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Sept. 10, 1946. G. L. DQELLING 2,407,226 ANTIBUMPING DEVICE Filed'oct. 27, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Sept. 10, 1946. ANTIBUMPING c.’ 1.. POELLI.NG_ DEVICE “ Filed Oct. ‘27, 1941 ' $407,225 “ 2“ Sheets-Sljeet 2 Patented Sept. 10, 1946 2,407,226 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE“ 2,407,226 ANTI‘BUMPING DEVICE George L. Doelling, St. Louis, Mo. Application October 27, 1941, Serial No. 416,666 3 Claims. This invention relates to improvements in “anti-bumping” devices used in vaporization processes. More particularly, the invention re lates to improvements in “anti-bumping” devices that are designed to maintain a quantity of air or vapor in contact with the liquid contents of a still, evaporator, boiler, or distilling ?ask during the vaporization process. It is one object of the present invention to pro vide an “anti-bumping” device of simple con (01. 23-4292) 2 condense into liquid. On re-heating, there may be insu?icient air or uncondensed vapor in‘ the device to foster quiet vaporization of the liquid, and “bumping” may ensue. Especially is this . true where the vaporization is done under re duced pressure. Where the vaporization is, done under reduced pressure, a good portion of the air initially held by the. “anti-bumping” device is drawn out by the vacuum.‘ The air that re 10' mains in the device is, gradually replaced by struction that is effective in preventing “bump vapor, until very little air remains in the “anti ing” in the distillation, vaporization, or boiling of bumping” device. If the still is opened to per liquids. mit insertion of additional liquid to bevvaporized, This invention relates to improvements in the pressure will increase and the contents will “anti-bumping” devices similar to the “anti 15 cool. In such a case, practically all of the vapor bumping” devices disclosed in my co-pending ap in the “anti-bumping”idevice will condense. On plications, Serial No. 334,949, entitled “Anti , re-heating, the liquid will quite probably “bump.” bumping” devices, ?led ‘May 13, 1940, and issued The various “anti-bumping” devices disclosed November 4, 1941, as Patent No. 2,261,235, and in my co-pending applications, Serial No. 334,949, Serial No. 401,737, entitled “Anti-bumping” de 20 issued November 4, 1941, as Patent No. 2,261,235, vices, ?led July 10, 1941. This invention is a con and Serial No. 401,737, avoided “bumping” after tinuation in part of the invention disclosed in a heating and cooling cycle by various means. applications Serial No. 334,949, issued November Some of the devices had a normally closed con 4, 1941, as Patent No. 2,261,235, and Serial No. nection to the atmosphere outside of the va 401,737. , 25 porization apparatus, that could be opened man When “bumping” occurs, there is some super ually to charge the device. Others were arranged heating of portions of the liquid to be vaporized. to catch and hold the vapor evolved by “bump The superheating of portions of the liquid re ing” of the liquid, and thus be charged. The duces ef?ciency. “Bumping” also causes the “en v improved “anti-bumping” devices contemplated trainment” of droplets of liquid by the vapor, 30 by the present invention have a new and diifer that foul the distillate. Preventing “entrain ent means to foster smooth vaporization after a ment” necessitates the provision of additional heating and cooling cycle. This means consists volume in the vaporization apparatus that ordi of a reservoir for air. This reservoir holds a sup narily is not needed. It can be seen, therefore, ply‘ of gas, air, or vapor that is normally isolated» that “bumping” reduces the e?iciency oi vapori from the main portion of the “anti-bumping” zation apparatus. By obviating “bumping” with 35 device. This supply of gas, air, or vapor in’ the the devices and methods described herein, it is reservoir may contract during. the cooling cycle, possible to promote smooth, even vaporization of but it will expand during the re-heating cycle liquid and thereby increase the efficiency of the and will combine with‘ the evolution of vapor vaporization process. from the liquid in the reservoir to charge the The phenomenon of “bumping” in vaporization 40 “anti-bumping” device. This is quite useful be processes, is particularly noticeable upon restart cause it automatically avoids all “bumping” after ing, after the distillation has been interrupted a heating and cooling cycle. It is, therefore, an for some reason. During the vaporization proc ess, most of the air that is trapped in an "anti bumping” device will gradually be displaced by Y object of the present invention to provide an 45 “anti-bumping” device