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Sept 3,’1'94‘Y`ß;- J. D. TEAR E‘TAL ' ¿407,191 . GUN SIGHT Filed Janfz'z.. 1941 ° llllllllllllllllllll n """fff'lw IO 7 ’ 4 sheets-sheet 1 Septf 3,'_ 1946. 2,407,191 J. D, TEAR ETAL GUN SIGHT ' 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 - Filed Jan. 22, 1941 INVENToRs JAMES D.TEAR ` CHAS- W`BUCKLEY Sept. 3, 194e. J. D. TEAR ETAL 2,407,191 GUN SIGHT Filed Jan. 22, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 M . SBJW f E,u RY.. EW.5T ...m„Auw .„ Sept» 3» 1946» l J. D. TEAR ErAL ¿407,191 GUN SIGHT Filed Jan. 22, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 l, JAMES D.TEAR Paten-ted Sept. 3, 1946 Unire! 2,407,191 ras ' carica 2,407,191 GUN SIGHT James D. Tear, Great Neck, and Charles W. Buckley, Mount Vernon, N. Y., assignors to Ford Instrument Company, Inc., Long Island` City,l y N. Y., a corporation of New York _Application January 22, 1941, Serial No. 375,426 10 Claims. (Cl. 33--49) 1 2 This invention relates to sights for guns and particularly to the type in which a gun is driven under the control of alprecessed gyroscope or other form of variable speed device at adjustable rates of train and elevation and the sight is auto matically angularly displaced from the gun in proportion to the rate of the driving of the gun so that the gun leads the sight to allow for the movement of the target during the time of flight would remain so and it would be necessary to over-correct the rate or set in an excessive rate of train to cause the sight to catch up with’ the target, that is, move the gun and sight an in of the projectile. In ñring at aircraft from a surface or other ship, such as another aircraft, it has been cus tomary to elevate the gun vertically above the plane of the deck of the surface ship or above or below the horizontal plane of the aircraft (ref erence plane) and set in the deñection, that is, the angular displacement of the sight from the gun, by moving the sight in the slant plane with reference to the gun an amount equal to the de ñection. The slant plane is deñned as the plane 20 including the bore of the gun that intersects the reference plane at an angle equal to the elevation of the gun. It has been customary to set up the elevation correction of the gun, that is, the an gular displacement of the gun and the sight in a vertical plane, by moving the sight in the ver tical plane with reference to the gun. To the ele vation correction due to movement of the target during ‘the time of night is added the super ele vation, a correction to the elevation to allow for ‘ crement of'train equal to the amount that the sight was behind the‘target at the time the new rate was set in. When the gun and sight in its over-corrected rate of train came to the proper bearing and the sight came on the target it was necessary for the operator' again to change- the rate of train to remove the excess rate. > This change, decreasing -the rate, also affected the de flection and tended to move the sight oiî of the target. Thus this last change in rate became another source of confusion to thel operators. ‘ The same source of confusion has been present when correcting the rate of driving the gun and sight in elevation and setting in the sight de pression. y ‘ ' " ' ` , In an application of James' D; Tear, Serial No. 358,246, ñled September' 25, 1940, covering Gun sights, there is disclosed a sight mechanism of the type herein shown, a characteristic of which is> that when an alteration in the training rate is made by the operator, the sight moves first in relation to the gun in a direction torbri'ng the sight towards the target -and then the sight moves in the opposite direction untilV the proper deñection angle is obtained for the bearing r'ate setup. ` ‘ C the curvature of the trajectory of the projectile. In an application of James D. Tear and Charles It is well known that when a gun and a sight W. Buckley, Serial No. 363,956, ñled November 2, automatically displaced therefrom for deilection 1940, covering Gun sights, there is shown a sight mechanism of the said type, a characteristic of are driven at a set rate of train and the sight falls behind the moving target because the rate of train is too low, the deñection also is underset, and increasing the rate of train operates to set which is that when an alteration in the training rate is made by the operator, a temporary excess in a greater deflection and thus move the sight farther behind the target. This movement of duced and eventually eliminated to effectV an increment in training of the gun and sight equal to the angular displacement of the sight from the target at the time that the correction to the rate the sight away from the target has been a source A of confusion to the operators for when they have applied a plus correction, for example, to the rate of train they have seen the sight move in a direction opposite to that in which they wished it to move, that is, the sight moved farther be hind the target. Operators have therefore had the tendency to add further corrections to the training rate, which caused farther separations correction in the