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Патент USA US2407164

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slept- 3, 1946.
L. B. KIMBALL
2,407,164
IFNTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE
'
Filed April 15, 1944
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ZwBEMs'ALL
INYENTOR
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QYh?M'W
I' ATTORNEY
Patented Sept. 3, ‘1946
2,407,164
‘ UNITED STATES" PATENT OFFICE 7
2,407,164; ‘
"frtiTERnAL-eoMBUsrIoN TURBINE
‘ ‘
aebQBLKiai-Bam New-Haven; Conn. ,
fjaprllicadqa-apriiis, 1944,"SerialNo.“531§2(l3 _ i" “ “
' 1'
‘Claims.
(Cl; 160-410 1 n.
J2
‘"My v‘invention relates "to internal vcombustion
turbines'and has particular "reference to the con
.
Fig. 3 is a fractional elevational viewedfeaitur
bine with 'my' blades;
s‘truction of jtheturbi‘ne ‘ wheel and, l more particu
‘
'
‘Fig. 4 is a fractional-end view-‘oflthelsame;
Fig. 5 is an velevational view partly li~n~section
'larly, ‘to the blades andthe 'rim of the turbine
wheel.
Ci of a turbine employing‘my blades.
Internal combustionuturbines; Whil'ejhaving con
My internal "combustion turbine as shown by
siderable ‘advantages "over vsteam turbines in
eliminating the necessity for operating ‘boilers
with the accompanying heat losses, 1 possess at‘the
way of an example in Fig,‘ '5 consists of a'rotor-il
mounted on a shaft 2 in a housing or v~stato'r=3.
The rotor has 'a cylindrical ‘rim ~'4, shown more
same‘time ‘a disadvantage in that the bladesjas lo ‘in detail in Figs. '3 and 4‘, and provided"—With
constructed by ordinary v‘methods, cannot stand
openings‘ for blades 5. The rim “is preferably
the relatively high'temperatures required'for the ‘
made of a‘strong, non-oxid-izable material *such
as stainless steel, etc. The blades have enlarged
inner “ends 8 engaging "the inner side-of the rim
‘for ‘retaining the blades ‘in their 'positions'again'st
‘the action of the centrifugal force.
The blades'are preferably made "of steél'orialloy
efficient operation of such‘t'urbines. ‘ Asj'a result,
‘it has beeni'found necessary to‘mix the hOt_‘bll1‘Il—
‘in'g gases “With‘a ‘cooling medium, such as steam,
etc., whereby the overall ve?iciency "of theturbine
"and‘its power output were considerably ‘reduced.
My invention ‘has for‘its'main ‘object to provide
means for :rapidlyiremoving ‘heat :from ‘the blades
to the supporting 'rim whereby “hotipr‘oductsjof
"combustion ‘can be ‘directed on ‘the ‘blades with
considerablyreduced amount of cooling-air. “As
one of the practical ‘means for accomplishingthis
purpose, I provide my blades with‘ ’C&Yitlf8$“l?fl15d
with a .suitableheat .conductingmaterial "such as
metallic‘s‘odium, ‘certain salts, etc. Heat is there
by rapidly conducted from the tips of the blades
to their bases Where (it is absorbed by the rela
tively large bulk of the supporting rim. The rapid
rate of heatconduction thereby accomplished, re
sults in the lowering of temperature at the base of
the blades where the stresses are the highest.
The drop of temperature, therefore, takes place
along the blade in an approximately direct pro
portion with the increase in tensile stresses so
that the blades, as I have found, can be safely
operated with gases having temperature of
1500° F. or over.
‘
having high tensile-strength at elevated tempera
tures, such as ‘tungsten-cobalt alloy steels, etc.
20
The blades are further ‘retained in their posi
tions by an inner shell ‘9 having (corresponding
recesses for the inner ends '8 of the blades. The
shell 9, of which two are shown ‘in ‘Figs-‘3 and '5,
jis tightly ?tted in its lpositionfan'd 'is *preferably '
"made offa-strong ‘metal having "relatively high
‘thermal conductivity, such ‘as aluminum ‘(bronze
alloy. The shell 9 is ?nished smooth on the
inside for a third shell l0 preferably made of an
aluminum alloy or a similar metal having high
thermal conductivity. The inner shell Ill may be
provided with cooling ?ns l I . The rotor I may be
provided with openings l2 for circulating air along
the ?ns ll.