having a reservoir for air. “Anti-bumping” devices can be used to advan- tage in large vaporization apparatus. Where vapor of the liquid to be vaporized. As long as the heating continues, the vapor in the device this is the case, it is desirable‘ to provide a plu will contact the liquid and foster the‘ smooth, even vaporization of the liquid. When, however, the vaporization process is temporarily suspended rality of chambers to foster smooth vaporization. Some of the “anti-bumping” devices disclosed in my'co-pending applications had a plurality of to make a cut, or for the addition of liquid to be vaporized, or for any other reason, the contents cool somewhat. ‘ This cooling causes most or all , chambers. These “anti-bumping” devices are‘ ‘quite useful, but their utility can be increased even more by the provision of a reservoir for air of the vapor'in the "anti-bumping” device to 55 It is, therefore, an ‘object of the present inven—v 2,407,226 4 3 tion to provide an “anti-bumping” device having is evolved from the liquid will issue from the a plurality of interconnected chambers and a reservoir for air. chamber through opening I8. The ever-dimin ishing supply of liquid in the chamber will be continually Other objects and advantages of the invention will appear from the drawings and accompany replenished by liquid entering through the lower opening 20. This liquid will be vaporized without any “bumping.” If the heating operation is temporarily suspended, a ing description. In the drawings and accompanying description, several preferred embodiments of the invention have been shown and described, but it is to. be cooling of the contents of the ?ask will ensue. This cooling will result in a condensation of the understood that the drawings and accompanying 10 vapor in the chamber l4. Where the heating cycle has been prolonged for some time, the air description do not limit the invention, and the initially entrapped in the chamber M will have invention will be de?ned by the appended claims. been displaced practically completely by vapor In the drawings, of the. liquid. to be vaporized. In such a case, Fig. 1 is a partial cross-sectional view of a flask that shows a side elevational view of an “anti 1.5 the. chamber will be practically completely ?lled with liquid during the cooling cycle. In a subse bumping” device positioned therein. quent re-heating cycle, the chamber I4 must be Fig. 2 is a partial cross-sectional view of a?ask charged with air or vapor, or the liquid in the that shows a side elevational view of another ?ask It] will “bump.” rI'he device in Fig. 1 is form of “anti-bumping” device positioned there in. 20 charged by air or vapor from the reservoir l6. On re-heating, the air or vapor held in the reser Fig. 3 is a front elevational view of an “anti voir will expand and will also foster the vapori bumping” device. zation of the liquid in the reservoir. The com Fig. 4 is a partial cross-sectional view of a bined action of vaporization and expansion will ?ask that shows a side elevational view of an other form of “anti-bumping” device therein. 25 quickly ?ll the reservoir with air and vapor, and will soon cause vapor to move around bend [9 Fig. 5 is a perspective view of an “anti-bump into chamber It. This will recharge the device. ing” device. The device is thus recharged after a heating Fig. 6 is a perspective view of another “anti and cooling cycle without any “bumping” what bumping" device, and Fig. 7' is a front elevational View of the “anti 30 ever. An “anti-bumping” device of slightly differ bumping” device, shown in Fig. 6. ent design is shown in Fig. 2. This device con Referring to the drawings in detail, in Fig- 1, sists of two hollow chambers 22 and 24, and a a distilling ?ask is denoted by the numeral I0. reservoir 26. Each of the chambers 22 and 24 Positioned inside of the ?ask I0 and securely attached thereto is an “anti-bumping” device 35 has an opening 28 in the side thereof and an opening 30 in the bottom thereof. The open l2. The “anti-bumping” device f2 consists of a ing 28 in the side of the chamber is an outlet for vapor and the opening 30 in the bottom of the chamber is an inlet for liquid. The reser The opening I8 is positioned a distance below 40 voir 26 is connected to the chamber 24 by a bend 32 and it has a closed upper end. This the closed upper portion of the chamber l4, and bend preferably should not be above the level the opening 20 is positioned below opening l8, of the outlets 28 for vapor. If it were above but in the chamber portion of the tube. When hollow tube that is bent to form a chamber l4 and a reservoir IS. The chamber M has a closed upper portion, an opening l8, and an opening 20. the level of