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Патент USA US2407222

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Sept. 10, 1946.
‘M. B; BOYCE
2,407,222
GRINDING MACHINE
Filed Oct. 12, 1945
80 70 (4
7B
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3 Sheets—Sheet l
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sePt-10f1945-
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M. B. BOYCE
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v2,407,222
GRINDING MACHINE
Filed Oct. 12, 1945
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Invert ?02~.
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407,222
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
I 2,407,222
GRINDING MACHINE
Y
Malcolm B. Boyce, Havel-hill, Mass.
I Application October 12, 1945, Serial No. 622,017
‘9 Claims.
(01. 51—118)
2
This invention relates to improvements in
grinding machines and more particularly to ma
chines which can safely and accurately grind
small-diameter parts and elements, such as pins
whose diameters may be of the order of eight to on
twenty thousandths of an inch,‘ for example.
However, the invention has general application
thereby to predetermine the diameter to which
any particular piece of work may be ground.
for‘grinding axially straight elements and parts
chine embodying features of my invention;
It is, moreover, my purpose and object gener
ally to improve the construction and operation of
grinding machines.
In the accompanying drawings:
Figure 1 is a front elevation of a grinding ma
whose diameters may vary from a few thou
Figure 2 is a top plan View of the machine of
sandths of an inch upward.
Itis among the objects of the invention to pro
10 Figure l, on a smaller scale;
Figure 3 is a cross-sectional view on line 3-—3
of Figure 2, on a larger scale, and omitting the
vide a grinding machine in which the grinding
work-holding chucks and their supports; and
action occurs simultaneously at opposite sides of
Figure 4 is a front elevation, somewhat dia
the work, with the pressure on the work approxi
mately balanced, whereby there is little or no 15 grammatic, of a modi?cationhaving a multiplic
ity of work-holding chucks.
‘
tendency to bend or otherwise distort the work
Referring to the drawings, the embodiment of
during the grinding operation; as frequently hap
the invention shown in Figs. 1-3 is designed for
pens when attempt is made to grind small-di
grinding simultaneously four similar work pieces
ameter elements and parts according to conven
Ill whose end portions i2 which are to be ground
tional grinding procedures. I employ two grind
are engaged between the opposed faces of two
ing wheels in disk or ring form, each mounted for
grinding wheels which are indicated generally at
rotation about a common axis and each resiliently
M and iii. The grinding wheels are slidably and
urged toward the other for resiliently engaging
rotatably mounted on a horizontal shaft [8 which
work between them. Two or a larger even num
ber of driven work-holding chucks are mounted 25 in turn is rigidly sup-ported. at its ends in station
ary uprights 20 on a base 22. A coil spring 24 is
adjacent to the peripheries of the grinding wheels,
loosely coiled about shaft iii and has one end bear
each chuck being diametrically opposite another
ing against the grinding wheel l4 and ‘its other
and the axes of the individuals of each diametri
end engaged against a slide member 26 which is
cally opposite pair of chucks being parallel to each
loose on shaft iii and which depends into sliding ‘
other and tangent to some imaginary concentric
engagement with the top surface of base 22, it
circle within the circumference of the wheels,
having a foot 2'! resting on the base, and the foot
so that similar work pieces held and rotated in op
having a threaded opening 28 therethrough in
positely disposed chucks can project between the
which one threaded portion- 30 of a screw 32 is
wheels and, by their rotation, cause rotation of
threadedly engaged. Screw 32 is rotatably
the grinding wheels in opposite directions, there
mounted in the uprights 2i) and is anchored
by to effect grinding of the work pieces.
‘
Another object is to provide a grinding machine
against axial travel, so that any rotation of screw
32 effects movement of slide member 26 along
wherein a pair of grinding wheels are resiliently
shaft 18, thereby to increase or decrease the
urged into grinding relation.‘ to rotated work
pieces which induce rotation of the grinding ~~ 40 pressure exerted by spring 24 on grinding wheel
l4, Similarly, a coil spring 34 is engaged around
wheels, with means for Varying the resilient pres
shaft 18 between the grinding wheel l6 and a slide
sure exerted by the grinding wheels on the‘ work
pieces.
'
member 36 whose foot 3'1 has a threaded opening
38 in which a threaded portion 40 of screw 32 is
A further object is to provide a grinding ma
chine in which the grinding ‘effect is produced by
threadedly engaged. The threaded portions 36
two opposed grinding surfaces resiliently urged
and 40 of the screw have right and left hand
threads respectively so that any rotation of the
screw 32, as by the handle 42, eiiects equal move
ments' of slide members 26 and 36 but in opposite
toward each other and against work pieces en
gaged between them, with the opposed grinding
surfaces rotated in opposite directions by rotation
of the work.