rate is also automatically intro was made. In an application of James D. Tear, Serial No. 366,093, ñled November 18, 1940, covering Gun sights, there is shown a sight mechanism having the said characteristics, a further characteristic of which is that when an alteration in deñection is applied to the sight by the operator, the gun and sight are trained under the control of a gyro of the sight and the target. It has therefore been difficult for the operators to judge how much 50 in a direction' opposite to the direction of appli cation of the deflection correction an amount correction should be applied to the rate of train. equal to the applied correction to the deñection It will be apparent that if, in the above condi and an additional amount to bring the sight on tions, the new rate of train set up by increasing or slightly ahead of the target. the rate of train was the correct rate, the sight lThe principal object of the present invention would still be displaced behind the` target and 55 2,407,191 3 4 is to provide a mechanism for controlling, through The bearing rate of the gun and the sight in a gyro, the rates of train and elevation of a gun the slant plane (dBs) is made up of t‘wo factors: (1) the rate due to the movement of the target and sight. The control mechanisms leading to the gyro also acts (1) to move the sight towards the target, (2) to initiate, by means of a delayed follow-up mechanism, movements of the sight relative lto the gun to set in the'new and correct deflection and >sight depression, and (3) to in troduce temporarily excess corrections to the rates to effect increments in train and elevation equal to the angular displacement of the sight from the target at the time that the corrections to the rates were made. ' in the slant plane (dBi) and (2) the rate due to the movement of the ñring ship in the slant plane (dBo) . This relation may be expressed as dBs=dBt+dBo Nor (2) dBt=dBs~-dBo Substituting Equation 1 in Equation 2, Theseexcess corrections Adist-:vins-ks"_sjg£9 are eventually eliminated zthrough the said Ade layed action folloW-up mechanisms'. Another object of Ithe invention is to provide in such apparatus, mechanisms'responsive to the changes in bearing, elevation and range of the target and the speed of the ñring ship, to calcu late the effect of the movement of the target as Well ,as >the -movement .of :the ¿firing ship :,on‘ theide» ilection and elevation corrections ¿to :be ¿applied to `(the .sig-bts. .Another object ofthe inventionis to‘provlide'in such apparatus a mechanism Afor .selectively iap- ~ plying >to >the .gyro :an -arbitrary additional pre cessing vv'force of ¿such za value that the ¿gun and sight 'maybe slevved around, that is,'the ygun-'and sight :may be brought quickly fromtheir secured (3) >¿Asthe :deflection ldue to movement of the tai# get, is equal `to the bearing rate due to the target multiplied by the 'time of flight of the projectile (Tl, Where Dt is the' deflection .due "to Athe movement ofthe target. ’ ì ' ` In the "patent ¿to Alkan No. 2,183,530, V,it has beerrshown that ì So `sin Bg YWhere Do vis the> deflection -in the slant #plane `due position -to a :selected target »or brought 'quickly 30 to the movement of the firing ship, -Vi is the in from one itargetfto another. itial velocity of the projectile, and Eg is the ele Other objects of the »invention Will `loe apparent vation ofthe gun íromthe reference plane. from la consideration .of Ithis speciñcation ¿and Since small angles are `proportional to- their drawings,ìin which: tangents and :since when sin Bg is large cos 'Bg Fig. .I1 .isa 'plan view_of one embodimentof fthe is small and viceversa, So cos Bg >cos Eg `may Ibe invention; neglected and Equation `5 may be expressed as f2 is a `cross-.sectional view taken -on >line 2_2 of Fig. i1, except ìthat ‘the details of thecon trol and computing mechanisms are omitted-Land the .operator issshown >iin ._his >position ‘with refer 40 vAs the deflection (D) is equal to the sum of Dt and `Do, ' ence to :the .gun and :gun mount; Fig. .13 is a View similar Lto Fig. 2, except .that the gun :is shown in „an elevated position; Fig. «.4 is a .sectional view taken on Vline «4--4 __ _ ' S0 sin Bg- So sin Bg Du DH- Do# @dm-,10%. R )HCT <7) ofFig. 1.; So-sin Bg Fig. 5 Ais an enlarged Yplan view of >the ¿front sight and associated mechanism; Fig. 6 is azschematic'isometricfview of thcwcon trokandcomputinginechanismsg; Fig. '7 is a View similar to Fig. 6, showing amod iñcation .of the .mechanism .to .apply ¿a precessing force to the gyro; Fig. 8_is an‘elevation ‘view taker-iron line -:8--`-8 of Fig. 71; >and .represents `the reciprocal of the average velocity Fig. v9 ¿is a cross-sectional :view taken yon line 5-1'9 Aof Fig. 7. , T, It .is `Well >knovvn that in keeping the vvgun and of a ‘projectile and 'the reciprocal of the initial sight lpointed upon a target, .the rate of change velocity equals ' of vbearing (dBo.) in the slant Vplane'of the .gun and sight, vdue to the speed or rate of movement 60 L of the firing ship, is equal to the component of -Vt' the speed or rate of movement of the ñring ship, it is apparent that (approxi-mately) vtaken at `right angles to the bea-ring >»of the gun, divided :by «the range. This relation is Ausually expressed as R-W‘i’kl-T (10) .Substituting Equation .10 iin Equation 9, 1 -Where So isthe-speed ofthezñringshipABg'is the relative fbearing -of .the gun, that is, >the bearing of »the gun in :the-reference .plane relative `>to the .centerline of the ship,.and R isthe direct range, that is, range lin the slant plane. `lc ’is the con stant for converting the tangent value of small angles ‘to an angle value. 