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Патент USA US2407191

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Sept 3,’1'94‘Y`ß;-
J. D. TEAR E‘TAL
'
¿407,191
. GUN SIGHT
Filed Janfz'z.. 1941
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4 sheets-sheet 1
Septf 3,'_ 1946.
2,407,191
J. D, TEAR ETAL
GUN SIGHT '
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
- Filed Jan. 22, 1941
INVENToRs
JAMES D.TEAR
`
CHAS- W`BUCKLEY
Sept. 3, 194e.
J. D. TEAR ETAL
2,407,191
GUN SIGHT
Filed Jan. 22, 1941
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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Sept» 3» 1946» l
J. D. TEAR ErAL
¿407,191
GUN SIGHT
Filed Jan. 22, 1941
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
l,
JAMES D.TEAR
Paten-ted Sept. 3, 1946
Unire!
2,407,191
ras
' carica
2,407,191
GUN SIGHT
James D. Tear, Great Neck, and Charles W.
Buckley, Mount Vernon, N. Y., assignors to Ford
Instrument Company, Inc., Long Island` City,l
y N. Y., a corporation of New York
_Application January 22, 1941, Serial No. 375,426
10 Claims.
(Cl. 33--49)
1
2
This invention relates to sights for guns and
particularly to the type in which a gun is driven
under the control of alprecessed gyroscope or
other form of variable speed device at adjustable
rates of train and elevation and the sight is auto
matically angularly displaced from the gun in
proportion to the rate of the driving of the gun
so that the gun leads the sight to allow for the
movement of the target during the time of flight
would remain so and it would be necessary to
over-correct the rate or set in an excessive rate
of train to cause the sight to catch up with’ the
target, that is, move the gun and sight an in
of the projectile.
In ñring at aircraft from a surface or other
ship, such as another aircraft, it has been cus
tomary to elevate the gun vertically above the
plane of the deck of the surface ship or above or
below the horizontal plane of the aircraft (ref
erence plane) and set in the deñection, that is,
the angular displacement of the sight from the
gun, by moving the sight in the slant plane with
reference to the gun an amount equal to the de
ñection. The slant plane is deñned as the plane 20
including the bore of the gun that intersects the
reference plane at an angle equal to the elevation
of the gun. It has been customary to set up the
elevation correction of the gun, that is, the an
gular displacement of the gun and the sight in
a vertical plane, by moving the sight in the ver
tical plane with reference to the gun. To the ele
vation correction due to movement of the target
during ‘the time of night is added the super ele
vation, a correction to the elevation to allow for ‘
crement of'train equal to the amount that the
sight was behind the‘target at the time the new
rate was set in. When the gun and sight in its
over-corrected rate of train came to the proper
bearing and the sight came on the target it was
necessary for the operator' again to change- the
rate of train to remove the excess rate. > This
change, decreasing -the rate, also affected the de
flection and tended to move the sight oiî of the
target. Thus this last change in rate became
another source of confusion to thel operators. ‘
The same source of confusion has been present
when correcting the rate of driving the gun and
sight in elevation and setting in the sight de
pression.
y
‘
'
"
'
`
,
In an application of James' D; Tear, Serial
No. 358,246, ñled September' 25, 1940, covering
Gun sights, there is disclosed a sight mechanism
of the type herein shown, a characteristic of
which is> that when an alteration in the training
rate is made by the operator, the sight moves
first in relation to the gun in a direction torbri'ng
the sight towards the target -and then the sight
moves in the opposite direction untilV the proper
deñection angle is obtained for the bearing r'ate
setup.
`
‘
C
the curvature of the trajectory of the projectile.
In an application of James D. Tear and Charles
It is well known that when a gun and a sight
W. Buckley, Serial No. 363,956, ñled November 2,
automatically displaced therefrom for deilection
1940, covering Gun sights, there is shown a sight
mechanism of the said type, a characteristic of
are driven at a set rate of train and the sight
falls behind the moving target because the rate
of train is too low, the deñection also is underset,
and increasing the rate of train operates to set
which is that when an alteration in the training
rate is made by the operator, a temporary excess
in a greater deflection and thus move the sight
farther behind the target. This movement of
duced and eventually eliminated to effectV an
increment in training of the gun and sight equal
to the angular displacement of the sight from the
target at the time that the correction to the rate
the sight away from the target has been a source A
of confusion to the operators for when they have
applied a plus correction, for example, to the
rate of train they have seen the sight move in
a direction opposite to that in which they wished
it to move, that is, the sight moved farther be
hind the target. Operators have therefore had
the tendency to add further corrections to the
training rate, which caused farther separations
correction in the rate is also automatically intro
was made.
In an application of James D. Tear, Serial No.
