
stream side of the restriction 65. The passage 66
air flowing thru the passage i2. Errors due to
is normally closed by a spring loaded valve 61,
changes in the density of the air with altitude and ' which is adapted to open when the pressure dif
temperature, and also those errors due to the in
ferential across it exceeds a predetermined value.
herent limitations of a metering restriction of the
By the operation of the valve S1, the fuel and air
Venturi type, are substantially eliminated by the
mixture supplied to the engine is automatically
operation of valve 33. This type of metering
enriched when the power requirements of the en
error compensation is more completely described
gine are high. An idle valve B9, which may be
and claimed in my co-pending application Serial 25 operated thru linkage not shown, in accordance
No. 490,281, filed June 10,1943, now Patent No.
with changes in throttle position, is provided to
2,393,144, issued January 15, 1946.
control the fuel now when the engine is idling.
The fuel passing thru the carburetor comes
Under such conditions, the air flow is so small
from a fuel pump or other source of fuel under
that the controlling effect of the pressure differ
pressure (not shown). From this source, the fuel 30 ential between chambers 2| and 24 is overcome
passes thru a conduit 3A, a fuel regulator unit 22,
by spring 5|, which moves valve 50 toward open
a conduit S5, a mixture control valve 35, a jet
position. vIn effect, at low air flows, control of
system 31, a conduit 38, a pressure regulator valve
the fuel ñow is transferred from the air flow re
di), and a conduit 4l to the discharge nozzle l 6.
sponsive regulator unit 22 to the throttle oper
The fuel regulator unit 22 comprises a housing 35 ated idle valve 59. This is done because at small
42, which is divided by three flexible diaphragms
air flows. the regulating effect of the air now rc
43, 4d and ¿i5 into four expansible chambers e6,
sponsive regulator unit is unstable.
2l, 2d and il?. The diaphragms t3.. 4G and 45
The pressure regulator unit 40 includes a cas
are interconnected by a valve stem ‘18, which car
ing 1B divided by a diaphragm 'H into a pair of
ries a balanced valvemember 5i) at its lower end. 40 expansible chambers 12 and 53. The diaphragm
A compression spring 5l biases the stem 48 for
1l carries a valve 13 which controls the flow of
movement of the valve 5i! toward open position.
fuel between the chamber 53 and the conduit 4| _
- The pressure in chamber ¿l1 is substantially
A conduit 14 connects the chamber 12 with the
equal to the pressure existing on the upstream
conduit 20, and thru conduit ZB, vent ringr I8 and
side of the jet system 3l’. Chamber 136 is con
the impact tubes l1 to the air inlet l I. The con
nected thru a conduit 52 to an expansible cham
duit'M is provided as a vent for the chamber 12
ber 53 in the pressure regulator 4G. Therefore
to permit easy movement of the diaphragm 1|.
the pressure in chamber ¿i6 is substantially equal
A spring 15 biases the valve 13 for movement
to that existing on the downstream side of the
toward open position. The pressure in chamber
jet system 31. rEhe differential between these 50 12 is low compared to the pressure in chamber 53
pressures is a measure of the quantity of fuel flow
and the force of the spring 15, so that the pres
ing thru the carburetor. This pressure differen
sure in chamber 12 has substantially no control
tial is transmitted to the chambers lll and ¿15, as
ling effect on the position of valve 13. The valve
described above, where it acts on the valve 5i) in
13 therefore functions primarily as a pressure reg
a closing direction. As previously pointed out, 55 ulator to maintain a substantially constant pres
the pressure differential between chambers 2l and
sure on the discharge side of the jet system 31.
2&1 is a measure of the mass of air ilowing thru
From the foregoing, it will be seen that when
the passage i2, and acts on the valve 50 in an
the mixture control is in the rich position shown
opening direction. Therefore, the valve 5U is op
in full lines in the drawings, fuel is supplied to
erated to proportion the quantity of fuel flowing 60 both restrictions 63 and B4. On the other hand,
thru the carburetor in accordance with the mass
when the mixture control is in the lean position
of air passing thru the passage I2.
shown in dotted lines in the drawings, fuel is sup
The mixture control valve 35 includes a casing
plied only thru the restriction 63. In either posi
54 forming a generally cylindrical chamber hav
tion of the mixture control, the valve 61 may open
ing an inlet port 55 and outlet ports 56 and 51' 65 when the power requirements of the engine are
entering one end of the chamber. A disc valve
high to further enrich the fuel and air mixture.
