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Sept. 10, 1946.
Filed'oct. 27, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Sept. 10, 1946.
c.’ 1.. POELLI.NG_
Filed Oct. ‘27, 1941
' $407,225
2“ Sheets-Sljeet 2
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
George L. Doelling, St. Louis, Mo.
Application October 27, 1941, Serial No. 416,666
3 Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in
“anti-bumping” devices used in vaporization
processes. More particularly, the invention re
lates to improvements in “anti-bumping” devices
that are designed to maintain a quantity of air or
vapor in contact with the liquid contents of a
still, evaporator, boiler, or distilling ?ask during
the vaporization process.
It is one object of the present invention to pro
vide an “anti-bumping” device of simple con
(01. 23-4292)
condense into liquid. On re-heating, there may
be insu?icient air or uncondensed vapor in‘ the
device to foster quiet vaporization of the liquid,
and “bumping” may ensue. Especially is this
. true where the vaporization is done under re
duced pressure. Where the vaporization is, done
under reduced pressure, a good portion of the
air initially held by the. “anti-bumping” device
is drawn out by the vacuum.‘ The air that re
10' mains in the device is, gradually replaced by
struction that is effective in preventing “bump
vapor, until very little air remains in the “anti
ing” in the distillation, vaporization, or boiling of
bumping” device. If the still is opened to per
mit insertion of additional liquid to bevvaporized,
This invention relates to improvements in
the pressure will increase and the contents will
“anti-bumping” devices similar to the “anti 15 cool. In such a case, practically all of the vapor
bumping” devices disclosed in my co-pending ap
in the “anti-bumping”idevice will condense. On
plications, Serial No. 334,949, entitled “Anti
, re-heating, the liquid will quite probably “bump.”
bumping” devices, ?led ‘May 13, 1940, and issued
The various “anti-bumping” devices disclosed
November 4, 1941, as Patent No. 2,261,235, and
in my co-pending applications, Serial No. 334,949,
Serial No. 401,737, entitled “Anti-bumping” de 20 issued November 4, 1941, as Patent No. 2,261,235,
vices, ?led July 10, 1941. This invention is a con
and Serial No. 401,737, avoided “bumping” after
tinuation in part of the invention disclosed in
a heating and cooling cycle by various means.
applications Serial No. 334,949, issued November
Some of the devices had a normally closed con
4, 1941, as Patent No. 2,261,235, and Serial No.
nection to the atmosphere outside of the va
25 porization apparatus, that could be opened man
When “bumping” occurs, there is some super
ually to charge the device. Others were arranged
heating of portions of the liquid to be vaporized.
to catch and hold the vapor evolved by “bump
The superheating of portions of the liquid re
ing” of the liquid, and thus be charged. The
duces ef?ciency. “Bumping” also causes the “en
v improved “anti-bumping” devices contemplated
trainment” of droplets of liquid by the vapor, 30 by the present invention have a new and diifer
that foul the distillate. Preventing “entrain
ent means to foster smooth vaporization after a
ment” necessitates the provision of additional
heating and cooling cycle. This means consists
volume in the vaporization apparatus that ordi
of a reservoir for air. This reservoir holds a sup
narily is not needed. It can be seen, therefore,
ply‘ of gas, air, or vapor that is normally isolated»
that “bumping” reduces the e?iciency oi vapori
from the main portion of the “anti-bumping”
zation apparatus. By obviating “bumping” with 35 device. This supply of gas, air, or vapor in’ the
the devices and methods described herein, it is
reservoir may contract during. the cooling cycle,
possible to promote smooth, even vaporization of
but it will expand during the re-heating cycle
liquid and thereby increase the efficiency of the
and will combine with‘ the evolution of vapor
vaporization process.
from the liquid in the reservoir to charge the
The phenomenon of “bumping” in vaporization 40 “anti-bumping” device. This is quite useful be
processes, is particularly noticeable upon restart
cause it automatically avoids all “bumping” after
ing, after the distillation has been interrupted
a heating and cooling cycle. It is, therefore, an
for some reason. During the vaporization proc
ess, most of the air that is trapped in an "anti
bumping” device will gradually be displaced by
Y object of the present invention to provide an
45 “anti-bumping” device having a reservoir for air.