Yet another object is to provide a grinding ma
chine having a pair of grinding members resil
iently urged against work held between them, and
directions, thereby to increase or decrease equal
1y the‘pressure applied to each grinding wheel It,
IS ‘by their respective springs 24 and 34.
The grinding wheels [4, [6 may be of any suit
able form and construction providing opposed
having means for setting a limit for relative
movement of the members toward the work 55 surfaces between which the work to be ground
2,407,222
3
may be engaged.
4
As herein represented, each
It is important, according to the invention, that
wheel includes a ring 44 of abrasive material re
movably secured respectively on the wheel bodies
46 and 48, as by a spaced series of retaining
screws 59 threaded through the annular ?anges
52, 54 respectively on the wheel bodies 46 and 48,
the axes of all of the chucks, and the work held
therein, shall be tangent to some imaginary circle
inside the periphery of the grinding wheels and
concentricwith the aXis of the wheels. The im
aginary circle may be large or small as desired
the outer ends of the screws engaging an inclined
inner surface of a ring 44, the inclination of
which surface is such that a screw 50 forces the
but it is essential for e?icient grinding results
that the axis of each chuck be tangent to the
same imaginary circle. Also it is important to
ring against the wheel body outward of the 10 have each chuck, and more especially the work
?ange 52 or 54. Preferably the wheel body 48
held by each chuck, diametrically opposite an~
has an axially extending sleeve 56 projecting to
other chuck with work therein, so that there will
ward the wheel body 46 and closely surrounding
be a generally balanced effect on the wheels.
shaft I8, and wheel body 46 has a larger diame
This diametrically opposed relation of work
ter sleeve 58 for engaging over sleeve 56 thereby
pieces between the wheels tends to cause ?oating
to minimize the possibility of abrasive or abraded
of the wheels on shaft i3, thereby minimizing
particles be-fouling the wheel bearings, which
friction and facilitating attainment of precision
advantageously may include anti-friction bear
grinding results.
'
ing units as indicated at 66. Preferably the anti
In Fig. 1, the axes of all four chucks are ex
friction bearings will be needle bearings as shown 20 tended by dot and dash "lines to show their tan
which can more readily eliminate play to the end
gency to the imaginary circle 5 it) which is repre
that precision grinding results may be attained.
sented by dot and dash lines.
The sleeve 58 conveniently may be exteriorly
It will be obvious from the foregoing descrip
threaded for receiving the internally threaded
tion of the embodiment shown in Figs. 1-3 that
micrometer stop ring 62 whose setting along the 25 the driven work pieces i0, rotating between the
sleeve 58 can predetermine the ultimate diameter
grinding wheels I4, IE, will cause rotation of the
of the work which is being ground. A look nut
wheels in opposite directions and, because of the
84 may be provided on sleeve 53 for locking the
positions of the rotating work pieces relative to
stop ring in any particular setting.
the circuitous path of each abrasive particle
Any suitable lubricating means may be pro 30 engaging the work, the wheels effectively grind
vided for the working surfaces of the grinding
the work without any tendency to bend the small
wheels, such as the gravity flow device 66 shown
diameter pins which are shown. By prelimi
in Fig. 3, having a restricted nozzle 68 adapted for
narily setting the micrometer stop ring 62 so
intermittent drop-by-drop supply of lubricant to
that it stops relative movement of the wheels to
the abrading surfaces of the wheels, or the lubri 35 ward each‘ other when the space between their
cant may be supplied in a steady stream in par
grinding faces has width equal to the desired
ticular cases.
ultimate diameter of the Work, uniform precision
Referring now more particularly to Fig. l, the
grinding results may be attained on work pieces
work pieces Ii! are mounted in individual chucks
having such small diameters that prior grinding
‘I0, 12, ‘I4 and 16. Each chuck is hollow, for re 40 machines could not grind them.
ceiving work, or an arbor which carries the work,
While I have shown four work chucks in Fig.
of diameters up to the internal diameter of the
l, the upper chuck at one side together with the
chuck. Chucks ‘It, ‘I2 are rotatably mounted one
lower chuck at the opposite side may be omitted
above the other in the parallel uprights ‘I8, 80 at
one side of the grinding wheels, and chucks ‘I4
and ‘I6 are similarly mounted at the other side
of the grinding wheels, in the parallel uprights
82, at. The uprights 78, 80 preferably are in
tegral with or attached to a horizontal slide mem
ber 86 which has a dove-tail Sliding connection '
to base 22 as at 88, with a usual adjusting screw
iii) for adjusting the slide member on the base
22 thereby to properly position the axes of the
chucks ‘I'd, ‘I2 relative to the cleavage or space
between the opposed faces of the grinding
wheels.
