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Патент USA US2407199

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50mg 3, 1946.
I, woLFF
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2,401,199
COMMUNICATION AND DISTANCE DETERMINING SYSTEM
File-d June 29. 1940“
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Patented Sept. 3, 1946
* 2,407,199
UNITED STATES v'PA'ramf orrics
COMIMUNICATION AND DISTANCE
\
DETERMINING SYSTEM
Irving wour, Mcrchantville, N. .L, assignor to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of
Delaware
1
Application June 29, 1940, Serial No. 343.133
22 Claims. (01. 250-1)
This invention relates to a system for the com
munication of intelligence and for the detection
of objects and a determination of their distance.
More speci?cally objects are detected and their
distance determined by means including a radio
pulse transmitter and receiver. The same means
are utilized for the communication of intelligence
. which is accomplished by amplitude or by fre
2
5 is a schematic circuit diagram of a modi?ed
transmitter, which includes a frequency modu
lated master oscillator; Fig. 6 is a schematic cir
cuit diagram of a modi?ed frequency modulated
transmitter; Fig. 7 is a perspective view of one
form of modulator for a piezo electric crystal;
and Fig. 8 is a perspective view of a capacitor
modulator.
quency modulation of the pulse transmitter. The
Referring to Fig. 1, a pulse generator I, is con
system may be used simultaneously for measur 10 nected to a transmitter 3 which is coupled to
ing and communicating without impairing either
an antenna 5. The antenna may include one or
service as will be hereinafter explained.
more re?ectors 1 or directors 9. The trans
Systems for the measurements of distance and
mitter includes thermionic tubes which are sup
the detection of obstacles are known to those
plied with anode current from a battery H or
skilled in the art. One important use of such 15 other power source. The anode circuit is serially
systems is on aircraft from which radio pulses
connected through a transformer 13 ‘which is
are ‘radiated to be re?ected from the ground or
connected to a microphone H5 or other signalling
from an object in the ?ight path to indicate re
device such as a telegraph key and alternator.
spectively the altitude of the craft and the dan
The pulse generator l is connected to a sweep
ger of collision or the distance to an object on 20 generator H which is in turn connected to the
the course of the craft. While such devices are
horizontal de?ecting elements of a cathode ray
very helpful to the navigator their weight and
tube 49. ,
.
size have to be considered by the operators of
The distance indication receiver which may be
commercial and other aircraft because the ap
connected to the transmitting antenna asde- '
paratus weight must be subtracted from the use 25 scribed in‘the copending application Serial No.
ful load. If '_the same apparatus could be em
184,354. ?led January 11, 1938 by Irving Wol?
ployed‘in communication, it could be substituted
and William D. Hershberger, includes a radio
for one of the standard communication radio
frequency ampli?er 2|, a converter 23 and oscil
sets which are carried on commercial aircraft. ’
lator 25, a wideband intermediate frequency am
While the alternate uses of such radio device 30 pli?er 21, and a detector 29 which is connected
might be readily arranged, the simultaneous use
to the vertical de?ecting elements of the cathode
for two purposes without interference is not with
ray tube l9.
_
_
out di?lculties which are solved by the means
The receiver also includes the following ele
disclosed in the instant invention.
ments for reception of the communication signals
It is one of the objects of the present inven 35 from .a ground transmitter. A communication
tion to provide means for the indication of a
antenna 3| (which is preferably connected di
wave re?ecting object and for the communica
rectly to the converter 23‘), a. limiter 33, which is
tion of intelligence simultaneously. Another ob
connected to the wide band ampli?er 21, a nar
Ject is to provide means for indicating distance
row band intermediate frequency ampli?er and
by the re?ection of spaced pulses of radio fre 40 discriminator 35, and a detector 37 which is con
quency energy and for communicating by vary
nected to telephone receivers or other signal re
ing the amplitude or frequency of said pulses.
producer 39.
Another object is to provide means whereby a
The operation'of the system for the indication
common transmitter and common receiver may
be used, respectively, to transmit spaced pulses
for distance indication and to modulate said
, pulses for communication, and to receive the
of distance or detection of wave re?ecting ob
jects is as follows: Sharply de?ned pulses are ap
plied to the transmitter 3 at regular intervals and
simultaneously the cathode ray sweep is started.