75 1 . . D= TldBs- (W-HCLT- Vî>kISos1n kBg (11) As 'lc :and k1 appear as 4factors in the same unit oí 'Equation ’12, the >const-ant 7c1 is -made equal to 2,407,191 5 `The drift of the projectile (Dr) ijs approxi mately proportional to the time of ñîght, which may be expressed as ‘ _ Dr=k2-T (14) As the total deñection of the sight from the gun (Ds) equals the deiiection (D) plus the drift (Dr), ' The constant K3 is made to equal k3Jc. As super-elevation (E super) is approximately 10 proportional to the time of night, . The total elevation above the reference plane (Us) equals E plus E super or Likewise for elevation, the elevation rate is us ually expressed as 15 van dEorSo cos D; s1n Eg =T (dE-K3~So cos Bg sin Eg-l-k‘l) (31) Y e The mechanisms to generate the rates of train and elevation, to solve the equations and com pute the corrections to the sight and to control the motors that drive the gun and sight in train dEozhSo cos Bè] sin Eg where dEo is the rate of change of elevation due and elevation, are enclosed in a box I the walls to the movement of the firing »ship and Eg is the 2 of which form the supports for the various elevation of the gun above the reference plane. The total elevation rate (dE) is made up of 25 mechanisms. The gun 3 is mounted on the box I by suitable two factors: (1) that due to the movement of the recoil mechanisms (not shown). The sights are target (dEt); and (2) that due to the movement also mounted on box I and consist of frame 4 of the firing ship (dEo). The relation may be and cross wires 5 forming the forward sight and expressed as Y Y an eyepiece 6 secured to bracket 'I forming the e 30 rear sight. dE=dEt+dEo or (18) The operator sits on a seat 8 mount ed on a frame 9 which also carries the box I. For the convenience of the operator in getting into and out of his seat, bracket -I is mounted to swing upward on pivots ID and swing down to its proper position as determined by the lug II which engages the walls 2 of box I. dE,t=dE_kiSo cos Bg sin Eg (19) The box I, gun 3, sight frame 4, sight bracket ‘I, and operator’s seat frame 9, are mounted on a Multiplying the elevation rate due to the move ring I2 which is pivoted by shafts I3 and I4 in ment of the target by the time of flight, 40 ring I5. Ring I2 is free to rotate about the axes of these shafts. Flange I6 on ring I5 and ring I‘I attached to the under side of ring I 5 cooperate with the inwardly extending flange of ring I8 where Et is the correction to the elevation due which is secured tothe structure I9 in the refer to the movement of the target. ence plane of the firing ship or aircraft and form Likewise, it is known from the reference pat guides for ring I5 as it is driven about its train ent to Alkan that axis. So cos Bg sin Eg Ring I2 is tilted about the axes of shafts I3 tan Eo= Vid-So cos Bg cos Eg (21) and I4 in accordance with the desired elevation 50 'of the gun (Eg) by motor 29, shaft 2|, gears 22 Since small angles are proportional to their tan and gear 23, which meshes with teeth on arcu gents and since when sin Eg is large cos Eg is ate rack 24 secured to ring I5. Bracket Ia, de smal1 and vice versa, So cos Bg cos Eg may be pending from the bottom of box I, provides the neglected and Equation 21 becomes support for this gearing. Ring I5 is driven about 55 its train axis in accordance with the desired _ k,So cos Bg sin Eg Eo _ (22) bearing of the gun (Bg) by motor 25, shaft Ma, Vi concentric with shaft I4, vertical shaft 26, gear Adding the elevation correction due to the tar 21, and gear 28 which meshes with teeth 29 on get (Et, Equation 20) andthat due to the ñring ring I8. Bracket |511 secured t0 ring I5 provides ship (Eo, Equation 22), the correction due to 60 a support for this gearing. Ring I8 is secured both the target and the ñring ship (E) is ex to structure I9 by bolts 39. pressed as i In describing the mechanisms in box I, the movements of their several parts to generate the So cos 12g sin Eg>+ y variable rate of train and to set the sight in de 65 flection will be considered first. The Voperator’s rate control handle 3I is So cos Bg sin Eg) dEt=dE-dE0 Substituting Equation 17 in Equation 18, ) <20) (23) ` `:T-dE- Gg- -èàk-so cos Bg sin Eg <25) mounted for universal movement in a ball and socket joint 32 in the back wall 2 of box I. The inner end of handle 3| engages an arcuate slotted 70 arm 33 which is mounted by pivots 34 on lugs 35 attachedto walls 2. On arm 33 is secured a toothed arcuate rack 36 which meshes with a gear on shaft 3'I which in turn is geared to shaft 38 and transmits the motion of arm 33 Shaft 3'I is heldin 75 and rack 36 to shaft 38. 