366,093, ñled November 18, 1940, covering Gun
sights, there is shown a sight mechanism having
the said characteristics, a further characteristic
of which is that when an alteration in deñection
is applied to the sight by the operator, the gun
and sight are trained under the control of a gyro
of the sight and the target. It has therefore
been difficult for the operators to judge how much 50 in a direction' opposite to the direction of appli
cation of the deflection correction an amount
correction should be applied to the rate of train.
equal to the applied correction to the deñection
It will be apparent that if, in the above condi
and an additional amount to bring the sight on
tions, the new rate of train set up by increasing
or slightly ahead of the target.
the rate of train was the correct rate, the sight
lThe principal object of the present invention
would still be displaced behind the` target and 55
2,407,191
3
4
is to provide a mechanism for controlling, through
The bearing rate of the gun and the sight in
a gyro, the rates of train and elevation of a gun
the slant plane (dBs) is made up of t‘wo factors:
(1) the rate due to the movement of the target
and sight. The control mechanisms leading to
the gyro also acts (1) to move the sight towards
the target, (2) to initiate, by means of a delayed
follow-up mechanism, movements of the sight
relative lto the gun to set in the'new and correct
deflection and >sight depression, and (3) to in
troduce temporarily excess corrections to the
rates to effect increments in train and elevation
equal to the angular displacement of the sight
from the target at the time that the corrections
to the rates were made.
'
in the slant plane (dBi) and (2) the rate due
to the movement of the ñring ship in the slant
plane (dBo) .
This relation may be expressed
as
dBs=dBt+dBo
Nor
(2)
dBt=dBs~-dBo
Substituting Equation 1 in Equation 2,
Theseexcess corrections
Adist-:vins-ks"_sjg£9
are eventually eliminated zthrough the said Ade
layed action folloW-up mechanisms'.
Another object of Ithe invention is to provide
in such apparatus, mechanisms'responsive to the
changes in bearing, elevation and range of the
target and the speed of the ñring ship, to calcu
late the effect of the movement of the target as
Well ,as >the -movement .of :the ¿firing ship :,on‘ theide»
ilection and elevation corrections ¿to :be ¿applied
to `(the .sig-bts.
.Another object ofthe inventionis to‘provlide'in
such apparatus a mechanism Afor .selectively iap- ~
plying >to >the .gyro :an -arbitrary additional pre
cessing vv'force of ¿such za value that the ¿gun and
sight 'maybe slevved around, that is,'the ygun-'and
sight :may be brought quickly fromtheir secured
(3)
>¿Asthe :deflection ldue to movement of the tai#
get, is equal `to the bearing rate due to the target
multiplied by the 'time of flight of the projectile
(Tl,
Where Dt is the' deflection .due "to Athe movement
ofthe target.
’
ì
'
`
In the "patent ¿to Alkan No. 2,183,530, V,it has
beerrshown that
ì
So `sin Bg
YWhere Do vis the> deflection -in the slant #plane `due
position -to a :selected target »or brought 'quickly 30 to the movement of the firing ship, -Vi is the in
from one itargetfto another.
itial velocity of the projectile, and Eg is the ele
Other objects of the »invention Will `loe apparent
vation ofthe gun íromthe reference plane.
from la consideration .of Ithis speciñcation ¿and
Since small angles are `proportional to- their
drawings,ìin which:
tangents and :since when sin Bg is large cos 'Bg
Fig. .I1 .isa 'plan view_of one embodimentof fthe
is small and viceversa, So cos Bg >cos Eg `may Ibe
invention;
neglected and Equation `5 may be expressed as
f2 is a `cross-.sectional view taken -on >line
2_2 of Fig. i1, except ìthat ‘the details of thecon
trol and computing mechanisms are omitted-Land
the .operator issshown >iin ._his >position ‘with refer 40 vAs the deflection (D) is equal to the sum of Dt
and `Do,
'
ence to :the .gun and :gun mount;
Fig. .13 is a View similar Lto Fig. 2, except .that
the gun :is shown in „an elevated position;
Fig. «.4 is a .sectional view taken on Vline «4--4
__
_
'
S0 sin Bg-
So sin Bg
Du DH- Do# @dm-,10%.
R )HCT <7)
ofFig. 1.;
So-sin Bg
Fig. 5 Ais an enlarged Yplan view of >the ¿front
sight and associated mechanism;
Fig. 6 is azschematic'isometricfview of thcwcon
trokandcomputinginechanismsg;
Fig. '7 is a View similar to Fig. 6, showing amod
iñcation .of the .mechanism .to .apply ¿a precessing
force to the gyro;
Fig. 8_is an‘elevation ‘view taker-iron line -:8--`-8
of Fig. 71; >and
.represents `the reciprocal of the average velocity
Fig. v9 ¿is a cross-sectional :view taken yon line
5-1'9 Aof Fig. 7.
, T,
It .is `Well >knovvn that in keeping the vvgun and
of
a
‘projectile
and
'the
reciprocal of the initial
sight lpointed upon a target, .the rate of change
velocity equals
'
of vbearing (dBo.) in the slant Vplane'of the .gun
and sight, vdue to the speed or rate of movement 60
L
of the firing ship, is equal to the component of
-Vt'
the speed or rate of movement of the ñring ship,
it
is
apparent
that
(approxi-mately)
vtaken at `right angles to the bea-ring >»of the gun,
divided :by «the range.