Radio waves, corresponding to each pulse, are
spaced pulses after re?ection from an object
whose distance is to be determined, and to receive
radiated from the antenna 5 toward a wave re-v
simultaneously communication signals from an 50 ?ecting body. The reflected waves induce pulse
other transmitter.
currents in the antenna. These pulse currents
The invention will be described by referring
are applied to the receiver. There the pulses
to the accompanying drawings in which Fig. 1
are ampli?ed, and, after demodulation in the
is a schematic circuit diagram of one. embodi
detector 29, are applied to the cathode ray tube
ment of the invention; Fig.‘ 2 is a graph illus 55 vertical de?ecting elements. Thus the horizon
trating characteristics of the‘frequency spec
tal sweep of the cathode ray is altered by the
trum of the device; Fig. 3 is a schematic cir
application of a vertical de?ecting potential.
cuit diagram of a ground transmitter; Figs.‘ 4
Since the horizontal sweep may be calibrated to
and 4a are schematic circuit diagrams of a
indicate distance, it follows that the distance
ground receiver responsive to amplitude modula 60 may be determined by observing the vertical
tion and frequency modulation, respectively; Fig.
peaks in the sweep. Instead of using a horizon
2,407,199
3
4
tal sweep, the sweep may be made circular with
a radial de?ection for signal indication. It should
293,128, filed September 1, 1939, by Irving Wolff
as well as other types of interference.
cate a wave re?ecting object, and means effec
and Royden C. Sanders, Jr. If the driving motor
13, which operates the movable plate 15, is “stiff
be noted ‘that the distance is independent of the
ness" controlled, the device will frequency modu
amplitude of the re?ected signal and is depend
ent only on the time of propagation to and from Cl late the self-excited oscillator 6|. In the event
that frequency modulation is used to transmit the
the re?ecting object as measured by the cathode
communication signals to the ground receiver, a
ray sweep.
circuit for the‘ reception of frequency modulation
If the amplitude of the pulse of the trans
waves should be used in the ground receiver.
mitter 3 is varied by the application of voice
modulation currents, or other signal currents, the 10 The schematic arrangement of such receivers is
shown in Fig. 4a; the details of the circuits are
distance measuring function will be uninterrupted
well known to those skilled in the art. A ?lter
because the distance measurement is independ
TI is included to separate the communication
ent of pulse amplitude. _If a receiver, such as
signals from the pulse signals.
, '
shown in Fig. 4, is made responsive to the voice
Thus the invention has been described as a
modulated pulses, the demodulated signals will 15
transmitter which radiates sharply de?ned pulses
include the voice signals, which may be separated
from the carrier pulse signals by ?ltering. Thus ' for measuring distance by re?ection and which
simultaneously modulates the same pulses for
distance measurements'and signal communica
communication. The modulation may be of the
__ tion may be used simultaneously from the vehicle
20 frequency or amplitude type. The receiver for
carrying the transmitter.
distance measurement includes a broad band am
Voice or telegraphic signals may be transmitted
pli?er and a cathode ray indicator. For recep
to the receiver on the vehicle by radiating fre
tion .of communication. signals the broad band
quency modulated signals from a ground trans
ampli?er is connected through a limiter and a
mitter such as shown in Fig. 3. The transmitter
may be of any conventional type. By way of 25 narrow band ampli?er to a detector and signal
indicator. The narrow band ampli?er is adjust
example the frequency modulator may be of the
ed so that it acts as a discriminator. To avoid
crystal oscillator type shown in Fig. 7 and claimed
overloading the broad band ampli?er, and to
in the copending application Serial No. 336,550,
minimize interference from the pulse transmit
for “Modulation system," ?led May 22, 1940, by
Robert J. Ehret and John L. Barnes, Patent No. 30 ter the communication carrier frequency is lo
cated near the limit of the frequency response
2,289,183, dated July 7, 1942. The carrier or mid
of the broad band ampli?er.
frequency 4| of the ground transmitter is prefer
I claim as my invention:
ably positioned on the curved portion of the
1. A system for the simultaneous detection of
broad band intermediate ampli?er response 43
and about the center of the sloping portion of the 35 wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of
intelligence including means for jradiating dis
narrow band ampli?er response 45 as shown in
crete pulses at a pulse carrier frequency which
Fig. 2. This places the frequency of the ground
may be ?ltered with respect to the frequency
transmitter at a point su?lciently remote from
of said intelligence transmission, means for re
the pulse carrier frequency 41 to avoid, over
loading the broad band ampli?er and to mini 40 ceiving said pulses after re?ection, means con
nected to said receiving means for indicating
mize interference. Furthermore, the limiter 33
visually the reception of a re?ected pulse to indi
attenuates the pulse signals to minimize pulse
The fre
tively connected to said radiating means for
quency position of the ground transmitter car
rier on the sloping portion of the narrow band 45 modulating said pulses with signals to be trans
mitted simultaneously.