“Anti-bumping” devices can be used to advan-
tage in large vaporization apparatus.
vapor of the liquid to be vaporized. As long as
the heating continues, the vapor in the device
this is the case, it is desirable‘ to provide a plu
will contact the liquid and foster the‘ smooth,
even vaporization of the liquid. When, however,
the vaporization process is temporarily suspended
rality of chambers to foster smooth vaporization.
Some of the “anti-bumping” devices disclosed in
my'co-pending applications had a plurality of
to make a cut, or for the addition of liquid to be
vaporized, or for any other reason, the contents
cool somewhat. ‘ This cooling causes most or all
, chambers.
These “anti-bumping” devices are‘
‘quite useful, but their utility can be increased
even more by the provision of a reservoir for air
of the vapor'in the "anti-bumping” device to 55 It is, therefore, an ‘object of the present inven—v
tion to provide an “anti-bumping” device having
is evolved from the liquid will issue from the
a plurality of interconnected chambers and a
reservoir for air.
chamber through opening I8. The ever-dimin
ishing supply of liquid in the chamber will be
Other objects and advantages of the invention
will appear from the drawings and accompany
through the lower opening 20. This liquid will
be vaporized without any “bumping.” If the
heating operation is temporarily suspended, a
ing description.
In the drawings and accompanying description,
several preferred embodiments of the invention
have been shown and described, but it is to. be
cooling of the contents of the ?ask will ensue.
This cooling will result in a condensation of the
understood that the drawings and accompanying 10 vapor in the chamber l4. Where the heating
cycle has been prolonged for some time, the air
description do not limit the invention, and the
initially entrapped in the chamber M will have
invention will be de?ned by the appended claims.
been displaced practically completely by vapor
In the drawings,
of the. liquid. to be vaporized. In such a case,
Fig. 1 is a partial cross-sectional view of a flask
that shows a side elevational view of an “anti 1.5 the. chamber will be practically completely ?lled
with liquid during the cooling cycle. In a subse
bumping” device positioned therein.
quent re-heating cycle, the chamber I4 must be
Fig. 2 is a partial cross-sectional view of a?ask
charged with air or vapor, or the liquid in the
that shows a side elevational view of another
?ask It] will “bump.” rI'he device in Fig. 1 is
form of “anti-bumping” device positioned there
20 charged by air or vapor from the reservoir l6.
On re-heating, the air or vapor held in the reser
Fig. 3 is a front elevational view of an “anti
voir will expand and will also foster the vapori
bumping” device.
zation of the liquid in the reservoir. The com
Fig. 4 is a partial cross-sectional view of a
bined action of vaporization and expansion will
?ask that shows a side elevational view of an
other form of “anti-bumping” device therein.
25 quickly ?ll the reservoir with air and vapor, and
will soon cause vapor to move around bend [9
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of an “anti-bump
into chamber It. This will recharge the device.
ing” device.
The device is thus recharged after a heating
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of another “anti
and cooling cycle without any “bumping” what
bumping" device, and
Fig. 7' is a front elevational View of the “anti 30 ever.
An “anti-bumping” device of slightly differ
bumping” device, shown in Fig. 6.
ent design is shown in Fig. 2. This device con
Referring to the drawings in detail, in Fig- 1,
sists of two hollow chambers 22 and 24, and a
a distilling ?ask is denoted by the numeral I0.
reservoir 26. Each of the chambers 22 and 24
Positioned inside of the ?ask I0 and securely
attached thereto is an “anti-bumping” device 35 has an opening 28 in the side thereof and an
opening 30 in the bottom thereof. The open
l2. The “anti-bumping” device f2 consists of a
ing 28 in the side of the chamber is an outlet
for vapor and the opening 30 in the bottom of
the chamber is an inlet for liquid. The reser
The opening I8 is positioned a distance below 40 voir 26 is connected to the chamber 24 by a
bend 32 and it has a closed upper end. This
the closed upper portion of the chamber l4, and
bend preferably should not be above the level
the opening 20 is positioned below opening l8,
of the outlets 28 for vapor. If it were above
but in the chamber portion of the tube. When
hollow tube that is bent to form a chamber l4
and a reservoir IS. The chamber M has a closed
upper portion, an opening l8, and an opening 20.