This relation is Ausually
expressed as
R-W‘i’kl-T
(10)
.Substituting Equation .10 iin Equation 9,
1
-Where So isthe-speed ofthezñringshipABg'is the
relative fbearing -of .the gun, that is, >the bearing
of »the gun in :the-reference .plane relative `>to the
.centerline of the ship,.and R isthe direct range,
that is, range lin the slant plane. `lc ’is the con
stant for converting the tangent value of small
angles ‘to an angle value.
75
1
.
.
D= TldBs- (W-HCLT- Vî>kISos1n kBg (11)
As 'lc :and k1 appear as 4factors in the same unit
oí 'Equation ’12, the >const-ant 7c1 is -made equal to
2,407,191
5
`The drift of the projectile (Dr) ijs approxi
mately proportional to the time of ñîght, which
may be expressed as
‘
_
Dr=k2-T
(14)
As the total deñection of the sight from the
gun (Ds) equals the deiiection (D) plus the drift
(Dr), '
The constant K3 is made to equal k3Jc.
As super-elevation (E super) is approximately
10 proportional to the time of night,
.
The total elevation above the reference plane
(Us) equals E plus E super or
Likewise for elevation, the elevation rate is us
ually expressed as
15
van dEorSo cos D; s1n Eg
=T (dE-K3~So cos Bg sin Eg-l-k‘l) (31) Y e
The mechanisms to generate the rates of train
and elevation, to solve the equations and com
pute the corrections to the sight and to control
the motors that drive the gun and sight in train
dEozhSo cos Bè] sin Eg
where dEo is the rate of change of elevation due
and elevation, are enclosed in a box I the walls
to the movement of the firing »ship and Eg is the
2 of which form the supports for the various
elevation of the gun above the reference plane.
The total elevation rate (dE) is made up of 25 mechanisms.
The gun 3 is mounted on the box I by suitable
two factors: (1) that due to the movement of the
recoil mechanisms (not shown). The sights are
target (dEt); and (2) that due to the movement
also mounted on box I and consist of frame 4
of the firing ship (dEo). The relation may be
and cross wires 5 forming the forward sight and
expressed as
Y
Y
an eyepiece 6 secured to bracket 'I forming the
e
30 rear sight.
dE=dEt+dEo
or
(18)
The operator sits on a seat 8 mount
ed on a frame 9 which also carries the box I.
For the convenience of the operator in getting
into and out of his seat, bracket -I is mounted to
swing upward on pivots ID and swing down to
its proper position as determined by the lug II
which engages the walls 2 of box I.
dE,t=dE_kiSo cos Bg sin Eg
(19)
The box I, gun 3, sight frame 4, sight bracket
‘I, and operator’s seat frame 9, are mounted on a
Multiplying the elevation rate due to the move
ring I2 which is pivoted by shafts I3 and I4 in
ment of the target by the time of flight,
40 ring I5. Ring I2 is free to rotate about the axes
of these shafts. Flange I6 on ring I5 and ring
I‘I attached to the under side of ring I 5 cooperate
with the inwardly extending flange of ring I8
where Et is the correction to the elevation due
which is secured tothe structure I9 in the refer
to the movement of the target.
ence plane of the firing ship or aircraft and form
Likewise, it is known from the reference pat
guides for ring I5 as it is driven about its train
ent to Alkan that
axis.
So cos Bg sin Eg
Ring I2 is tilted about the axes of shafts I3
tan Eo= Vid-So cos Bg cos Eg
(21)
and I4 in accordance with the desired elevation
50
'of the gun (Eg) by motor 29, shaft 2|, gears 22
Since small angles are proportional to their tan
and gear 23, which meshes with teeth on arcu
gents and since when sin Eg is large cos Eg is
ate rack 24 secured to ring I5. Bracket Ia, de
smal1 and vice versa, So cos Bg cos Eg may be
pending from the bottom of box I, provides the
neglected and Equation 21 becomes
support for this gearing. Ring I5 is driven about
55 its train axis in accordance with the desired
_ k,So cos Bg sin Eg
Eo _
(22)
bearing of the gun (Bg) by motor 25, shaft Ma,
Vi
concentric with shaft I4, vertical shaft 26, gear
Adding the elevation correction due to the tar
21, and gear 28 which meshes with teeth 29 on
get (Et, Equation 20) andthat due to the ñring
ring I8. Bracket |511 secured t0 ring I5 provides
ship (Eo, Equation 22), the correction due to 60 a support for this gearing. Ring I8 is secured
both the target and the ñring ship (E) is ex
to structure I9 by bolts 39.
pressed as
i
In describing the mechanisms in box I, the
movements of their several parts to generate the
So cos 12g sin Eg>+ y
variable rate of train and to set the sight in de
65 flection will be considered first.