58 is fixed in a shaft 6i] which passes axially thru
Signal system
the chamber. The inlet port 55 is connected to
the conduit 35. The outlet port 56 is connected
A switch arm 80 is attached to the shaft 6U
by a conduit 6| to the jet system 31, and the outlet
and insulatingly carries at its end a movable con
por 51 is connected by a conduit -62 to the jet sys
tact 19 which cooperates with a pair of station
tem t1. The shaft Si! may be rotated by a man
ary contacts 3l and 82. When the mixture con
ual control (not shown) so that the disc valve 58
trol is in the rich position, the contact 19 engages
is moved to cover the outlet port 56, or both the
contact 82. When the mixture control is in the
lean position the contact 19 engages contact 8|.
outlet ports 55 and 51. When the mixture control
5
6
A gravity responsive switch mechanism is
shown at 83. In this mechanism, a pendulum 84
mediateìaltitude,..the .power requirements of the
enginearewsuch that the engine Amay. ‘operate
is provided with a pair `of movable contacts 85 and
. with1eitherza rich or lean mixture. `If the` air
86 which cooperate. respectively with stationary
ranged that contact 85 engages contact 8l' when
craft. now'decreases its altitude, contact, 93 is
moved into engagement with stationary contacts
99 and 96, thereby completing an energizing cir
ever the aircraft is in level ilight or diving, while
the contact 8S engages contact 88 whenever the
cuitI for signal |03. This circuit may be traced
from the upper terminal of a battery |04 thru
contacts 81 and 88.
The pendulum 84 is so ar
aircraft is climbing. » While a gravity responsive
a- ‘conductor |65, pendulum 84, contacts 85 and
switch is illustrated, it will be readily understood 10 S1, >conductor |06, contacts 96, 93 and95, a con
that this may be replaced by a gyroscope or other
ductorv lill, signal |03, contact 82, contact 19
‘and a conductor |08 `to the lower terminal `of
ì battery |64. Energization of signal |03 informs
the
device
attitude
whichofoperates
the aircraft.
a switch in accordance
`
The altitude responsive switch 21 includes a
the pilot that the mixture control should be
casing 90 divided by a ñexible diaphragm 9| into .15 moved to itsylean position. As soon as itis so
a pair of expansible chambers 26 and 92. The
moved, the energizing circuit for signal |03' is
central portion of diaphragm 9| insulatingly car
opened >by -movement of contact 19 away from
ries bridging contacts 93 and 94 on its opposite
contact 82.
. ‘
sides. The bridging contact 93 is adapted to en
lf, when the ‘mixture control is in the lean
gage and electrically connect a pair of stationary 20 position, the aircraft starts to climb, the pendu
contacts 95 and 96, and the bridging contacter@ is
lum 9d moves-contact 86 into engagement with
adapted to electrically connect a pair of station
contact 9B. This completes anv energizing circuit
ary contacts 91 and 98. A compression spring |69
for signal §92, which may be traced from the
biases the diaphragm 9| for movement to the left.
upper tc‘rminalpf -battery |04 thru conductor
The chamber 92 is connected thru a conduit lili 25
pendulum gli, contacts 86 and 88, conduc
to the chamber 30. As previously described, the
tors iâil‘and SH, signal |82, contact 8|, switch
chamber 26 is connected thru conduit 28 and valve
Contact 'lâ and conductor |08 to the lower ter
minal of battery |04.
i
33 to chamber 38. Therefore the pressure dif
ferential between the chambers 26 and 92 is the
If the altitude of the aircraft is above a pre
same `as that existing across the valve 33. Since 30 determined value, bridging contact' 9d engages
the valve 33 is operated by the bellows 32 toward
stationary contacts9l’ and 98, thereby complet
closed position with increasing altitude, it may
ing an energizing circuit for signal |02 which
be seen that the pressure differential between ' may be traced from the upper terminal of battery
chambers 26 and 92 is in a direction to move dia
|84 thru conductors |95 and |l2, contacts 91, 94
phragm 9| to the rightl and that this differential 35 and
conductors H3, and |||, signal |92, con
increases with increasing altitude. The effect of
tact 8|, switch contact 19, and conductor |98 to
the altitude responsive switchunit 21 is to move
the ’lower terminal of battery |04.