response .provides frequency discrimination for
2. A system for the simultaneous detection of
the conversion of the frequency modulated sig
wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of
nals into amplitude modulated signals which may
intelligence including means for radiating dis
be demodulated by a conventional detector 31.
crete pulses at a pulse carrier frequency which
The aircraft transmitter may be frequency
may be ?ltered with respect to the frequency
modulated by means of the circuit shown in Fig.
of said intelligence transmission, means for re
5. A multivibrator 49 is connected to a pulse
ceiving said pulsesafter re?ection, means con
ampli?er 5|, which may be of the type disclosed
nected to said radiating means and to said receiv
in the copending application Serial No. 279,542,
?led June 16, 1939, by Irving Wolff. The pulse 55 ing means for indicating visually the reception
of apulse after re?ection, and means effectively
ampli?er 5| is used to key one or more frequency
connected to said radiating means for modulat
multipliers 53 and a power ampli?er 55. The
ing said pulses with signals to be transmitted
frequency modulated currents impressed on the
simultaneously.
frequency multipliers are derived by modulating
a piezo electric or crystal oscillator 51. The 60 3. A system for the simultaneous detection of '
Wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of
modulation currents may be voice or telegraphic
intelligence including means for generating dis
signals, which are applied to the crystal oscillator
crete pulses of energy at a pulse carrier frequency
by means previously mentioned and illustrated in
which may be ?ltered with respect to the fre
Fig. 7.
The transmitter may be arranged according to 65 quency of said intelligence transmission, means
connected to said generating means for radiating
the diagram of Fig. 6 in which a keyer 59 is
said pulses, means for receiving said radiated
coupled to a self-excited oscillator 6|, which is
pulses after their re?ection from an object to be
coupled to a directive antenna 63. The grid cir
detected, an indicator connected to said receiv
cuit of the oscillator includes a capacitor modu
lator 65, which is driven by a driver 61. The 70 mg means for indicating visually the reception of
said re?ected pulses, and means effectively con
driver is energized by voice or telegraphic signals
nected to said generating means for modulating
from a microphone 69 or keyed generator ‘II,
said pulses with signals to be transmitted si
respectively. The mechanical arrangement of
multaneously for the communication of intelli
the capacitor modulator is shown in U. S. Patent
2,257,830, which issued on application Ser. No. 75 gence.
a
2,a07,199
g
.
4. A system for the simultaneous detection of
wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of
intelligence including means for generating dis
crete pulses of energy at a pulse carrier frequency
which may be ?ltered with respect to the fre
quency of said intelligence transmission, means
connected to said generating means for radiat_
ing said pulses, means for receiving said radiated
ing means for indicating visually the time between
the radiation and the reception ‘of said re?ected
pulses. and means effectively connected to said
generating means foramplitude modulating said
pulses with signals to be transmitted simulta
neously for the communication of intelligence.
9. A system fpr the simultaneous detection of
Wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of‘
pulses after their re?ection from an object to be
intelligence including means for radiating dis
detected, an indicator connected to said receiv 10 crete pulses, means for receiving said pulses after
ing means for indicating visually the reception
re?ection, means - connected to said receiving
of said re?ected pulses, and means e?ectively
means for indicating visually the reception of a
connected to said generating means for frequency
re?ected pulse to indicate a wave re?ecting ob
modulating said pulses with signals to be trans
ject, means'e?ectlvely connected to said radiat
mitted simultaneously for the communication of
ing means for modulating said pulses with sie
intelligence.
.
nals to be transmitted simultaneously, and addi
5. A system for the simultaneous detection of
tional means connected to said receiving means
wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of
and responsive to frequency modulated signals
intelligence including means for generating dis
for receiving intelligence.
crete pulses of energy at a pulse carrier fre 20
10. A system for the simultaneous detection of
quency which may be ?ltered with respect to the wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of
frequency of said intelligence transmission, means
intelligence including means for generating dis
connected to said generating means for radiat
crete pulses of energy, means connected to said
ing said pulses, means for receiving said radiated
generating means for radiating said pulses, means
pulses after their re?ection from an object to 25 for receiving said radiated pulses after their re
be detected, an indicator connected to said re
?ection from an object to be detected, an indica
ceiving means for indicating visually the recep
tor connected to said receiving means for indi—
tion of said re?ected pulses, and means effective
cating visually the reception of said re?ected
ly connected to said generating means for am
pulses, means effectively connected to said gen
plitude modulating said pulses with signals to 30 erating means for modulating said pulses with
be transmitted simultaneously for the communi
signals to be transmitted simultaneously for the
cation of intelligence.