2,407,191 7 position by bracket 39 secured to Walls ‘2, the .by Y,the time of'fiight of the projectile (T), which end of bracket 3-9 vforming -a bearing for shaft 31. Splined on shaft 38 is worm gearv 4U (see Fig. 6) is> proportional to the range (R)` »as represented by the rotational position of shaft 6l, in multi plier 14 the output of which, shaft 15, represents which meshes with worm teeth on an arcuate arm 41' secured to one end of lever 42, which is pivoted T(dBs-K1-So sin Big-H62) or Ds (Equation 16). 'I’he constant k2 is applied in the mechanism by at 43 on bracket 44 secured to walls 2. The lower portion of bracket 44 forms the upper support of selecting the point of meshing ofthe gear'on the gyro 45, the vlower su-pport of the g-yro 45 ‘being end of shaft 13 with the arm of the multiplier '14. 'The motion of shaft 15 is transmitted to the vertical cross wirelä» by gear 16r on shaft 15 mesh ing with gear 11 on hollow shaft 18 which is geared to rack 19 (Fig. 4). Rack T9 slides in grooves 80 in frame 4 and carries the vertical cross wire 5, which is stiff enough to maintain 15 its upright position. The upper end of vertical wire 5 slides in groove 8l in Aframe 4., base :46, in the upper Vend of which is a 'bearing for shaft 41 secured to the gyro support ring 48. The gyro casing 49 is pivoted in ring 48 by shafts 50 which mounting permits the gyro to 'move about its horizontal axis. The gyro 45 is free to turn about its vertical axis on shaft 41 and shaft 5l, the latter being free >to turn in th lower end of bracket 44. ' ‘ --The .gyro is precessed about its-vertical axis by As previously indicated, it is desired that the applying a force to extensions V52, secured to gyro casing 49 in the spin axis of the gyro, through a -pair _of springs 53 secured to lever 4,2, which as previously described receives its motion from first direct action of a movement ofV the rate con trol handle 31 for an Aincrease of rate of train be to move the sight towards the target, to set up in the train control mechanism an increased rate worm gear 48. It will thus be seen that a trans verse movement of the control handle 3l will cause a corresponding processing of the gyro to the right or left. The gears involved are so con of train and at the same time to set up an ex nected `as to precess the gyro to the right for a pointing of rate control handle r3| to the right, that is, clockwise rotation as viewed from above. The gun and sight are driven in train by the motor 25 which is connected to rotate ring l5, as 30 previously described. Motor 25 is controlled by fixed contacts 54, 54 which are insulated lfrom cess rate of train. It is also desired that through a delayed action follow-up mechanism the sight be moved in a direction opposite to its first move ment to its corrected deflection position and the excess rate of >train be removed so that'the gun and sight -are moving at the corrected rate of train and the gun and sight have‘been moved an increment in train equal Vto the amount that ' the sight was behind the target at the time the each other and from a supporting plate 55. One or the other _of these contacts 54 is in contact with roller 55 mounted on 4lever -arm 51 which is - connected to shaft 41. The electrical connections between contacts Y54 and roller 56 and motor 25 are of the conventional type and are not shown. _The values of the bearing of the gun (Bg), increased rate of train was set in. To accomplish this, the gears on shaft 10, the gears forming the sides 0f differential 69, as well as all of the other gears beyond this point, are so assembled that the vertical cross wire 5 will be moved toward the target for a movement of the rate control handle 3l to increase the rate. As an example, if the rate control handle is represented by the rotational position of shaft 40 pointed to the rightfor the training of the gun .|4a. of motor 25„ are umade available t0 the mech and sight to the right, and the sight lags behind anisms inside box l by gear 58 on shaft I 4a mesh the target and the handle is> pointed further to ing with gear 59 onshaft 60, which extends inside the right, the rate of train to the right is in box 1„ as shown in Figs. 1 and 6. creased and the sight is moved towards the target. The range of the target is made available to »1 the mechanisms in box'l by shaft 6| which is kept set to the proper position by handle 62. The delayed movement of the sight away from ' the target to its corrected position is accom plished by connecting the third side ofY differen In the embodiment of the invention as shown tial 69 to the output of variable speed device B2 in Fig. 6. the speed of the firing ship (So) is set by shaft 83. The constant speed element of vari into the combined vector solver and multiplier $3 ' able speed device 82 is driven by motor 84 through' as a fixed value and is represented by the dis shaft 85. 