the outlets 28, the reservoir and liquid is poured into the ?ask IE, it will enter the chamber I4 and the reservoir it through. .1 the chamber would not normally be isolated from each other by the liquid in the chamber. The openings [8 and 20. The reservoir is open only device is positioned in and securely attached to at the bottom, so the’ level of the liquid’ in the the flask l l . When liquid is poured into the flask reservoir will not rise much above the bend in II, it enters the chambers 22 and 24 through the tube. The level of the liquid in the chamber . openings 28 and 30. The liquid will also enter It will rise to the level of opening I8. The liq the bend 32 and will normally isolate the reser u-id‘ will, therefore, trap air in the reservoir l6 voir 26 from the chamber 24. Air will be en and the chamber I4, and will normally isolate trapped in the upper portions of chambers 22 the two from each other. Where desired, the and‘ 24, and will foster the smooth vaporization “anti-bumping” device may be charged with a gas instead of air. This gas maybe one of a . of the liquid. During distillation, the air in the chambers will gradually be displaced by vapor number of gases that are in the gaseous state until. the chambers have practically no air in throughout the temperature range of the vapor‘ ization process and preferably are not freely soluble in the liquid to be vaporized. For the sake of convenience, the word “air” will be in tended to comprehend such a gas as well as air wherever the word “air” appears'in the speci?ca tion and‘ claims. The reservoir will normally be them. If the contents of the vaporization ap paratus are then cooled, the vapor in the cham so bers will condense into liquid. On re-heating, the chambers must be recharged, orv “bumping” will ensue. The chambers are recharged auto‘ matically by the air or vapor from the reservoir 26. As the liquid gets warm, the air in the reservoir will expand and will also foster vapor ization of the liquid in the reservoir. The com bined action of expansion and vaporization will ?ll the reservoir to over?owing and vapor will pass around the bend 32 into the chamber 24 and even vaporization in the» manner of the “anti bumping” devicesv disclosed- in- my co-pending 750 charge it. The evolution of vapor in chamber 24 will then cause bubbles of vapor to pass into applications Serial No. 334,949, issued November chamber 22 through connecting member 23. This 4, 1941, as Patent No. 2,261,235, and Serial No. member is preferably not above the level of the 401,737. The liquid in the chamber l4 will con vapor outlets 2B. The reservoir 26, therefore, tact the air in the upper portion of the chamber isolated from the chamber by the liquid to be vaporized, and will function to maintain the air in the reservoir separate from the vaporization occurring in the chamber. When the ?ask’ isv heated, the chamber [4‘ will operate to promotev and will vaporize quite readily. The vapor that ' automatically recharges. the “anti-bumping” de 5 ‘2,407,226 vice and prevents any “bumping” of the contents of the vaporization apparatus. This type of “an ti-bumping” device is quite useful because it ‘fosters smooth vaporization at a number of points in the vaporization apparatus and materially in creases the rate of vaporization. Fig. 3 shows an “anti-bumping” ‘device that 6 notches 56. The device may be made so that it can stand by itself or it may be made to lean against an upper portion of the vaporization ap paratus.‘ When the device is placed in vaporiza tion apparatus containing liquid, the liquid Will enter the bottom of the chamber and the bottom of the reservoir. Air will be entrapped in the up per portions of the reservoir and the chamber. The chamber and the reservoir will normally be low portion 34 that serves as a reservoir and as 10 isolated from each other by the liquid in the an extension. The extension 34 engages an upper chamber. After a heating and cooling cycle, the portion of the vaporization apparatus and main vapor in the chamber will practically all have tains the device in the operative position and condensed into liquid. The device is automati may be used in various forms of vaporization apparatus. This device has an upstanding hol ~ has a closed upper portion. It also operates as cally recharged by re-heating the liquid, since the a reservoir for air or vapor. The “anti-‘bump 15 air and vapor in the reservoir will completely ?ll ing” device itself consists of two interconnected the reservoir and will cause bubbling at the bot chambers 36 and 38. The chamber 36 is located tom of the reservoir. This bubbling will charge above chamber 38, but is connected to it. The the chamber. This device is