The Voperator’s rate control handle 3I is
So cos Bg sin Eg)
dEt=dE-dE0
Substituting Equation 17 in Equation 18,
) <20)
(23)
` `:T-dE- Gg- -èàk-so cos Bg sin Eg
<25)
mounted for universal movement in a ball and
socket joint 32 in the back wall 2 of box I. The
inner end of handle 3| engages an arcuate slotted
70 arm 33 which is mounted by pivots 34 on lugs
35 attachedto walls 2. On arm 33 is secured
a toothed arcuate rack 36 which meshes with
a gear on shaft 3'I which in turn is geared to
shaft 38 and transmits the motion of arm 33
Shaft 3'I is heldin
75 and rack 36 to shaft 38.
2,407,191
7
position by bracket 39 secured to Walls ‘2, the
.by Y,the time of'fiight of the projectile (T), which
end of bracket 3-9 vforming -a bearing for shaft 31.
Splined on shaft 38 is worm gearv 4U (see Fig. 6)
is> proportional to the range (R)` »as represented
by the rotational position of shaft 6l, in multi
plier 14 the output of which, shaft 15, represents
which meshes with worm teeth on an arcuate arm
41' secured to one end of lever 42, which is pivoted
T(dBs-K1-So sin Big-H62) or Ds (Equation 16).
'I’he constant k2 is applied in the mechanism by
at 43 on bracket 44 secured to walls 2. The lower
portion of bracket 44 forms the upper support of
selecting the point of meshing ofthe gear'on the
gyro 45, the vlower su-pport of the g-yro 45 ‘being
end of shaft 13 with the arm of the multiplier '14.
'The motion of shaft 15 is transmitted to the
vertical cross wirelä» by gear 16r on shaft 15 mesh
ing with gear 11 on hollow shaft 18 which is
geared to rack 19 (Fig. 4). Rack T9 slides in
grooves 80 in frame 4 and carries the vertical
cross wire 5, which is stiff enough to maintain
15 its upright position. The upper end of vertical
wire 5 slides in groove 8l in Aframe 4.,
base :46, in the upper Vend of which is a 'bearing
for shaft 41 secured to the gyro support ring 48.
The gyro casing 49 is pivoted in ring 48 by
shafts 50 which mounting permits the gyro to
'move about its horizontal axis. The gyro 45 is
free to turn about its vertical axis on shaft 41
and shaft 5l, the latter being free >to turn in th
lower end of bracket 44.
'
‘ --The .gyro is precessed about its-vertical axis by
As previously indicated, it is desired that the
applying a force to extensions V52, secured to gyro
casing 49 in the spin axis of the gyro, through a
-pair _of springs 53 secured to lever 4,2, which as
previously described receives its motion from
first direct action of a movement ofV the rate con
trol handle 31 for an Aincrease of rate of train be
to move the sight towards the target, to set up
in the train control mechanism an increased rate
worm gear 48. It will thus be seen that a trans
verse movement of the control handle 3l will
cause a corresponding processing of the gyro to
the right or left. The gears involved are so con
of train and at the same time to set up an ex
nected `as to precess the gyro to the right for a
pointing of rate control handle r3| to the right,
that is, clockwise rotation as viewed from above.
The gun and sight are driven in train by the
motor 25 which is connected to rotate ring l5, as 30
previously described. Motor 25 is controlled by
fixed contacts 54, 54 which are insulated lfrom
cess rate of train. It is also desired that through
a delayed action follow-up mechanism the sight
be moved in a direction opposite to its first move
ment to its corrected deflection position and the
excess rate of >train be removed so that'the gun
and sight -are moving at the corrected rate of
train and the gun and sight have‘been moved
an increment in train equal Vto the amount that
' the sight was behind the target at the time the
each other and from a supporting plate 55. One
or the other _of these contacts 54 is in contact
with roller 55 mounted on 4lever -arm 51 which is -
connected to shaft 41. The electrical connections
between contacts Y54 and roller 56 and motor 25
are of the conventional type and are not shown.
_The values of the bearing of the gun (Bg),
increased rate of train was set in.
To accomplish this, the gears on shaft 10, the
gears forming the sides 0f differential 69, as well
as all of the other gears beyond this point, are
so assembled that the vertical cross wire 5 will
be moved toward the target for a movement of
the rate control handle 3l to increase the rate.
As an example, if the rate control handle is
represented by the rotational position of shaft 40 pointed to the rightfor the training of the gun
.|4a. of motor 25„ are umade available t0 the mech
and sight to the right, and the sight lags behind
anisms inside box l by gear 58 on shaft I 4a mesh
the target and the handle is> pointed further to
ing with gear 59 onshaft 60, which extends inside
the right, the rate of train to the right is in
box 1„ as shown in Figs. 1 and 6.
creased and the sight is moved towards the target.