the bridging contact 93 into engagement with
From
foregoing, it should be apparent that
contacts 95 and 96 whenever the aircraft is oper
whenever either of the signals |02 and '|03 is en
ated below a ñrst predetermined altitude, and to -f ergized, it remains energized until the mixture
move the bridging contact 94 into engagement
control is moved to the position whose necessity
with contacts 91 and 98 whenever the aircraft is
is indicated by the signal, and that upon such
operating above a second predetermined altitude._
movement of the mixture control the switch
The switch unit 21 also responds to air flow, i e.,
arm 90 breaks the circuit to the signal so that it
to the quantity of air flowing thru the passage 45 is no longer energized.
l2. When the air flow increases, the pressure
Figure 2
differential across valve 33 increases, for a given
setting of that valve. Therefore it may be seen
There is shown in Figure 2 a switch mecha
that, for any given altitude, the switch unit 21
nism whereby a signal system of the type shown
closes its contacts at some particular value of air 50 vin Figure l may be operated in accordance with
iiow,- depending on the characteristics of spring
the rate of climb` of an aircraft and in accord
|90. Furthermore, the particular air flow at
ance with the quantity of air entering the car
which theswitc‘n unit 21 closes its contacts de
buretor. The switch mechanism of Figure 2 may
pends upon and varies with altitude. Altitude
be substituted for the switch 93 of Figure 1. It is
and airflow act cumulatively in the switch unit 55 desirable to have the carburetor mixture control
21. That is, increase in altitude, which signifies
in its rich position when the aircraft is climbing
the need for a richer fuel and air mixture, acts
in order` that the engine may operate under the
in the same direction as an increase in air flow,
best conditions for producing maximum power
which likewise signifies the need for a richer
without overheating. It has been found that an
fuel and air mixture.
_
The altitude responsive switch unit 21 and the
gravity responsive switch unit 33, together with
60 engine runs cooler for a given power output when
it is supplied with a rich mixture than when it
is supplied with a lean mixture. Also, the quan
the switch contact 19 associated' with the mix
tity of air entering the carburetor serves as an
ture control 36, control .the energization of a pair
indication of the amount of power required at
of signals |02 and |93. As indicated schemati 65 any given time. When the air ñow is high, the
cally in the drawing, the signals |02 and |03
amount of power developed is high. Under such
may be electrically illuminated signals provided
with the legends “Go to rich” and “Go to lean”
respectively.
`
a
‘
‘
,
,
When vthe various switch units are in the posi
tions showm in the drawings, the .mixture control
is in the >rich position and the aircraft is oper
ating in level flight, and above the altitude at
which bridging contact 93 àengages the station
aryz‘c‘ontactstr95 tand'il'á.a . .- At this. particulaninters 75
conditions,v the engine should be operated with
a rich.J mixture to prevent overheating> of the
engine.
,
Referring now to Figure 2, there is shown a
generally cylindrical casing |25 suitably attached
to ai‘base |126. Inside the casing there is mount
ed on the base |26 a bellowsw|21. A spring |28
is compressed between the .bellows ‘|21 >andthe
>base 1.2.6.». .A pairfof giudeamembersllßß' andiv |31
2,407,134
7
.
project from the base |26 and maintain the
spring |28 in proper alignment, The exterior of
bellows |21 is exposed to atmospheric pressure
thru suitable openings |29 in the casing |25. A
8
tact |54 is attached to a leaf spring |55 which
extends inwardly from the outer edge of casing
|25. The inner end of leaf spring |55 carries a
roller |56 having a surface of electrically insulat
ing material. Stationary contact |53 is carried
by another leaf spring |49 which extends sub
stantially parallel to spring |55.
Similarly, the switch |52 includes a stationary
contact |51 and a movable contact |58. The
passage. |32 extends horizontally from the space
adjacent the exterior of bellows |21 to a vertical
passage |33 which extends upwardly through the
base |26 and is concentric with bellows |21. An
elongated nozzle |34 connects the passage |33
with the interior of bellows |21. The passage 10 movable contact |58 is mounted on a leaf spring
|66 which extends inwardly from the outer edge
thru nozzle |34 is of a very narrow cross-section,
of the casing |55 opposite the switch | 5| and car
and restricts the flow of air between the exterior
ries at its inner end a roller |6I, having a sur
and interior of bellows | 21.
face of electrically insulating material. Station
As long as the aircraft is operated at a constant
altitude, theY pressures inside and outside the 15 ary contact |51 is carried by a leaf spring |59
which extends parallel to spring |60.
bellows |21 are equal. As the aircraft changes its
A mixture control shaft |62 is positioned above
altitude, as by climbing for example, the pres
the rollers |56 and | 6|, and carries a mixture
sure outside the bellows decreases due to the in
control lever |63 having a downwardly extending
crease in altitude. » This change in pressure is not
immediately communicated to the interior of bel 20 cam portion |64 adapted to engage the rollers |56
and |6|, depending upon the angular position of
lows |21 because of the restriction in nozzle |34.
the lever |63.