'The control member 86 is connected tance from the center of disk 64 of the pin B5, to one side of differential 81 by shaft 88, the other which is secured in disk 64. Pin B5 slides in the two sides of differential 81 being shafts 1u and slots >in component arms 65 and 61, It is apparent 83 respectively. Shaft 88 is also connected to that various values of ship speed may be set into 55 rack frame member 89 by which worm gear 4D is the vector solver and multiplier 63 by adjustably restrained against movement along shaft 38. It supporting the pin 65 as on a rack and sliding it will thus be seen that with the control member radially in a groove in disk 64 in a conventional manner. As. previously described, the rotational posi tion of shaft 38 represents Ythe rate of train of the gun and sight in the slant plane (ldBs). This value is transmitted to differential 68 through differential 69 by shafts 1D and 1|. V ` , 36 of variable speed device 82 in its mid or neutral position the initial veffect of a movement of rate 60 control handle 3l to increase »the rate of train ymoves shafts 18 and 1I and moves> vertical cross wire 5 towards th'e target. Shaft 10 also vmoves control member '86 from its mid position and With the inputs of vector solver and multiplier 65 moves frame 39 and wor-m gear 40' to yapply an added or excess precessing force on gyro 45. As 6.3 of So and Bg, as previously described, the out soon as the control member 86 of variable speed put, represented by the position of the sine arm device 82 is moved from its mid position, shaft 66 represents So sinBQ. The movement of arm 83 begins to move shaft 1| in _the opposite direc E6 is transmitted to differentialA 68, by shaft 12, tion from that due `to its initial movement and where it is combined with the movement of shaft in an amount such that the ultimate position of 1l. The, constant KI is introduced into this mechanism byy selecting the size of the‘gear 12a shaft 1| 'represents the'correct new rate of train connecting arm 56 to shaft 12, and the sight is set at the corrected deflection. The amount shaft 1I is moved in th'e opposite direction by shaft 83 is that required to restore The output of differentialöß, shaft 13, repre ,sentsdBs-K 1 So sin Bg. This value- is multiplied 2,407,191 10 control member 86 and frame 89 to their mid or neutral positions. tion of shaft |09, which is connected to the cosine corrected deflection has been described as two arm 61 of vector solver and multiplier 63. Th'e output of the multiplier |08 is represented by the rotation of shaft | l0. The value of K3 is introduced by selecting the size of gear ||| con necting shaft ||0 to multiplier |08. The output of multiplier |08 is combined with the elevation movements, both' movements being transmitted rate, shaft |81, by differential |05, the output of The movement of the shaft 1| ñrst in one di rection to move the sight towards the target and themovement `of the shaft 1| secondly in the opposite direction to set the sight to the new or to shaft 1| by differential 69. In practice the which, shaft || 2, represents times of these movements overlap and the actual 10 movement of shaft 1| at any given instant de 'I'his value is multiplied by the time of flight (T) pends upon which of the two movements trans mitted `to differential 69 predominates at the by multiplier ||3 which is connected to shaft ||2 given instant. However, it is apparent that the and to sh‘aft 6|. The constant R4 is added to the first AVmovement of the sight towards the target output of differential |05 by the selection of the point of meshing of gear ||4 en shaft | | 2 with as initiated directly by shaft 10, for shaft 83 is its input arm of multiplier | I3. stationary _inthe mid position, starts before the The output of multiplier ||3 (Us) (see Equa second movement as initiated by shaft 83 be comes fully effective because of th'e delayed ac tion 30) is transmitted to horizontal cross wire tion of variable speed device 82. It is also ap, 20 5 by‘shaft ||5, gears IIS, shaft ||1 turning with parent that the second movement is completed in hollow shaft 18, gears ||8 and rack ||9 to after the first movement is completed. The over which the horizontal cross wire is attached. all resulting movement of shaft 1| then is to Rack | |9 slides in a groove in frame 4. The free move the sight towards the target and then away from the target until the new or corrected deñec tion is set up. end of horizontal wire 5 slides in a groove in frame 4 on the side opposite to rack ||9. The connections for moving the sight towards s The temporary excess training rate is set in by the direct action of shaft 19 through differential 81 and shaft 88 which’ is connected to rack frame the target for` an increased elevation rate, set ting up an excess elevation rate, moving the sight with delayed action in the opposite direction and 89 which supports worm gear 40. The vertical 30 removing the excess rate, are the same as for the movement of frame 89 and worm gear 40 places corresponding functions for changing the rate of a precessing 'force von gyro 45 through arcuate train and deflection as previously described. arm' 4|, lever 42'and spring 53. The excess pre Shaft 93 the rotation of which represents dE, is cessing rate is removed by the delayed follow-up connected to the control member |20 of variable action of variable speed device 82, the