The range of the target is made available to »1
the mechanisms in box'l by shaft 6| which is
kept set to the proper position by handle 62.
The delayed movement of the sight away from '
the target to its corrected position is accom
plished by connecting the third side ofY differen
In the embodiment of the invention as shown
tial 69 to the output of variable speed device B2
in Fig. 6. the speed of the firing ship (So) is set
by shaft 83. The constant speed element of vari
into the combined vector solver and multiplier $3 '
able speed device 82 is driven by motor 84 through'
as a fixed value and is represented by the dis
shaft 85. 'The control member 86 is connected
tance from the center of disk 64 of the pin B5,
to one side of differential 81 by shaft 88, the other
which is secured in disk 64. Pin B5 slides in the
two sides of differential 81 being shafts 1u and
slots >in component arms 65 and 61, It is apparent
83 respectively. Shaft 88 is also connected to
that various values of ship speed may be set into 55 rack frame member 89 by which worm gear 4D is
the vector solver and multiplier 63 by adjustably
restrained against movement along shaft 38. It
supporting the pin 65 as on a rack and sliding it
will thus be seen that with the control member
radially in a groove in disk 64 in a conventional
manner.
As. previously described, the rotational posi
tion of shaft 38 represents Ythe rate of train of
the gun and sight in the slant plane (ldBs). This
value is transmitted to differential 68 through
differential 69 by shafts 1D and 1|.
V
`
,
36 of variable speed device 82 in its mid or neutral
position the initial veffect of a movement of rate
60 control handle 3l to increase »the rate of train
ymoves shafts 18 and 1I and moves> vertical cross
wire 5 towards th'e target.
Shaft 10 also vmoves
control member '86 from its mid position and
With the inputs of vector solver and multiplier 65 moves frame 39 and wor-m gear 40' to yapply an
added or excess precessing force on gyro 45. As
6.3 of So and Bg, as previously described, the out
soon as the control member 86 of variable speed
put, represented by the position of the sine arm
device 82 is moved from its mid position, shaft
66 represents So sinBQ. The movement of arm
83 begins to move shaft 1| in _the opposite direc
E6 is transmitted to differentialA 68, by shaft 12,
tion from that due `to its initial movement and
where it is combined with the movement of shaft
in an amount such that the ultimate position of
1l. The, constant KI is introduced into this
mechanism byy selecting the size of the‘gear 12a
shaft 1| 'represents the'correct new rate of train
connecting arm 56 to shaft 12,
and the sight is set at the corrected deflection.
The amount shaft 1I is moved in th'e opposite
direction by shaft 83 is that required to restore
The output of differentialöß, shaft 13, repre
,sentsdBs-K 1 So sin Bg. This value- is multiplied
2,407,191
10
control member 86 and frame 89 to their mid or
neutral positions.
tion of shaft |09, which is connected to the cosine
corrected deflection has been described as two
arm 61 of vector solver and multiplier 63.
Th'e output of the multiplier |08 is represented
by the rotation of shaft | l0. The value of K3 is
introduced by selecting the size of gear ||| con
necting shaft ||0 to multiplier |08. The output
of multiplier |08 is combined with the elevation
movements, both' movements being transmitted
rate, shaft |81, by differential |05, the output of
The movement of the shaft 1| ñrst in one di
rection to move the sight towards the target and
themovement `of the shaft 1| secondly in the
opposite direction to set the sight to the new or
to shaft 1| by differential 69. In practice the
which, shaft || 2, represents
times of these movements overlap and the actual 10
movement of shaft 1| at any given instant de
'I'his value is multiplied by the time of flight (T)
pends upon which of the two movements trans
mitted `to differential 69 predominates at the
by multiplier ||3 which is connected to shaft ||2
given instant. However, it is apparent that the
and to sh‘aft 6|. The constant R4 is added to the
first AVmovement of the sight towards the target
output of differential |05 by the selection of the
point of meshing of gear ||4 en shaft | | 2 with
as initiated directly by shaft 10, for shaft 83 is
its input arm of multiplier | I3.
stationary _inthe mid position, starts before the
The output of multiplier ||3 (Us) (see Equa
second movement as initiated by shaft 83 be
comes fully effective because of th'e delayed ac
tion 30) is transmitted to horizontal cross wire
tion of variable speed device 82. It is also ap, 20 5 by‘shaft ||5, gears IIS, shaft ||1 turning with
parent that the second movement is completed
in hollow shaft 18, gears ||8 and rack ||9 to
after the first movement is completed. The over
which the horizontal cross wire is attached.
all resulting movement of shaft 1| then is to
Rack | |9 slides in a groove in frame 4. The free
move the sight towards the target and then away
from the target until the new or corrected deñec
tion is set up.
end of horizontal wire 5 slides in a groove in
frame 4 on the side opposite to rack ||9.