Therefore, the bellows |21 tends to expand, The
The leaf springs |55 and |66 are self-biased so
force acting to expand the bellows is proportional
that the contacts |54 and |58 tend to engage the
to the rate of change of the altitude of the air
craft, and the free end of the bellows |21 is posi 25 stationary contacts |53 and |51, respectively.
The mixture control lever |63 is shown in full
tioned in accordance with the rate of change
lines in its lean position, wherein the contact
of the altitude of the aircraft.
|58 is separated from contact |51. When the
There is mounted on the upper or free end of
mixture control lever |63 is in its rich position,
the bellows |21 a rod |35. The rod |35 extends
shown in dotted lines in the drawings, the contact
thru a bushing |36 mounted in a transverse wall
|54 is separated from contact |53.
|‘4I of the housing | 25. There is mounted on the
upper end of rod |35 a movable switch contact
Operation of Figure 2
|31, which cooperates with a pair of stationary
When
the
mixture
control lever |63 is in the
contacts |38 and |46.
Above the wall |4I, the interior of the casing 35 position shown in full lines in the drawings, the
carburetor supplies the engine Iwith a lean mix
|25 is hollow and is divided into two expansible
ture. If the pilot then starts to climb without
chambers |45 and |46 by a flexible diaphragm
moving the mixture control lever to the rich posi
|42; The diaphragm |42 carries at its center a
tion, the expansion of bellows |21 causes contact
bushing |43 thru which the rod |35 passes. A
|31 to move upwardly into engagement with con
spring |44 is held in compression between an in
tact |38. This completes an energizing circuit
ternal shoulder on the housing |25 and the dia
for a signal |65 which is schematically illustrated
phragm |42. The »spring |44 biases the dia
as an illuminated signal bearing a suitable legend
phragm |42 downwardly.
indicating that the mixture control lever |63
v The chamber |45 under the diaphragm |42 is
should be moved to its rich position. This en
connected thru a passage |41 to the conduit 26
ergizing circuit may be traced from the upper
of Figure 1. The chamber |46 above the dia
terminal of a battery |66 thru a conductor |61,
phragm |42 is connected thru a passage |48 to the
signal |55, a conductor |68, a multiple plug con
conduit 25 of Figure 1. Therefore, as explained
nector |16, a. conductor |1|, leaf spring |48, con
in connection with Figure l, a pressure differ
ential exists between chambers |45 and |46 which 50 tact |53, contact |54, leaf spring |55, a conductor
is proportional to the quantity of air entering the
|12, contact |38, contact |31, rod |35, bushing |36,
carburetor.
The rod |35 slides freely thru the bushing |43.
housing |25, a binding post |13, a conductor |14,
connector |10, a conductor |15, and ground con
nections |16 and |11 to the lower terminal of bat
A spacer |50 is fixed on the rod |35 just under the
tery |66. As soon as the pilot moves the lever |63
contact |31. The lower surface of spacer |50 co
operates with the upper surface of bushing |43.
from the lean position to the rich position in ac
The spring |44 is chosen so that these surfaces
cordance with the indication of the signal |65,
are in engagement for all normal flight condi
the energization of signal |65 is discontinued by
tions encountered when the air entering the car
the separation of contacts |53 and |54. This
buretor is greater than under idling conditions. 60 separation takes place by virtue cfv the move
ment of cam |64 into engagement with roller |56.