particularly useful chamber 36 has at least one opening 40 in addi because it maintains vapor in contact with the tion to the opening 42 where it is connected to 20 liquid near the source of heat. chamber 38. Chamber 38 has at least two open Figs. 6 and 7 shows another form of “anti ings 44 and 46. When this device is placed in bumping” device. This device comprises two in; a vaporization apparatus and liquid is poured terconnected chambers 60 and 62 and a reservoir into the apparatus, liquid will ?ll the portions 64 connected to chamber 62. The chamber 62 has of chamber 36 below the opening 40, will ?ll the 25 an open bottom and notches 66 in the edges near portion of the chamber 38 below the opening 44, the bottom of the chamber for outlet of vapor. and will ?ll the bend 48. The rest of the device will be ?lled with air that will-foster even vapor Chamber 6D has an opening 68 and an opening 10 The ization of the liquid. The utility of this particu opening 10 is preferably not above notches 66. lar device is that vaporization can take place 30 Reservoir 64 has‘a closed upper portion and is simultaneously at diiferent levels in the liquid. connected to chamber 62 by an opening 12 that As the liquid vaporizes and its level in the still is preferably not above notches 66. The reservoir falls, evolution of vapor will continue from open 64 is ordinarily isolated from chamber 62 by the ings 40‘ and 44 until the liquid level is below open liquid in the bottom of the chamber 62. The re ing 40. Vapor will continue to issue from open 35 charging of the device is substantially the same as ing 44 until the liquid level is below the open the recharging of the device in Fig. 3.‘ The de ing 44. ‘ After this, vaporization will occur from vices provided by the invention effectively and au the opening 46 until the liquid level falls to this tomatically prevent "bumping” during heating, point. Atthis time, the ratio of the surface cooling,‘ and re-heating cycles. ' of the liquid to the volume of the liquid is so 40 The drawing has shown the devices mounted large that, the problem of the “bumping" is no in distilling ?asks, but this Was done only for the longer of any concern. If the vaporization proc sake of clarity and convenience. These devices ess is suspended while there is still a sizeable can be used in any kind of vaporization apparatus. quantity of liquid in the vaporization apparatus, The devices may be made so they are self the contents will cool down and the vapor in chambers 36 and 38 will condense into liquid. On re-heating, the device will be recharged auto matically by air and vapor issuing from the res where it communicates with chamber 62. supporting or they may be used in vaporization apparatus, provided with means to hold the de vices in the operating position. The anti-bumping devices of this invention ervoir 34. Air or vapor from the reservoir will comprise a chamber and a reservoir for air. be caught in chamber 38. This air or vapor will 50 chamber may be made in any suitable shape The, but foster vaporization in chamber 38 until the upper it must have a closed upper portion, an inlet‘for portion of the chamber is ?lled with vapor. liquid, and an outlet for vapor. In some cases,,a Vapor will then bubble out of holes 42 and 44. single opening can serve the dual purpose of inlet The vapor passing through-the opening 42 will be caught in chamber 36 and will charge the chamber. In this way. the device will be re for liquid and outlet for vapor, and the chamber will then have only one opening. The reservoir is preferably connected to the chamber at a point charged without any “bumping” of the liquid. not higher than the outlet for vapor. Further Fig. 4 shows an “anti-bumping” device similar more, at least a part of the reservoir is preferably to the device shown in Fig, 1. This device has a positioned higher than the bottom of the chamber chamber 49 similar to chamber l4 and a reservoir 60 so the reservoir will trap air therein. 50 similar to reservoir 1 6. The device is different “Bumping” is objectionable for many reasons. from the device shown in Fig. 1, in that this de Many of these are detailed in my co-pending ap vice is not permanently attached to the vaporiza plications, Serial Numbers 334,949, issued Novem tion apparatus and may be removed. The opera ber 4, 1941, as Patent No. 2,261.235 and 401,737. tion of this device is substantially identical With 65 Not the least objection to “bumping” is the loss of the operation of the device shown in Fig. 1. ef?ciency it causes. I have made tests with the Fig. 5 shows another form of “anti-bumping” “anti-bumping” devices I have invented, and find device. This form of device consists of a reser that the use of these devices increases the rate of voir 52 and a chamber -54. The reservoir is vaporization. This is the case where the device formed from a hollow tube with a closed upper 70 is used in glass, metal lined with glass, metal, or end and extends into the chamber 54. The other vaporization apparatus. In making the chamber 54 has an open bottom and has notches tests, every precaution was taken to avoid errors. 