The connections for moving the sight towards
s
The temporary excess training rate is set in by
the direct action of shaft 19 through differential
81 and shaft 88 which’ is connected to rack frame
the target for` an increased elevation rate, set
ting up an excess elevation rate, moving the sight
with delayed action in the opposite direction and
89 which supports worm gear 40. The vertical 30 removing the excess rate, are the same as for the
movement of frame 89 and worm gear 40 places
corresponding functions for changing the rate of
a precessing 'force von gyro 45 through arcuate
train and deflection as previously described.
arm' 4|, lever 42'and spring 53. The excess pre
Shaft 93 the rotation of which represents dE, is
cessing rate is removed by the delayed follow-up
connected to the control member |20 of variable
action of variable speed device 82, the output of
speed device |2| through differential |22 and
which, shaft 83, is connected to shaft 88 by dif
shaft |23. Shaft |23 is also connected by gear
ferential 81. The control member 86 of variable
|24 to a rack frame |25 engaging the ends of
speed device 82 isalso restored to its mid or
worm gear 94. The constant speed element of
neutral position by shaft 83, differential 81 and
variable speed device |2| is connected to the con
shaftßß.
’
40 stant speed motor 84 by shaft |26. The output
Likewise for setting the sight for corrections in
of variable speed device | 2| is connected to the
elevation, rate control h'andle` 3| engages slotted
third side of differential |06 >by shaft |21 and
arm 90 which is pivoted on lugs 9| secured to the
to the third side of differential |22 by shaft |28.
walls 2.` `Gears 92 connect arm 90 to shaft 93.
Thus at the same time that shaft 93 introduces
On a splined section of shaft 93 is worm gear 94
the quantity dE into the differentials |06 and
which meshes with. arcuate arm 95 on one end
of lever 96 pivoted for rotation at 91 in the top of
base 98 which is secured to the lower wall 2.
Lever 96'is connected to lever arm 51 by springs
99. It is> thus seen that a precessing force is ap
plied to gyro 45 by handle _3| in accordance with
the rate of change of elevation (dE). Th'e force
applied by springs` 99 causes the‘gyro 45 to pre
cess about the axis ofV shafts 50 and move roller
contact |00 into contact with either fixed contact
|0I‘ or fixed contact |02. Roller contact |00 and
contacts |0| and |02 are connected to a suitable
source‘of power and to motor 20, previously de
scribed, which drives ring |2, gun 3, box |, and
operators’ seat frame 9 in elevation, following the
angle of elevation of the spin axis of the gyro
scope 45.
s
‘
" The values of elevation of the gun, represented
by the rotational position of shaft 2|, are made
available to the mechanisms in box | by gears
|03 and shaft |04 whichextends through the
walls‘2 of box |.
,
.
,The elevation rate, represented by the rota
tional position of shaft 93, is. transmitted to dif
ferential |05 `through»differential |06 and shaft
|01. The value of-‘So cosBg sin Eg is lobtained
bythe conventional vector analyzer and multi
plier |08, the _inputs being respectively the value
of Eg, ‘representedY by the rotation of -shaft |04,
andthe .value "Socos Bg, >represented by the rota
|22 and a corresponding vertical precessional
force on the gyro 45, the shaft |23 is bodily mov
ing the worm gear 94 through the rack frame
|25 to introduce an additional or excess preces
50 sional force which is eliminated as the variable
speed device |2| restores the control member |20
to mid position.
l In the modification of the invention shown in
Fig. '1 the precessing forces are applied to the
gyro 45 by means of pivoted beams, the preces
sing forces Vbeing varied by changing, along the
length of the beam, the point of application of
a force of constant value.
As disclosed in Fig. 7 and Fig. 6, shaft 10 is
connected to the control member 86 of variable
speed device 82 through differential 81 and shaft
88. The third side of differential 81 is connectedA
to the output of variable speed device 82 by
shaft 83.
Referring now to Fig. '1 only, frame |29 is
secured rigidly to the walls 2 of ybox |. Frame
|29 isfjournaled to 'receive pivots |30 on plate
|3| andsalso journaled to receive pivot |32 on
beam |33. A constant force'is 'applied to plate
|3| lbyfsprings |34 secured to frame I 29. Two‘
springs are shown, but they could be replaced'by`Á
a single spring, it being necessary only thatthe
plate |3| be forced under a constant pressure
towards the pivoted beam |33.