communication of intelligence, and a frequency
6. A system for the simultaneous detection of
responsive device connected to said receiving ,
wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of
means for the reception of frequency modulation
intelligence including means for generating dis 35 communication signals.
crete pulses of energy at a pulse carrier fre
11. A system for the simultaneous detection of
quency which may be ?ltered with respect to
wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of
the frequency of said intelligencetransmission,
intelligence including means for generating dis
means connected to said generating means for
crete pulses of energy, means connected to said
radiating said pulses, means for receiving said 40 generating means for radiating said pulses, means
radiated pulses after their re?ection from an
for receiving said radiated pulses after their re
object to be detected, an indicator connected to
?ection from an object to be detected, an indi
said receiving means for indicating visually the
cator connected to said receiving means for indi
time between the radiation and the reception of
cating visually the reception of said re?ected
said re?ected pulses, and means effectively con 45 pulses, means effectively connected to said gen
nected to said generating means for modulating
erating means for modulating said pulses with
said pulses with signals to be transmitted simul
signals to be transmitted simultaneously for the
taneously for the communication of intelligence.
communication of intelligence, 9. limiter connect
7. A system for the simultaneous detection of
ed to said receiving means and a frequency re
wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of 50 sponsive device connected to said limiter for the
intelligence including means for generating dis
reception of frequency modulation communica
tion signals.
crete pulses of energy at a pulse carrier fre
quency which may be ?ltered with respect to the
12. A system for the simultaneous detection of
frequency of said intelligence transmission, means
wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of
connected to said generating means for radiat 55 intelligence including means for generating dis
ing said pulses, means for receiving said radiat
crete pulses of energy, means connected to said
ed pulses after their re?ection from an object
generating means for radiating said pulses, means
for receiving said radiated pulses after their re
to be detected, an indicator connected to said
receiving means for indicating visually the time
?ection from an object to be detected, an indi
between the radiation and the reception of said 60 cator connected to said receiving means for in
re?ected pulses, and means effectively connected
dicating visually the reception of said re?ected
to said generating means for frequency modulat
pulses, means effectively connected to said gen
erating means for frequency modulating said
ing said pulses with signals to be transmitted si
multaneously for the communication of intelli
pulses with signals to be transmitted simulta
gence.
65 neously for the communication of intelligence,
8. A system for the simultaneous detection of
a limiter connected to said receiving means, and
wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of
a frequency responsive device connected to said
intelligence including means for generating dis
limiter for the reception of frequency modulation
communication signals.
crete pulses of energy at a, pulse carrier frequency
which may be?ltered with respect to the fre 70 13. A system for the simultaneous detection
quency of said intelligence transmission, means
of wave re?ecting objects and the transmission
connected to said generating means for radiat
of intelligence including means for generating
ing said pulses, means for receiving said radiated
discrete pulses of energy, means connected to,
pulses after their re?ection from an object to be
said generating means for radiating said pulses,
detected, angindicator connected to said receiv
75 means for receiving said radiated pulses after
2,407,199
their reflection‘ from an object to be detected,
an indicator connected to said receiving means
for indicating visually the reception of said re
?ected pulses, means effectively connected to said
generating means for amplitude modulating said
pulses with signals to be transmitted simulta
neously for the communication of intelligence, a
limiter connected to said receiving means, and a
, frequency responsive device c‘onnected to said
8
quency of said intelligence communication, ra
diating said pulses, receiving said pulses after re
?ection, indicating the time between radiating
and reception of said pulses, and simultaneously
varying the amplitude of said pulse energy as a
function of signals to'be communicated.
19. The method of simultaneously detecting
wave re?ecting objects and transmitting and re
ceiving intelligence communicating signals which
limiter for the reception of frequency modulation 10 includes generating pulses of energy, radiating
said pulses, receiving said pulses after reflection,
communication signals.