output of speed device |2| through differential |22 and which, shaft 83, is connected to shaft 88 by dif shaft |23. Shaft |23 is also connected by gear ferential 81. The control member 86 of variable |24 to a rack frame |25 engaging the ends of speed device 82 isalso restored to its mid or worm gear 94. The constant speed element of neutral position by shaft 83, differential 81 and variable speed device |2| is connected to the con shaftßß. ’ 40 stant speed motor 84 by shaft |26. The output Likewise for setting the sight for corrections in of variable speed device | 2| is connected to the elevation, rate control h'andle` 3| engages slotted third side of differential |06 >by shaft |21 and arm 90 which is pivoted on lugs 9| secured to the to the third side of differential |22 by shaft |28. walls 2.` `Gears 92 connect arm 90 to shaft 93. Thus at the same time that shaft 93 introduces On a splined section of shaft 93 is worm gear 94 the quantity dE into the differentials |06 and which meshes with. arcuate arm 95 on one end of lever 96 pivoted for rotation at 91 in the top of base 98 which is secured to the lower wall 2. Lever 96'is connected to lever arm 51 by springs 99. It is> thus seen that a precessing force is ap plied to gyro 45 by handle _3| in accordance with the rate of change of elevation (dE). Th'e force applied by springs` 99 causes the‘gyro 45 to pre cess about the axis ofV shafts 50 and move roller contact |00 into contact with either fixed contact |0I‘ or fixed contact |02. Roller contact |00 and contacts |0| and |02 are connected to a suitable source‘of power and to motor 20, previously de scribed, which drives ring |2, gun 3, box |, and operators’ seat frame 9 in elevation, following the angle of elevation of the spin axis of the gyro scope 45. s ‘ " The values of elevation of the gun, represented by the rotational position of shaft 2|, are made available to the mechanisms in box | by gears |03 and shaft |04 whichextends through the walls‘2 of box |. , . ,The elevation rate, represented by the rota tional position of shaft 93, is. transmitted to dif ferential |05 `through»differential |06 and shaft |01. The value of-‘So cosBg sin Eg is lobtained bythe conventional vector analyzer and multi plier |08, the _inputs being respectively the value of Eg, ‘representedY by the rotation of -shaft |04, andthe .value "Socos Bg, >represented by the rota |22 and a corresponding vertical precessional force on the gyro 45, the shaft |23 is bodily mov ing the worm gear 94 through the rack frame |25 to introduce an additional or excess preces 50 sional force which is eliminated as the variable speed device |2| restores the control member |20 to mid position. l In the modification of the invention shown in Fig. '1 the precessing forces are applied to the gyro 45 by means of pivoted beams, the preces sing forces Vbeing varied by changing, along the length of the beam, the point of application of a force of constant value. As disclosed in Fig. 7 and Fig. 6, shaft 10 is connected to the control member 86 of variable speed device 82 through differential 81 and shaft 88. The third side of differential 81 is connectedA to the output of variable speed device 82 by shaft 83. Referring now to Fig. '1 only, frame |29 is secured rigidly to the walls 2 of ybox |. Frame |29 isfjournaled to 'receive pivots |30 on plate |3| andsalso journaled to receive pivot |32 on beam |33. A constant force'is 'applied to plate |3| lbyfsprings |34 secured to frame I 29. Two‘ springs are shown, but they could be replaced'by`Á a single spring, it being necessary only thatthe plate |3| be forced under a constant pressure towards the pivoted beam |33. s 'n In grooves in .beam |33 _and plate ' |3| slide l2 li respectively lower roller |3‘5‘ and upper rollers ships and other craft comprisingfabase adjust able about a train axis, a sight carried by the base and .angularly adjustable with respect to a datum line thereon, power means for training |38. Lug |38 engages a threaded shaft |39 con nected to differential |44, the inputs of which Ul the base, a relay'device in control of the power means, manual means operative to actuate the are connected to shafts 88 and 19 previously de relay, a mechanical Vvector operatively connected scribed. It will thus beseen that shaft |39 is moved directly by >shaft 'I-D in .accordance with to beset in direction by the power means and'in length .according to the ship’s speed and includ any changes in the setting ofthe elevation rate ing component solving means, transmitting through shaft ‘I0 and also in accordance with the means operative to receive and> transmit »the movement of control member 86 of variable speed device 82 which responds to the movement of movement of the manual means, means for lcomshaft 'ill through differential 81 in one direc bining a sight angle component ofthe vector with tion .and later in the opposite direction through the movementof the transmitting means, a mult-i the follow-up action of shaft 83. When roller plier adapted to have a function ofv range intro |35 is directly over pivot |32 there will be no duced thereinas one input and the said combi tendency of beam |33 to turn about its pivot, nation as the other input, and means operated by but as carriage |31 is moved to one side of pivot said multiplier for adjusting the sight according |132, the forces. exerted at the ends of the beam to the» product. 