s
'n
In grooves in .beam |33 _and plate ' |3| slide
l2
li
respectively lower roller |3‘5‘ and upper rollers
ships and other craft comprisingfabase adjust
able about a train axis, a sight carried by the
base and .angularly adjustable with respect to a
datum line thereon, power means for training
|38. Lug |38 engages a threaded shaft |39 con
nected to differential |44, the inputs of which Ul the base, a relay'device in control of the power
means, manual means operative to actuate the
are connected to shafts 88 and 19 previously de
relay, a mechanical Vvector operatively connected
scribed. It will thus beseen that shaft |39 is
moved directly by >shaft 'I-D in .accordance with
to beset in direction by the power means and'in
length .according to the ship’s speed and includ
any changes in the setting ofthe elevation rate
ing component solving means, transmitting
through shaft ‘I0 and also in accordance with the
means operative to receive and> transmit »the
movement of control member 86 of variable speed
device 82 which responds to the movement of
movement of the manual means, means for lcomshaft 'ill through differential 81 in one direc
bining a sight angle component ofthe vector with
tion .and later in the opposite direction through
the movementof the transmitting means, a mult-i
the follow-up action of shaft 83. When roller
plier adapted to have a function ofv range intro
|35 is directly over pivot |32 there will be no
duced thereinas one input and the said combi
tendency of beam |33 to turn about its pivot,
nation as the other input, and means operated by
but as carriage |31 is moved to one side of pivot
said multiplier for adjusting the sight according
|132, the forces. exerted at the ends of the beam
to the» product.
'n
|33 by springs |34 will be in proportion tothe
.2g Gun sighting apparatus for use on moving
displacement of roller |35 from pivot |32.' These
ships and other craft comprising a base adjust
variable forces are applied to the gyroscope »45
able about a> train and an elevation axis, a sight
bywires |41 attached to the ends vof beam |33
carried »by the base and angularly adjustable
|36. These rollers are secured by shafts in .car
riage |31 to which is attached a threaded lug
'
andl to extensions152.
An arbitrary additional processingv force to
slew the gun from a. secured'position to a target
01' move the gun quickly from Yone target to an
other may be applied. to `gyroltâï by wire |42
which is connected to arm |43 extending Vfrom
plate |31.Y Wire |42 is> placed vin vtension by Y
treadle. |44 extending through walls 2~ and pivoted
0n, lugs |45v secured to bottom wall 2 of box l.
For .smoothness in the operation of applying the
with respect toa datum line thereon, power means
for trai-ning- a'nd elevating the base, a relay de
vice in Ycontrol of the trainV and the elevation
Y power means, manual means- operative to actuate
the relay, >a mechanical vectorV operatively con
nected _to be set ini direction by the train power
means and‘ in length according to the ship’s speed
and including component solving means, a second
mechanical vector operatively connected to be
set in direction by theV elevation power meansand
additional precessing forces, spring |46. is intere
set in lengthvat unity and including component
posed between the treadleA |44 and wire |421 and
solving means, a multiplier adapted to have as
spring _|47 is interposed between treadle |441and>
inputs a sight angle component of theñrst vector
anda sight angle component ofthe second vector,
Likewise, for changes. in thev elevation rates,
transmitting means operative to receive and'
plate |48 is pivotally mounted on lugs. |49 secured
transmit the movement of the manual means,
' to.~ the. bottom wall: off box |` and beam. |59 is 40 means for combining `the .output of the multiply
pívotally mounted on base. 9B. In carriage |5è|
ing; means and the movement‘of the transmitting
the bottom wall of. box: | .
Y.
.
`
are mounted roller |52 which moves in a groovev
in beam §50; and'rollersv [5:3 which move in a
groove in> plate |48.. On carriage |=5| is a
threaded lug |54 which engages threaded shaft
[5.5, which is :connected to- differential L56, the
inputs ofv which are, connected to shafts 93 and
|213 previously` described.
Y
constant force is applied to. plate. |48 by
springs. |57, connected toplate |481and to bracket
|58. whichA is- rigidly’secured to base 46'; Bracket
|53 also supports contacts 54. The variablerota
tion force of beam |50 is transmittedV to lever Y
arm 51 by wires |595.
4Au, additional precessing »force may be applied
bytreadle |44' which is connected to plate |48
by spring; |60 and lever arm |61V rigidly attached
to the pivot of plate |48.
.
.
'
The rsight frame; 4i may be swung clear ofthe
> gun when it is desired to remove the. gun. from GO
box; l. The combined support. tube |62 and stif-4
fening- bracket , |631 may be rotated about flanged
support column |64, securedto the` top ofv box
| and forming a guide for hollow shaft .18 and
solid shaft ||'|'. The support tube. |32' and
bracket |63 areY held’l in .fixed positionsbyapin |35
engagingv hole |65 orY |S1'inthe top-,wall` of, box |__ It isobvious that variousv changesy may be. made
>by¿¿tnose skilled inthe arti in thepdetail's ofY the I
embodimenty ofthe invention illustratedin' the
drawings , and describedjin detailV above within
the principle and scopeof the invention Vas ex
pressed'in the appended claims» Y; ,
We claim:
»
>-1,_Gun,Sighting alrëparatus for use; on moving
means, `a second multiplier adaptedv to have a
function of' range introduced therein as one input
and the said combination as theother input, and
means operated bysaid multiplier for adjusting.
tl‘iÍe sight according to the product.