The chucks ‘l4 and 16 are similarly mounted
one above the other at the other side of the
wheels in the parallel uprights 82, 84 which are
carried by slide member 92 on base 22. A screw
94 permits adjustment of this slide member, the
same as the slide member 86.
The chucks ‘Ill and ‘I2 are rotated in the same
direction, as by the belt 96 passing over the pul
leys 98, I82, respectively on chuck ‘I3 and on
chuck ‘12. As seen in Fig. 2, the belt 96 passes
also over a drive pulley I€I2 ondrive shaft I64
which may be driven from any suitable source
without affecting the efficient operation of the
machine.
Also a larger even number of chucks may be
spaced at intervals around the periphery of the
wheel as indicated more or less diagrammatically
in Fig. 4, where sixteen work chucks IE8 are rep
resented, each rotatably mounted in bearings I2€l,
I22 projecting outward from a vertical plate I24.
A common flexible drive shaft I26 has one and
connected to the shaft I28 of motor i343 and is
arranged in a circular loop with bearings I32 at
intervals all around the loop. Each chuck I I8
has a pulley I I9 thereon which is belt-driven from
the ?exible drive shaft by means of individual
belts I34 each of which is trained over a chuck
pulley H9 and over one of the pulleys I36 on
the drive shaft, with a pair of idler pulleys I38
(only one of each pair being visible) for properly
directing each belt.
The grinding wheels, only one of which ap
pears, as indicated generally at I40, are slidably
and rotatably mounted on shaft M2 within the
circle of the chucks, the shaft being supported
in end uprights I44, only one of which appears
in Fig. 4. The axes of all of the chucks I58 are
66.
70 tangent to the imaginary circle indicated by dot
and dash lines at I 46.
Chucks ‘I4 and ‘I6 both are rotated in direction
In a construction like that of Fig. 4, rotation
opposite to the direction of rotation of chucks ‘I6,
of the ?exible drive shaft I26 rotates all of the
‘I2, this being accomplished by a crossed belt I08
chucks H8, and the work therein, causing the
passing over pulleys III] and II 2 on the chucks
and over drive pulley II 4 on the drive shaft I04.
grinding wheels to rotate in opposite directions,
of power such as the variable speed electric motor
2,407,222
5
6
with grinding action on ‘the work as described in‘
connection with the embodiment of Figs. 1-3.
diametrically opposite locations with respect ‘to
The speed with which any particular grinding
the axis of said members, said work holders hav
ing mutually parallel axes spaced equally at op
operation will be accomplished in any grinder
embodying my present invention, will depend
posite sides of the axis of said members and in a
common plane between and parallel with the
upon the speed of rotation of the chucks and the
Work and the amount of pressure exerted on the
grinding wheels, tending to force them toward
each other. By employing a variable speed motor,
planes of said opposed annular surface portions
of said members, said work holders being located
or some other means for varying the effective
rotative speed of the chucks, the speed of rota
tion of the work may be selected as desired. Also
the pressure on the wheels may be adjusted uni
formly and simultaneously by turning the screw
32 (Fig. 3).
Obviously the speed of grinding also will be
affected by the character of the abrasive surfaces
of the grinding wheels. A coarse, hard abrasive
surface will grind faster than a less hard smoother
surface.
'
The operation of this grinder is based on the
fact that as the work and the grinding rings re
volve the grinding surfaces slip, to a certain ex
and adapted to hold work with a portion of the
work in each holder projecting axially of the
10 vwork holder into position to be engaged between
said opposed annular surface portions of said
members, and means for rotating the work hold
ers in opposite directions thereby to cause grind
ing relative rotation of said members by there
tating portions of the Work engaged therebe
tween.