the level of the outlets 28, the reservoir and
liquid is poured into the ?ask IE, it will enter
the chamber I4 and the reservoir it through. .1 the chamber would not normally be isolated from
each other by the liquid in the chamber. The
openings [8 and 20. The reservoir is open only
device is positioned in and securely attached to
at the bottom, so the’ level of the liquid’ in the
the flask l l . When liquid is poured into the flask
reservoir will not rise much above the bend in
II, it enters the chambers 22 and 24 through
the tube. The level of the liquid in the chamber
. openings 28 and 30. The liquid will also enter
It will rise to the level of opening I8. The liq
the bend 32 and will normally isolate the reser
u-id‘ will, therefore, trap air in the reservoir l6
voir 26 from the chamber 24. Air will be en
and the chamber I4, and will normally isolate
trapped in the upper portions of chambers 22
the two from each other. Where desired, the
and‘ 24, and will foster the smooth vaporization
“anti-bumping” device may be charged with a
gas instead of air. This gas maybe one of a . of the liquid. During distillation, the air in
the chambers will gradually be displaced by vapor
number of gases that are in the gaseous state
until. the chambers have practically no air in
throughout the temperature range of the vapor‘
ization process and preferably are not freely
soluble in the liquid to be vaporized. For the
sake of convenience, the word “air” will be in
tended to comprehend such a gas as well as air
wherever the word “air” appears'in the speci?ca
tion and‘ claims. The reservoir will normally be
them. If the contents of the vaporization ap
paratus are then cooled, the vapor in the cham
bers will condense into liquid. On re-heating,
the chambers must be recharged, orv “bumping”
will ensue. The chambers are recharged auto‘
matically by the air or vapor from the reservoir
26. As the liquid gets warm, the air in the
reservoir will expand and will also foster vapor
ization of the liquid in the reservoir. The com
bined action of expansion and vaporization will
?ll the reservoir to over?owing and vapor will
pass around the bend 32 into the chamber 24 and
even vaporization in the» manner of the “anti
bumping” devicesv disclosed- in- my co-pending 750 charge it. The evolution of vapor in chamber
24 will then cause bubbles of vapor to pass into
applications Serial No. 334,949, issued November
chamber 22 through connecting member 23. This
4, 1941, as Patent No. 2,261,235, and Serial No.
member is preferably not above the level of the
401,737. The liquid in the chamber l4 will con
vapor outlets 2B. The reservoir 26, therefore,
tact the air in the upper portion of the chamber
isolated from the chamber by the liquid to be
vaporized, and will function to maintain the air
in the reservoir separate from the vaporization
occurring in the chamber. When the ?ask’ isv
heated, the chamber [4‘ will operate to promotev
and will vaporize quite readily. The vapor that
' automatically recharges. the “anti-bumping” de
vice and prevents any “bumping” of the contents
of the vaporization apparatus. This type of “an
ti-bumping” device is quite useful because it
‘fosters smooth vaporization at a number of points
in the vaporization apparatus and materially in
creases the rate of vaporization.
Fig. 3 shows an “anti-bumping” ‘device that
notches 56. The device may be made so that
it can stand by itself or it may be made to lean
against an upper portion of the vaporization ap
paratus.‘ When the device is placed in vaporiza
tion apparatus containing liquid, the liquid Will
enter the bottom of the chamber and the bottom
of the reservoir. Air will be entrapped in the up
per portions of the reservoir and the chamber.
The chamber and the reservoir will normally be
low portion 34 that serves as a reservoir and as 10 isolated from each other by the liquid in the
an extension. The extension 34 engages an upper
chamber. After a heating and cooling cycle, the
portion of the vaporization apparatus and main
vapor in the chamber will practically all have
tains the device in the operative position and
condensed into liquid. The device is automati
may be used in various forms of vaporization
apparatus. This device has an upstanding hol
~ has a closed upper portion. It also operates as
cally recharged by re-heating the liquid, since the
a reservoir for air or vapor. The “anti-‘bump 15 air and vapor in the reservoir will completely ?ll
ing” device itself consists of two interconnected
the reservoir and will cause bubbling at the bot
chambers 36 and 38. The chamber 36 is located
tom of the reservoir. This bubbling will charge
above chamber 38, but is connected to it. The
the chamber. This device is particularly useful
chamber 36 has at least one opening 40 in addi
because it maintains vapor in contact with the
tion to the opening 42 where it is connected to 20 liquid near the source of heat.