Therefore, the contact |31 is positioned in accord
It will be apparent that the same energizing
ance with the sum of two forces, one whose mag
circuit for signal |65 will be completed whenever
nitude indicates the rate of change of altitude of
the quantity of air entering the carburetor ex
the aircraft, and another whose magnitude indi
cates the quantity of air entering the en'gine, and 65 ceeds the value required to cause diaphragm |42
to lift rod |35 sufficiently to cause engagement
hence the power produced by the engine. Both of
of contacts |31 and |38.
these forces act upwardly when the conditions to
When the mixture control lever |63 is in its
which they respond change in a direction indic
dotted line, or rich position, a signal |86 is ener
ative of the need for a richer fuel and air mix
ture, and downwardly when the conditions indi 70 gized whenever the quantity of air iiowing thru
the carburetor falls below a predetermined value,
cate the need for a leaner fuel and air mixture.
and the rate of change of altitude of the aircraft
Mounted 0n the top of the casing |25 are a pair
falls below ar predetermined value. The oc
of switches generally indicated at |5| and |52.
currence of these two conditions causes a down
The switch |5| includes a stationary contact |53
anda movable contact |54. The movable con 75 Ward'movement of rod |35, thereby carrying con
2,407,134
10
tact I3l into engagement with MS'. This `com
pletes the energizing circuit for signal ieri, which
means being in' a ñrst circuit-closing position
when said aircraft is level or diving and moved
to a> second circuit-closing position when said air~
craft is climbing, first electrical signal means for
indicating that said manually operable control
means should be moved to said second position,
a first electrical circuit for energizing said first
signal means and including said ñrst, second, and
third switch means in series, said first circuit
being ‘closed when all of said first, second, and
third switch means are in their first circuit
may be traced from the upper terminal. of battery
lee thru conductor it?, signal» ISB, a conductor
ISI, connector Iläi, a conductor |32, leaf spring
conductor`
lâìrcontactlâì‘contact
l5?, contact
543,§56,
contact
leaf spring
IS?, rodEdil,£35,
bushing litt, casing
binding post
con»
duct-or ile, connector iii, conductor H5, `and
ground connections llt and »I‘i'i to the lower ter«
minal of battery liiii. ‘When the mixture control
lever H53 is moved to its lean position in response
to such a signal, the signal- i3d is cle-energized
by the |separation of contacts
and £58.
If preferred, audible or other sensible signals
may be used in place of the illuminated signals
illustrated.
closing positions, secondelectrical signal means
for indicating that said manually operable con
trol means should be moved to said first position,
and a second electrical circuit for energizing said
second signal means and including said ñrst
switch means in series with said second and
_
While Ihave shown and describedL a preferred
embodiment of my invention; other modifica
tions thereof will occur to those skilled in the art,
and I therefore intend my invention to be limited
only by the appended claims.` '
Iclaim as my invention: f
-
third switch means in parallel, said second circuit -
being closed when said first switch means and
nl
ne
‘
`
l. Signal apparatus, comprising in combina
tion, a carburetor for an internal combustion en- A
either said second or third switch means are in
their second circuit-closing positions.
3. Signal apparatus, comprising in >combina
tion, a carburetor for an internal combustion en
gine on an aircraft, means in said carburetor for
proportioning the quantity of fuel supplied to
the engine in accordance with the quantity of
means associated with said carburetor and mov«
air flowing‘thru said carburetor, altitude respon
able between a first position wherein said car-n
sive means associated with said carburetor for
buretor supplies said engine with a rich fuel and
compensating the action of said proportioning
air mixture and a second position wherein said so means, manually operable' control means associ
carburetor supplies said engine with a lean fuel
ated with said carburetor and movable'between `a
and air mixture, first double~throw switch means
nrst position wherein said carburetor suppliesV
associated with said control means and moved to
said engine with a rich fuel and air mixture andfirst and second circuit-closing positions when
a second position wherein said carburetor sup
said control means is moved to its first and sec
plies said engine with a lean fuel and air mix
ond positions, respectively, second double-throw
ture, first double-throw switch means associn
switch means responsive to the altitude of said
ated with said control means and moved to first
aircraft and moved to first and second circuit
and second circuit-closing positions when said
closing positions when said aircraft reaches pre
control means is moved to its first and second
determined low and high altitudes, respectively, .g positions, respectively, second double-throw
ñrst electrical signal means for indicating that
switch means, means including said altitude re
said manually operable control means should be
sponsive means for operating said second switch
moved to said second position, a first electrical
means to first and second circuit-closing positions
circuit for energizing said first signal means and
when said aircraft reaches predetermined low
including said ñrst and second switch means in
and high altitudes, respectively, first electrical
series, said first circuit being closed when both
signal means for indicating that said manually
gine on an aircraft, manually operable control
said first and second switch means are in their
first circuit-closing positions, second electrical
signal means for indicating that said manually
operable control means should be moved to said
ñrst position, and a second electrical circuit for
energizing said second signal means and including
said first and second switch means in series, said
second circuit being closed when both said ñrst
and second switch means are in their second cir 55
cuit-closing positions.