2, A grinding machine comprising a pair of
members having annular surface portions in op
posed relation, at least one of which surface por
tions has abrading elements thereon, means sup
porting said members for relative rotation of the
members about the axis of said annular surface
portions and for relative axial movement of the
members toward and from each other, means
tent, axially of the work. This slipping, which
helps the grinding to take place, occurs because 25 resiliently urging said members’ relatively axially
the direction of travel of any given point on the
toward each other, a pair of rotary work holders
adjacent the peripheries of said members and at
surface of the work in contact with the abrasive
diametrically opposite locations with respect to
ring does not coincide with the direction of travel
of any given work-contact point on the surface
the axis of said members, said work holders hav
ing mutually parallel axes spaced equally at op
‘of the abrasive ring. The grindingeffect which
this di?erence of direction of travel induces is
the direct result of. the tangential position of the
posite sides of the axis of said members and in
' a common plane between and parallel with the
planes of said opposed annular surface portions
of said members, said work holders being located
invention relates there is a more or less de?nite 35 and adapted to hold work with a portion of the
work in each. holder projecting axially of the
relationship or ratio between the diameter of the
Work holder into position to be engaged between
work to be ground and the outside diameter of
said opposed annular surface portions of said
the abrasive rings or wheels. This grinder may
members, means for rotating the work holders in
be constructed in a wide variety of sizes. A two
opposite directions thereby to cause grinding
chuck or four-chuck grinder designed for grind
relative rotation of said members by the rotating
ing small work to extremely small diameters will
portions of the work engaged therebetween, and
have abrasive rings or wheels only a few inches
adjustable means for predetermining the limit of
in diameter. A two-chuck or four-chuck grinder
relative axial movement of the members toward
designed for grinding work several inches in di
each other, thereby to predetermine the ultimate
ameter will have abrasive rings or wheels several
diameter of the Work which is being ground.
feet in diameter. Between these two extremes
3. A grinding machine comprising a pair of
there may be a considerable number of different
sizes of grinders, each size being designed for
members having annular surface portions in op
posed relation, at least one of which surface por
grinding work of certain sizes.
The number of chucks built into a grinder is a 50 tions has abrading elements thereon, means ‘sup
porting said members for relative rotation of the
factor which will aifect the above mentioned ra
tio. A twenty-chuck grinder designed for grind
members about the axis of said annular surface
ing small work may, for example, have abrasive
portions and for relative axial movement of the
work.
'
In grinders of the general type to which the
rings or wheels of approximately the same di
ameter as the abrasive rings or wheels in a two
chuck or in a four-chuck grinder designed for
grinding relatively large work.
‘
When grinding certain types of work it will be
members toward and from each other, means re
siliently urging said members relatively axially
toward each other, a pair of rotary work holders
adjacent the peripheries of said members and at
diametrically opposite locations with respect to
the axis of said members, said work holders hav
necessary to mount‘the work on an arbor and
insert the arbor in the chuck. An example of 60 ing mutually parallel axes spaced equally at on
posite sides of the axis of said members and in a
this type of work is the ‘outside ring element of a
common plane between and parallel with the
ball bearing. This element could be mounted on
an arbor for precision grinding in this grinder.
I claim as my invention:
‘
planes of said opposed annular surface portions
of said members, said work holders being located
1. A grinding ‘machine comprising a pair of 65 and adapted to hold work with a portion of the
work in each holder projecting axially of the work
members having annular surface portions in op
holder into position to be engaged between said
posed relation, at least one of which surface por
opposed annular surface portions of said mem
tions has abrading elements thereon, means sup
bers, means for rotating the Work holders in on
porting said members for relative rotation of the
members about the axis of said annular surface 70 posite directions thereby to cause grinding rela
tive rotation of said members by the rotating por
portions and for relative axial movement of the
members toward and from each other, means re
tions of the work engaged therebetween, and
siliently urging said members relatively, axially
means for varying the pressure exerted by said
toward each other, a pair of rotary work holders
resilient means on at least one of said pair of
adjacent the peripheries of said members and at
members.
2,407,222
7
8
4. A grinding machine comprising a pair of
wheels each having an annular abrading surface
portion, means supporting said wheels rotatably
and slidably with their said abrading surface por
tions in opposed relation, means resiliently urging
rotation of the wheels in opposite directions by
the rotating portions of the work engaged be
said wheels axially toward each other, a pair of
tween them, said resilient means comprising a
coil spring for each wheel resiliently pressing its
wheel toward the other wheel, and means for si
multaneous equal variation of the spring pres
rotary work holders adjacent the peripheries of
sure on the two wheels.