Stationary blades l5, Fig. 3, may be similarly
constructed, with enlarged rear ends l6 held in
openings in a, stationary outer shell H. The en
larged portions [6 are similarly held by an in
termediate shell I8 made of a strong alloy hav
Another object of my invention is to provide
ing relatively high thermal conductivity, with
means to dissipate the heat conducted to the rim 40 an outer shell l9 made of a metal or alloy with a
of the turbine wheel from the blades. This is
high thermal conductivity. Fins 20 may be pro
accomplished in one form of my invention by the
vided on the outside for cooling the shells.
provision of a liner inside the rim, made of a
The blades 5 are hollow inside, having cavities
material having high thermal conductivity, such 45 closed on all sides and ?lled with a material hav
as aluminum or its alloy. As further means for
ing high coe?icient of thermal conductivity, pref
dissipating the heat, I provide vanes on the in
side of the cooling liner through which a draft of
air or other cooling medium may be directed.
My invention is more fully described in the ac
erably metallic sodium or a suitable melted salt.
The stationary blades 15 may be similarly pro
vided with cavities, ?lled with sodium or similar
heat conducting material. It should be noted,
companying speci?cation and drawing in which:
however, that this arrangement is of relatively
Fig. 1 is a sectional elevational view of my
less importance for stationary blades in view of
blade;
.
I
the fact that they are not subjected to high ten
Fig. 2 is a ‘transverse sectional view of the
sile stresses due to centrifugal force.
blade;
55
The blades may be arranged for the use in
2,407,164
3
connection with a suitable internal combustion
engine of an impulse or reaction type. A reac
tion turbine is shown by way of an example in
Fig. 5, having two rows of rotor blades 5 and two
rows of stationary blades IS. The rotor shaft 2
carries a blower 25 for delivering compressed air
."
a liner on the inner surface of the rim made of
a material having relatively high coefficient of
heat conductivity; and a plurality of cooling ?ns
at the inner side of the liner.
2. A turbine wheel comprising a rim; means to
rotatively support the rim, the rim having a plu
rality of radial openings; blades ?tted in the
to nozzles 26 extending into a combustion cham
openings extending radially from the rim; en
ber 21. Fuel, liquid or gaseous, is conducted by a
larged bases on the blades engaging the inner
pipe 28 to the nozzles. The combustible mixture
is ignited in the; combustion chamberby any suit 10 surface “of the rim at the openings; an interme
diate liner ?tted in the rim engaging the blade
able means (not shown) , either by electric sparks,
bases, the liner being made of a material having
or by hot bulbs, etc. The products of combus
relatively high tensile strength and a higher _co'
tion are directed through the ?rst row of the
e?icient of thermal conductivity than the mate
stationary blades l5 to the ?rst row of the rotor
blades, and through the second row of the sta 15 rial of the rim; and an inner liner ?tted inside
the intermediate liner made of a material having
tionary blades to the second row of the rotor
relatively high coefficient of heat conductivity.
blades, being exhausted by a pipe 32. It is under
3. A turbine wheel comprising a rim; means to
stood, of course, that any suitable number of
rotatively support the rim, the rim having a plu
such rows may be employed to obtain a more
complete expansion of the hot gases and utiliza 20 rality of radial openings; blades ?tted in the
openings extending radially from the rim; en
tion of their heat.
larged bases on the blades engaging the inner
A certain amount of the compressed air from
surface of the rim at the openings; an inter
the blower is directed by ducts 30 toward the
mediate liner ?tted in the rim engaging the
inner side of the rotor rim against the cooling
?ns H. The heated air is exhausted by a pipe 3| 25 blade bases, the liner being made of a material
having relatively high tensile strength and a
and may be directed to the intake of the blower
higher coe?lcient of thermal conductivity than
if desired for effecting further economy of the
the material of the rim; an inner liner ?tted
operation.
inside the intermediate liner made of a material
It will be understood that various features and
principles of each of vthe embodiments of the 30 having relatively high coeflicient of heat con
ductivity; and a plurality of cooling ?ns at the
invention above described or referred to may be
inner surface of the inner liner.
utilized or substituted in the other embodiments.
4. A turbine'wheel comprising a, rim; means to
While the invention has been described in de
rotatively support the rim, the rim having a plu
tail with respect to certain particular preferred
rality of radial openings; blades ?tted in the
examples, it will be understood by those skilled in
openings extending radially from the rim; en
Wfter
understanding
the
invention,
that
larged bases on the blades engaging the inner
variou hanges and further modi?cations may
surface of the rim at the openings; portions of
be madewi
t departing from the spirit and
the rim at the bases of the blades being made
scope of the inven ion and it is intended there
fore in the appendediaaims to cover all such 40 of a metal having relatively high tensile strength
and relatively low heat conductivity; an inner
changes and modi?cations.
What is claimed as new and desire
cured by Letters Patent is:
\e se
'
1. A turbine wheel comprising a rim; means to
liner ?tted inside the rim and made of a metal
having relatively high coe?‘icient of heat con
\ductivity; and longitudinal vanes extending in
rotatively support the rim; a plurality of blades 45 wa\rds4 cm the liner.
supported radially on the periphery of the rim;
\ LEO B. KIMBALL.
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