chamber 38. Chamber 38 has at least two open
Figs. 6 and 7 shows another form of “anti
ings 44 and 46. When this device is placed in
bumping” device. This device comprises two in;
a vaporization apparatus and liquid is poured
terconnected chambers 60 and 62 and a reservoir
into the apparatus, liquid will ?ll the portions 64 connected to chamber 62. The chamber 62 has
of chamber 36 below the opening 40, will ?ll the 25 an open bottom and notches 66 in the edges near
portion of the chamber 38 below the opening 44,
the bottom of the chamber for outlet of vapor.
and will ?ll the bend 48. The rest of the device
will be ?lled with air that will-foster even vapor
Chamber 6D has an opening 68 and an opening 10
ization of the liquid. The utility of this particu
opening 10 is preferably not above notches 66.
lar device is that vaporization can take place 30 Reservoir 64 has‘a closed upper portion and is
simultaneously at diiferent levels in the liquid.
connected to chamber 62 by an opening 12 that
As the liquid vaporizes and its level in the still
is preferably not above notches 66. The reservoir
falls, evolution of vapor will continue from open
64 is ordinarily isolated from chamber 62 by the
ings 40‘ and 44 until the liquid level is below open
liquid in the bottom of the chamber 62. The re
ing 40. Vapor will continue to issue from open 35 charging of the device is substantially the same as
ing 44 until the liquid level is below the open
the recharging of the device in Fig. 3.‘ The de
ing 44. ‘ After this, vaporization will occur from
vices provided by the invention effectively and au
the opening 46 until the liquid level falls to this
tomatically prevent "bumping” during heating,
point. Atthis time, the ratio of the surface
cooling,‘ and re-heating cycles.
of the liquid to the volume of the liquid is so 40
The drawing has shown the devices mounted
large that, the problem of the “bumping" is no
in distilling ?asks, but this Was done only for the
longer of any concern. If the vaporization proc
sake of clarity and convenience. These devices
ess is suspended while there is still a sizeable
can be used in any kind of vaporization apparatus.
quantity of liquid in the vaporization apparatus,
The devices may be made so they are self
the contents will cool down and the vapor in
chambers 36 and 38 will condense into liquid.
On re-heating, the device will be recharged auto
matically by air and vapor issuing from the res
where it communicates with chamber 62.
supporting or they may be used in vaporization
apparatus, provided with means to hold the de
vices in the operating position.
The anti-bumping devices of this invention
ervoir 34. Air or vapor from the reservoir will
comprise a chamber and a reservoir for air.
be caught in chamber 38. This air or vapor will 50 chamber may be made in any suitable shape The,
foster vaporization in chamber 38 until the upper
it must have a closed upper portion, an inlet‘for
portion of the chamber is ?lled with vapor.
liquid, and an outlet for vapor. In some cases,,a
Vapor will then bubble out of holes 42 and 44.
single opening can serve the dual purpose of inlet
The vapor passing through-the opening 42 will
be caught in chamber 36 and will charge the
chamber. In this way. the device will be re
for liquid and outlet for vapor, and the chamber
will then have only one opening. The reservoir
is preferably connected to the chamber at a point
charged without any “bumping” of the liquid.
not higher than the outlet for vapor. Further
Fig. 4 shows an “anti-bumping” device similar
more, at least a part of the reservoir is preferably
to the device shown in Fig, 1. This device has a
positioned higher than the bottom of the chamber
chamber 49 similar to chamber l4 and a reservoir 60 so the reservoir will trap air therein.
50 similar to reservoir 1 6. The device is different
“Bumping” is objectionable for many reasons.
from the device shown in Fig. 1, in that this de
Many of these are detailed in my co-pending ap
vice is not permanently attached to the vaporiza
plications, Serial Numbers 334,949, issued Novem
tion apparatus and may be removed. The opera
ber 4, 1941, as Patent No. 2,261.235 and 401,737.
tion of this device is substantially identical With 65 Not the least objection to “bumping” is the loss of
the operation of the device shown in Fig. 1.
ef?ciency it causes. I have made tests with the
Fig. 5 shows another form of “anti-bumping”
“anti-bumping” devices I have invented, and find
device. This form of device consists of a reser
that the use of these devices increases the rate of
voir 52 and a chamber -54. The reservoir is
vaporization. This is the case where the device
formed from a hollow tube with a closed upper 70 is used in glass, metal lined with glass, metal, or
end and extends into the chamber 54. The
other vaporization apparatus. In making the
chamber 54 has an open bottom and has notches
tests, every precaution was taken to avoid errors.