'n |33 by springs |34 will be in proportion tothe .2g Gun sighting apparatus for use on moving displacement of roller |35 from pivot |32.' These ships and other craft comprising a base adjust variable forces are applied to the gyroscope »45 able about a> train and an elevation axis, a sight bywires |41 attached to the ends vof beam |33 carried »by the base and angularly adjustable |36. These rollers are secured by shafts in .car riage |31 to which is attached a threaded lug ' andl to extensions152. An arbitrary additional processingv force to slew the gun from a. secured'position to a target 01' move the gun quickly from Yone target to an other may be applied. to `gyroltâï by wire |42 which is connected to arm |43 extending Vfrom plate |31.Y Wire |42 is> placed vin vtension by Y treadle. |44 extending through walls 2~ and pivoted 0n, lugs |45v secured to bottom wall 2 of box l. For .smoothness in the operation of applying the with respect toa datum line thereon, power means for trai-ning- a'nd elevating the base, a relay de vice in Ycontrol of the trainV and the elevation Y power means, manual means- operative to actuate the relay, >a mechanical vectorV operatively con nected _to be set ini direction by the train power means and‘ in length according to the ship’s speed and including component solving means, a second mechanical vector operatively connected to be set in direction by theV elevation power meansand additional precessing forces, spring |46. is intere set in lengthvat unity and including component posed between the treadleA |44 and wire |421 and solving means, a multiplier adapted to have as spring _|47 is interposed between treadle |441and> inputs a sight angle component of theñrst vector anda sight angle component ofthe second vector, Likewise, for changes. in thev elevation rates, transmitting means operative to receive and' plate |48 is pivotally mounted on lugs. |49 secured transmit the movement of the manual means, ' to.~ the. bottom wall: off box |` and beam. |59 is 40 means for combining `the .output of the multiply pívotally mounted on base. 9B. In carriage |5è| ing; means and the movement‘of the transmitting the bottom wall of. box: | . Y. . ` are mounted roller |52 which moves in a groovev in beam §50; and'rollersv [5:3 which move in a groove in> plate |48.. On carriage |=5| is a threaded lug |54 which engages threaded shaft [5.5, which is :connected to- differential L56, the inputs ofv which are, connected to shafts 93 and |213 previously` described. Y constant force is applied to. plate. |48 by springs. |57, connected toplate |481and to bracket |58. whichA is- rigidly’secured to base 46'; Bracket |53 also supports contacts 54. The variablerota tion force of beam |50 is transmittedV to lever Y arm 51 by wires |595. 4Au, additional precessing »force may be applied bytreadle |44' which is connected to plate |48 by spring; |60 and lever arm |61V rigidly attached to the pivot of plate |48. . . ' The rsight frame; 4i may be swung clear ofthe > gun when it is desired to remove the. gun. from GO box; l. The combined support. tube |62 and stif-4 fening- bracket , |631 may be rotated about flanged support column |64, securedto the` top ofv box | and forming a guide for hollow shaft .18 and solid shaft ||'|'. The support tube. |32' and bracket |63 areY held’l in .fixed positionsbyapin |35 engagingv hole |65 orY |S1'inthe top-,wall` of, box |__ It isobvious that variousv changesy may be. made >by¿¿tnose skilled inthe arti in thepdetail's ofY the I embodimenty ofthe invention illustratedin' the drawings , and describedjin detailV above within the principle and scopeof the invention Vas ex pressed'in the appended claims» Y; , We claim: » >-1,_Gun,Sighting alrëparatus for use; on moving means, `a second multiplier adaptedv to have a function of' range introduced therein as one input and the said combination as theother input, and means operated bysaid multiplier for adjusting. tl‘iÍe sight according to the product. 3;V Gun sighting apparatus for use. on movingI ships'v and >other craft comprising, a base adjust-l able about a train axis, a sight carried by the base >and angularly adjustable with respect toa datumr line thereon, powermeans for training. thel base, a relay .devicein control. of thepower means, manual means operative4 to actuate the relay, means settable by the. manual meansA and according tol'the train angle -of the gun and the speedv of Vthe 'ship'and the range of the target for adjusting directly the position of the 'sight relative tothe datum line. in one direction` and in one ratio, a delayed follow-up mechanism the control member of whichf is. connectedv to the> manual' means; and means connecting the'output. ofthe delayed follow-up mechanism to thead justing means, whereby thel position of the sight. relativev to the datum line is delayedly adjusted in the opposite. directionrelatîve to< the> datum line and in another ratio. 