'
-
indicating visually the reception of said re?ected
14. A system for the simultaneous detection
pulses, simultaneously receiving frequency modu
of wave re?ecting objects and the transmission
lated signals, indicating aurally reception of said
of intelligence including means for generating
discrete pulses of energy, means connected to 15 frequency modulated signals, and simultaneously
modulating said pulses of energy with communi
said generating means for radiating said pulses,
cation signals to be transmitted.
means for receiving said radiated pulses after
20. A system for the simultaneous detection
their re?ection from an object to be detected,
of wave re?ecting objects and the transmission
an indicator connected to said receiving means
for indicating visually the time between the ra 20 of intelligence including means for generating
discrete pulses of energy at a pulse carrier fre
diation and the reception of said re?ected pulses,
quency which may be ?ltered with respect to
means effectively connected to said generating
the frequency of said intelligence transmission,
means for frequency modulating said pulses with
means connected to said generating means for
signals to be transmitted simultaneously for ‘the
communication of intelligence, a limiter connect 25 radiating said pulses, means for receiving said
radiated pulses after their re?ection from an ob
ed to said receiving means, and a frequency re
ject to be detected, an indicator connected to
sponsive device connected to said limiter for the
said receiving means for indicating visually the
reception of frequency modulation communica
distance of a re?ecting object from said radiat
tion signals.
15. A system for the simultaneous detection 30 ing means as a function of the time between the
radiation and the reception of said re?ected
of wave re?ecting objects and the transmission
pulses, and means effectively connected to said
of intelligence including means for generating
generating means for modulating said pulses with
discrete pulses of energy, means connected to
signals to be transmitted simultaneously for the
said generating means for radiating said pulses,
means for receiving said radiated pulses after 35 communication of intelligence.
21. A system for the simultaneous detection of
their re?ection from an object to be detected, an
wave re?ecting objects and the transmission of
indicator connected to said receiving means for
intelligence including means for generating dis
indicating visually thev time between the radia
crete pulses of energy at a pulse carrier frequency
tion and the reception of said re?ected pulses,
means e?ectively connected to said generating 40 which may be ?ltered with respect to the fre
quency of said intelligence transmission, means
means for amplitude modulating said pulses with
connected to said generating means for radiating
signals to be transmitted simultaneously for the
said pulses, means for receiving said radiated
communication of intelligence, a limiter connect
pulses after their re?ection from an object to
ed to said receiving means, and a frequency re
be detected, an indicator connected to said re
sponsive device connected to said limiter for the
ceiving means for indicating visually the dis
reception of frequency modulation communica
tion signals.
'
tance of a. re?ecting object as a function of the
time between the radiation and the reception of
said re?ected pulses, and means effectively con
telligence which includes generating discrete 50 nected to said generating means for frequency
modulating said pulses with signals to be trans
pulses of' energy at a pulse carrier frequency
mitted simultaneously for the communication of
which may be ?ltered with respect to the fre
intelligence.
quency of said intelligence communication, radi
22. A system for the simultaneous detection
ating said pulses, receiving said pulses after re
?ection, indicating visually the reception of said 55 of wave re?ecting objects and the transmission
of intelligence including means for generating
re?ected pulses, and simultaneously modulating
discrete pulses of energy at a pulse carrier fre
said pulses of energy with signals to be com
quency which may be ?ltered with respect to
municated.
the frequency of said intelligence transmission,
17. The method of simultaneously detecting
‘ wave re?ecting objects and communicating in 60 means connected to said generating means for
radiating said pulses, means for receiving said
telligence which includes generating discrete
radiated pulses after their re?ection from an ob
pulses of energy at a pulse carrier frequency
ject to be detected, an indicator connected to
which may be ?ltered with respect to the fre—
said receiving means for indicating visually the
quency of said intelligence communication, ra-'
diating said pulses, receiving said pulses after 65 distance travelled by, a pulse from its point of
radiation to a re?ecting object and from said
re?ection, indicating the time between radiating
re?ecting object to said receiving means as a
and reception of said pulses, and simultaneously
function of the time between the radiation and
varying the frequency of said pulse energy as a ,
the reception of said re?ected pulses, and means
function of signals to be communicated.
16. The method of simultaneously detecting
wave re?ecting objects and communicating in
.18. "The method of simultaneously detecting 70 effectively connected to said generating means
for amplitude modulating said pulses with Sig
wave re?ecting objects and communicating in
telligence which includes generating discrete
pulses of energy at a pulse carrier frequency
which may be ?ltered with respect to the fre
nals to be transmitted simultaneously for the _
communication of intelligence.
IRVING WOLFF.
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