56 in its lower edges that function as outlets for ’
Two stills were placed in the same hot-water bath
vapor. The bottom of reservoir 52 has a notch 58
and their receivers were both connected to the
that is preferably not above the level of the 75 same vacuum line. A stirrer was used to secure
‘anteven temperature throughoutthe water in the
bath. Qne .of the stills was equipped with the
‘.‘anti-bumping”'device shown. inFig. 3, while the
other. had no"‘anti-bumping” device. To obviate
errors,:the “anti-bumping” device was taken from
the‘onesstill and placed in the‘ other and the test
In .one such ‘series of tests, two 500 cc. copper
flasks were each charged with 300 cc. of distilled
water. "A constant bath temperature was main
tained and'a constant vacuum-was maintained.
Atotal of eight distillations (four'pairs) were run
forforty mintues each.
The combined results of
low the top of the chambers-toigive a'closed space
above'said discharge openings.
2. In combination, 'a vaporization apparatus
and an anti-bumping device, said anti-bumping
device comprising aniintegral structure contain
ing more than two chambers, one chamber being
sealed and extending ‘above the others and con
necting therewith by a discharge passage, 'said
?rst chamber being ‘without opening :except
through the :dischargepassage, said other cham
bers each having an openingin proximity .to the
bottom thereof and a discharge opening there
above but at a su?icient distance below the top of
the "runs 'show that four ‘runs with the “anti
such :chamber to give a closed space ‘above said
of vaporization by ‘100 per cent or more.
within and resting on the ‘bottom of the said va
bumping‘” device vaporized ‘761.1 grams .of water, 115 discharge opening, said‘anti-bumping device being
positionedinclose proximity-to the bottom of said
while four parallel .runs without an “anti-bump
vaporization apparatus ‘so that it will be normally
ing”rdevice vaporized-only 465.0 grams of water.
surrounded by and substantially immersed in the
By:use or the “anti-bumping” device, 63.7% more
liquid being vaporized and'willbe near the heat
waterwas vaporized in the .same length of time.
Similar tests were also run with glass-distilling 20 ing surface of ‘said vaporization apparatus.
3. In. ‘combination, a vaporization apparatus
?asks. These ‘tests showed that the use of an
and a .removable'anti-bumping device positioned
“anti-bumping” device can increase the amount
porization apparatus so that it will be normally
tests clearly. show that it is possible to increase
thee?iciency of vaporization processes tremen 25 surrounded by and'substantially immersed in the
liquid being vaporized and will be near the heat
dously by theuse of “anti-bumping” devices.
ing surface of the said vaporization apparatus,
‘Whereas ‘the drawings and accompanying de
said anti-bumping device comprisingan integral
scription have shown and described preferred em
structure containing more than two chambers,
bo‘diments'of the invention, it is- obvious to those
skilled in the-art that various changes in form can 30 one chamber being integrally sealed'and extend
ing above the others and‘connecting therewith by
be made without a?’e'cting the scope of the in
a discharge passage, said ?rst chamber being
without ‘opening except ‘through the discharge
‘What I claim is:
passage, said other chambers, ‘each having an
.1. In combination, a vaporizer and an ‘anti
bumping device'comprising an integral structure 35 opening in proximity to the bottom thereof and
containing ‘more than‘two chambers, within the
vaporizer and in close proximity to the heating
surface thereof, one chamber being sealed and
extending above the others and connecting there
with‘by ‘a discharge passage, said ?rst chamber 40
being without opening :above the point of dis
charge, :said other chambers being open at the
bottoms thereof 'and each having a‘discharge
opening therea‘bove but at su?icient distance be
a discharge opening'thereabove but at a suffi
cient distance below ‘the ‘top of such chamber to
give a closed. space above said discharge opening,
the upper part of said anti-bumping device being
adaptedto engage a portion ‘of the vaporization
apparatus and'thereby maintain the said device in
the ‘operating position.
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