56 in its lower edges that function as outlets for ’ Two stills were placed in the same hot-water bath vapor. The bottom of reservoir 52 has a notch 58 and their receivers were both connected to the that is preferably not above the level of the 75 same vacuum line. A stirrer was used to secure 2,407,226 ‘anteven temperature throughoutthe water in the bath. Qne .of the stills was equipped with the ‘.‘anti-bumping”'device shown. inFig. 3, while the other. had no"‘anti-bumping” device. To obviate errors,:the “anti-bumping” device was taken from the‘onesstill and placed in the‘ other and the test repeated. In .one such ‘series of tests, two 500 cc. copper flasks were each charged with 300 cc. of distilled water. "A constant bath temperature was main tained and'a constant vacuum-was maintained. Atotal of eight distillations (four'pairs) were run forforty mintues each. The combined results of 8 low the top of the chambers-toigive a'closed space above'said discharge openings. 2. In combination, 'a vaporization apparatus and an anti-bumping device, said anti-bumping device comprising aniintegral structure contain ing more than two chambers, one chamber being sealed and extending ‘above the others and con necting therewith by a discharge passage, 'said ?rst chamber being ‘without opening :except through the :dischargepassage, said other cham bers each having an openingin proximity .to the bottom thereof and a discharge opening there above but at a su?icient distance below the top of the "runs 'show that four ‘runs with the “anti such :chamber to give a closed space ‘above said of vaporization by ‘100 per cent or more. within and resting on the ‘bottom of the said va bumping‘” device vaporized ‘761.1 grams .of water, 115 discharge opening, said‘anti-bumping device being positionedinclose proximity-to the bottom of said while four parallel .runs without an “anti-bump vaporization apparatus ‘so that it will be normally ing”rdevice vaporized-only 465.0 grams of water. surrounded by and substantially immersed in the By:use or the “anti-bumping” device, 63.7% more liquid being vaporized and'willbe near the heat waterwas vaporized in the .same length of time. Similar tests were also run with glass-distilling 20 ing surface of ‘said vaporization apparatus. 3. In. ‘combination, a vaporization apparatus ?asks. These ‘tests showed that the use of an and a .removable'anti-bumping device positioned “anti-bumping” device can increase the amount These porization apparatus so that it will be normally tests clearly. show that it is possible to increase thee?iciency of vaporization processes tremen 25 surrounded by and'substantially immersed in the liquid being vaporized and will be near the heat dously by theuse of “anti-bumping” devices. ing surface of the said vaporization apparatus, ‘Whereas ‘the drawings and accompanying de said anti-bumping device comprisingan integral scription have shown and described preferred em structure containing more than two chambers, bo‘diments'of the invention, it is- obvious to those skilled in the-art that various changes in form can 30 one chamber being integrally sealed'and extend ing above the others and‘connecting therewith by be made without a?’e'cting the scope of the in a discharge passage, said ?rst chamber being vention. without ‘opening except ‘through the discharge ‘What I claim is: passage, said other chambers, ‘each having an .1. In combination, a vaporizer and an ‘anti bumping device'comprising an integral structure 35 opening in proximity to the bottom thereof and containing ‘more than‘two chambers, within the vaporizer and in close proximity to the heating surface thereof, one chamber being sealed and extending above the others and connecting there with‘by ‘a discharge passage, said ?rst chamber 40 being without opening :above the point of dis charge, :said other chambers being open at the bottoms thereof 'and each having a‘discharge opening therea‘bove but at su?icient distance be a discharge opening'thereabove but at a suffi cient distance below ‘the ‘top of such chamber to give a closed. space above said discharge opening, the upper part of said anti-bumping device being adaptedto engage a portion ‘of the vaporization apparatus and'thereby maintain the said device in the ‘operating position. GEORGE L. DOELLING.