3;V Gun sighting apparatus for use. on movingI
ships'v and >other craft comprising, a base adjust-l
able about a train axis, a sight carried by the
base >and angularly adjustable with respect toa
datumr line thereon, powermeans for training.
thel base, a relay .devicein control. of thepower
means, manual means operative4 to actuate the
relay, means settable by the. manual meansA and
according tol'the train angle -of the gun and the
speedv of Vthe 'ship'and the range of the target
for adjusting directly the position of the 'sight
relative tothe datum line. in one direction` and
in one ratio, a delayed follow-up mechanism the
control member of whichf is. connectedv to the>
manual' means; and means connecting the'output.
ofthe delayed follow-up mechanism to thead
justing means, whereby thel position of the sight.
relativev to the datum line is delayedly adjusted
in the opposite. directionrelatîve to< the> datum
line and in another ratio.
4. Gunsighting apparatus for use' onmoving
ships and other' craft comprising a', base adjust
able about a trai-n axis, a sight’r carried by the
base and: angularly.-'adjustable> with respect to
a datumî line»v thereon,~ 'power' means for training
theîbase, a relay devicev in control‘of thepowei"
means, mahualfmeans operative- to actuate therelay, means settable by ther manual' means andaccording tol thetrainA angle of the gun andthe"
2,407,191
13
14
speed of the ship and the range of the target for
adjusting directly the position ofthe sight rela
to a datum line thereon, a relay device in control
tive to the datum line in one direction and in one
erative to actuate the relay, means actuated by
said first manual means to angularly adjust the
ratio, a delayed follow-up mechanism the control
member of which is connected to the manual
of the power means, a ñrst manual means op
sight in train with respect to the datum line, and
means, means connecting the control member to
additional manual means connected to increase
the relay device for imparting to the relay device
the response of said relay device to said ñrst
an additional control movement, and means con
manual means.
necting the output of the delayed follow-up mech
anism to the relay device for delayedly neutraliz
ing the said additional control movement.
8. Gun sighting apparatus comprising a base
adjustable about a train axis, power means for
5. Gun sighting apparatus for use on moving
ships and other craft comprising a base adjust
able about a train and an elevation axis, a sight
training the base, a sight carried by the base and
angularly adjustable in train with respect to a
datum line thereon, a gyro relay device in con
trol of the power means, precessing means opera
carried bythe base and angularlyadjustable with 15 tive to apply precessing forces to the gyro, Ya ñrst „
respect to a datum line thereon, power means for
training and for elevating the base, a relay device
in control of the train and the elevation power
means, manual means operative to actuate the
relay, means settable by the manual means and
according to the train angle and the elevation
angle of the base and the speed of the ship and
the range of the target for adjusting directly the
position of the sight relative to the datum line in
manual means to actuate said precessing means,
means actuated by said first manual means to
angularly adjust the sight in train with respect
to the datum line, and additional manual means
connected to increase the response of said precess
ing means to said first manual means.
9. Gun sighting apparatus comprising a base
adjustable about train and elevation axes, power
means for turning the base in train and eleva
one direction and in one ratio, delayed follow-up
mechanisms the control members of which are
respectively connected to the manual means, and
tion, a relay device in control of the train and
adjustable about a train axis, power means for
ual means.
elevation power means, a ñrst manual means
movable to actuate the relay device, a sight
mounted for angular adjustment relative to the
means connecting the outputs of the delayed
base in train and in elevation, means actuated by
follow-up mechanisms to the adjusting means,
whereby the position of the sight in train and ele 30 said ñrst manual means to adjust said sight in
train and in elevation relative to said base, and
vation relative to the datum line is adjusted in re
additional manual means connected to increase
spective opposite directions and in another ratio.
the response of said relay device to said iìrst man
6. Gun sighting apparatus comprising a base
training the base, a sight carried by the base
and angularly adjustable with respect to a datum
line thereon, a gyro relay device in control of the
10. Gun sighting apparatus comprising a base
adjustable about train and elevation axes, power
means for training and elevating the base, a gyro
relay device in control of the train and elevation
power means, a pivoted beam, a carriage mounted
power means, precessing means to apply precess
on the beam, manual means for moving the car
riage along the beam, resilient means applied to 40 ing forces in train and elevation to the gyro, a
ñrst manual means to actuate said precessing
the carriage in the direction of the beam, means
means, a sight mounted for angular adjustment
connecting the beam to the gyro relay device for
impressing a precessing force on the gyro, aux
iliary resilient means to selectively supplement
the effect of the said resilient means, and means
actuated by the manual means to adjust the
sight with respect to the datum line.
7. Gun sighting apparatus comprising a base
adjustable about a train axis, power means for
training the base, a sight carried by the base
and angularly adjustable in train with respect
` relative to the base in train and in elevation,
means actuated by said first manual means to
adjust said sight in train and in elevation rela
tive to said base, and additional manual means
connected to increase the response of said pre
cessing means to said first manual means.
JAMES D. TEAR.
CHARLES W. BUCKLEY.
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