4. Gunsighting apparatus for use' onmoving ships and other' craft comprising a', base adjust able about a trai-n axis, a sight’r carried by the base and: angularly.-'adjustable> with respect to a datumî line»v thereon,~ 'power' means for training theîbase, a relay devicev in control‘of thepowei" means, mahualfmeans operative- to actuate therelay, means settable by ther manual' means andaccording tol thetrainA angle of the gun andthe" 2,407,191 13 14 speed of the ship and the range of the target for adjusting directly the position ofthe sight rela to a datum line thereon, a relay device in control tive to the datum line in one direction and in one erative to actuate the relay, means actuated by said first manual means to angularly adjust the ratio, a delayed follow-up mechanism the control member of which is connected to the manual of the power means, a ñrst manual means op sight in train with respect to the datum line, and means, means connecting the control member to additional manual means connected to increase the relay device for imparting to the relay device the response of said relay device to said ñrst an additional control movement, and means con manual means. necting the output of the delayed follow-up mech anism to the relay device for delayedly neutraliz ing the said additional control movement. 8. Gun sighting apparatus comprising a base adjustable about a train axis, power means for 5. Gun sighting apparatus for use on moving ships and other craft comprising a base adjust able about a train and an elevation axis, a sight training the base, a sight carried by the base and angularly adjustable in train with respect to a datum line thereon, a gyro relay device in con trol of the power means, precessing means opera carried bythe base and angularlyadjustable with 15 tive to apply precessing forces to the gyro, Ya ñrst „ respect to a datum line thereon, power means for training and for elevating the base, a relay device in control of the train and the elevation power means, manual means operative to actuate the relay, means settable by the manual means and according to the train angle and the elevation angle of the base and the speed of the ship and the range of the target for adjusting directly the position of the sight relative to the datum line in manual means to actuate said precessing means, means actuated by said first manual means to angularly adjust the sight in train with respect to the datum line, and additional manual means connected to increase the response of said precess ing means to said first manual means. 9. Gun sighting apparatus comprising a base adjustable about train and elevation axes, power means for turning the base in train and eleva one direction and in one ratio, delayed follow-up mechanisms the control members of which are respectively connected to the manual means, and tion, a relay device in control of the train and adjustable about a train axis, power means for ual means. elevation power means, a ñrst manual means movable to actuate the relay device, a sight mounted for angular adjustment relative to the means connecting the outputs of the delayed base in train and in elevation, means actuated by follow-up mechanisms to the adjusting means, whereby the position of the sight in train and ele 30 said ñrst manual means to adjust said sight in train and in elevation relative to said base, and vation relative to the datum line is adjusted in re additional manual means connected to increase spective opposite directions and in another ratio. the response of said relay device to said iìrst man 6. Gun sighting apparatus comprising a base training the base, a sight carried by the base and angularly adjustable with respect to a datum line thereon, a gyro relay device in control of the 10. Gun sighting apparatus comprising a base adjustable about train and elevation axes, power means for training and elevating the base, a gyro relay device in control of the train and elevation power means, a pivoted beam, a carriage mounted power means, precessing means to apply precess on the beam, manual means for moving the car riage along the beam, resilient means applied to 40 ing forces in train and elevation to the gyro, a ñrst manual means to actuate said precessing the carriage in the direction of the beam, means means, a sight mounted for angular adjustment connecting the beam to the gyro relay device for impressing a precessing force on the gyro, aux iliary resilient means to selectively supplement the effect of the said resilient means, and means actuated by the manual means to adjust the sight with respect to the datum line. 7. Gun sighting apparatus comprising a base adjustable about a train axis, power means for training the base, a sight carried by the base and angularly adjustable in train with respect ` relative to the base in train and in elevation, means actuated by said first manual means to adjust said sight in train and in elevation rela tive to said base, and additional manual means connected to increase the response of said pre cessing means to said first manual means. JAMES D. TEAR. CHARLES W. BUCKLEY.