said wheels and at diametrically opposite locations
'7. A grinding machine comprising a pair of
wheels each having an annular abrading surface
with respect to the axis of the wheels, said work
holders having mutually parallel axes spaced 10 portion, means supporting said wheels rotatably
equally at opposite sides of the axis of said wheels
and slidably with their said abrading surface por
and in a common plane between. and parallel with
tions in opposed relation, means resiliently urging
the planes of said abrading surface portions of the
said wheels axially toward each other, a pair of ro
tary work holders adjacent the peripheries of
wheels, said work holders being located and
adapted to hold work with a portion of the work 15 said wheels and at diametrically opposite loca
in each holder projecting axially of the holder
tions with respect to the axis of the wheels, said
work holders having mutually parallel axes
into position to be engaged between said opposed
spaced equally at opposite sides of the axis of
abrading surface portions of the wheels, and
means for rotating the work holders in opposite
said wheels and in a common plane between and
directions thereby to cause grinding rotation of
the wheels in opposite directions by the rotating
portions of the work engaged between them.
5. A grinding machine comprising a pair of
parallel with the planes of said abrading sur
face portions of the wheels, said work holders
being located and adapted to hold work with a
portion of the work in each holder projecting
axially of the holder into position to be engaged
wheels each havinor an annular abrading surface
portion, means supporting said wheels rotatably
and slidably with their said abrading surface por
tions in opposed relation, means resiliently urging
said wheels axially toward each other, a pair of
rotary work holders adjacent the peripheries of
said wheels and at diametrically opposite loca- -
tions with respect to the axis of the wheels, said
work holders having mutually parallel axes spaced ‘
equally at opposite sides of the axis of said wheels
and in a common plane between and parallel with
the planes of said abrading surface portions of
the wheels, said work holders being located and
adapted to hold work with a portion of the work
in each holder projecting axially of the holder into
position to be engaged between said opposed
between said opposed abrading surface portions
of the wheels, means for rotating the Work hold
ers in opposite directions thereby to cause grind
ing rotation of the wheels in opposite directions
by the rotating portions of the work engaged
between them, and means for adjusting the work
holders bodily in directions axially of the wheels.
8. A grinding machine comprising a pair of
wheels each having an annular abrading surface
portion, means supporting said wheels rotatably
and slidably with their said abrading surface por
tions in opposed relation, means resiliently urging
said wheels axially toward each other, a plurality of
pairs of rotary work holders adjacent the periph
eries of said wheels, the individuals of each pair
abrading surface portions of the wheels, and 40 being at diametrically opposite locations with re~
spect to the axis of the wheels, and the axes of
means for rotating the work holders in opposite
the holders of each pair being mutually parallel
directions thereby to cause grinding rotation of
and spaced equally at opposite sides of the axis
the wheels in opposite directions by the rotating
portions of the work engaged between them, said
of the wheels, the axes of all of the holders being
wheels having inter-?tting hub sleeves radially 45 in a common plane between and parallel with
the planes of said abrading surface portions of
inward of the regions of grinding preventing par
ticles from the grinding regions from getting into
the wheels, said work holders being located and
adapted to hold work with a portion of the work
the wheel bearings, and an adjustable stop mem
in each holder projecting axially of the holder
ber on the outer one of said sleeves for determin
ingr the limit of movement of the wheels toward 50 into position to be engaged between said opposed
abrading surface portions of the wheels, and a
each other.
6. A grinding machine comprising a pair of
common drive shaft for rotating all of the work
holders thereby to cause grinding rotation of the
wheels each having an annular abrading surface
portion, means supporting said wheels rotatably
wheelsv by the rotating portions of Work engaged
between them.
and slidably with their said abrading surface por
9. In a grinding machine, a pair of rotary
tions in opposed relation, means resiliently urging
grinding members resiliently urged toward each
said wheels axially toward each other, a pair of ro
other and having opposed annular grinding sur
tary work holders adjacent the peripheries of
faces, and a pair of work holders adjacent the
said Wheels and at diametrically opposite loca
peripheries of said members and at diametrically
tions with respect to the axis of the wheels, said
work holders having mutually parallel axes
opposite sides of said members, said work holders
having mutually parallel axes spaced equally on
spaced equally at opposite sides of the axis of
opposite sides of the axis of said members, and
said Wheels and in a common plane between and
each work holder being adapted to hold a work
parallel with the planes of said abrading surface
piece with a portion thereof projecting between
portions of the wheels, said work holders being
and engaged by said grinding members, and
located and adapted to hold work with a portion
means'for rotating the work holders in opposite
of the work in each holder projecting axially of
directions thereby to rotate said grinding mem
the holder into position to be engaged between
bers by the rotating work engaged between them.
said opposed abrading surface portions of the
MALCOLM B. BOYCE.
wheels, and means for rotating the work holders
in opposite directions thereby to cause grinding
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