2. Signal apparatus, comprising in combina
tion, a carburetor for an internal combustion en
operable control means should be moved to said
second position, a ñrst electrical circuit for ener
gizing said ñrst signal means and including said
first and second switch means in series, said ñrst
circuit being closed when both said first and sec
ond switch means are in their first circuit-closing
positions, second electrical signal means for in--
dicating that said manually operable control
means should be moved to said first position, and
a second electrical circuit for energizing said
second signal means and including said ñrst and
second switch means in series, said second circuit
being closed when said first switch means and
gine on an aircraft, manually operable control
means associated with said carburetor and mov 60 said second switch means are in their second
able between a first position wherein said car
circuit-closing positions.
buretor supplies said engine with a rich fuel and
4. Signal apparatus, comprising in combination,
air mixture and a secondV position wherein said
a carburetor for an internal combustion engine
carburetor supplies said engine with a lean fuel
on an aircraft, means in said carburetor for pro
and air mixture, ñrst double-throw switch means 65 portioning the quantity of fuel supplied to the
associated with said control means and moved to
engine in accordance with the quantity of air
first and second circuit-closing positions when
flowing thru said carburetor, altitude responsive
said control means is moved toits first and second
means associated with said carburetor for com
positions,
respectively,
second
double-throw
pensating the action of said proportioning means,
switch means responsive to the altitude of said
70 a manually operable control member associated
aircraft and moved to ñrst and second circuit
with said carburetor and movable between a first
closing positions when said aircraft reaches pre
position wherein said carburetor supplies said
determined low and high altitudes, respectively,
engine with a rich fuel and air mixture and a
third double-throw switch means responsive to
second position wherein said carburetor supplies
the attitude of said aircraft, said third switch 75 said engine with a lean fuel and air mixture, a
2,407,134
12
il
second member, means including said altitude
responsive means for moving said second mem
ber between a iirst position corresponding to a
predetermined low altitude and a second posi
tion corresponding to a predetermined high alti
tude, signal means operable to indicate the need
for a change in position of said control member,
and means responsive to the positions of said
members to operate said signal means whenever
both said members are in their respective ñrst
positions and whenever both members are in their
respective second positions.
`
ñrst and second positions, respectively, a plural
ity of additional double-throw switch means, each
of said additional switch means being responsive
to one of a plurality of variable conditions affect
ing the temperature of said engine and movable
to close a ñrst pair of contacts when its associ
ated condition assumes a value tending to de
crease the temperature of said engine and to close
a second pair of contacts when its associated
condition assumes a value tending to increase the
temperature of said engine, ñrst electrical signal
means for indicating that said manually operable
control means should be moved to said second po
sition, a first electrical circuit for energizing said
first signal means and including all said iirst pairs
need for a change in the ratio of fuel and air
of contacts in series, second electrical signal
supplied to an internal combustion engine on said
means for indicating that said manually operable
aircraft, and means responsive to the resultant
control means should be moved to said ñrst po
of the altitude of said aircraft and the quantity
sition, and a second electrical circuit for ener
of air flowing to said engine for operating said
gizing said second signal means and including
20
signal means.
the second pair of contacts on said ñrst switch
6. Signal apparatus, comprising in combination,
5. Signal apparatus for an aircraft, compris
ing in combination, signal means to indicate‘the
a carburetor for an internal combustion engine
on an aircraft, manually operable control means
associated with said carburetor and movable be
means in series with all the second pairs of con
tacts of said additional switch means in parallel.
'7. `Signal apparatus, comprising in combina
tween a ñrst position wherein said carburetor 25 tion, signal means to indicate the need for a
change in the ratio of fuel and air supplied to
supplies said engine with a rich fuel and air
an internal combustion engine, and means re
mixture and a second position wherein said car
sponsive to the resultant of the rate of ilow of
buretor supplies said engine with a lean fuel and
combustion air to said engine and a condition
air mixture, ñrst double-throw switch means as
sociated with said control means and movable 30 affecting the temperature of said engine for op
erating said signal means.
therewith to close first and second pairs of con
MILTON E. CHANDLER.
tacts when said control means is moved to its
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