Патент USA US2407232код для вставки
Sept. 10, 1946. , c. w. GILBERT 2,407,23 _ IMPULSE ACTUATED TIMING MEANS Fziled July 14, 1943 To woupee 0i eaa'edwq'qnalzhy 01112209123‘ 01472920 Zfypar J’JZOCUIZ £12 Fey/h 261126! 5. bu Respond; (‘0 current.‘ of 0120polarizzy’ongl F5: . 4» , Fig.1. Fey. 2. ‘:8 . ' ' $2.4M 2.4890. ‘ ' ?éy. 5. /_\'Ba0b eoqz‘a'ez‘ 6 of TH 050.1131’. 62113199122‘ 5'12 TBA "“ Pie]: up garment of TBA . _ . .\ j V Tame INVENTOR Fig.4.‘ HIS ATTORNEY Patented Sept. 10, 1946 2,407,231; UNITED STATES iPATENT OFFICE 2,407,232 IMPULSE ACTUATED TIMING MEANS Chalmers W. Gilbert, Penn Township, Allegheny County, Pa., assignor to The Union Switch & Signal Company, Swissvale, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania \ Application July 14, 1943, Serial No. 494,753 4 Claims. (Cl. 175—320) 1 2 My invention relates to impulse actuated tim lease control relay jointly by a contact of said code following relay and a contact of said timing relay in such manner that saidcontrol relay will pick up the ?rst time the above referred to mod ulated code cycle is supplied to said code follow ing relay and will subsequently remain picked ing means. In certain forms of railway signaling systems such for example as that shown and described in an application for Letters Patent of the United States, Serial No. 452,894, ?led by F. H. Nichol son and C. E. Staples on July 30, 1942, one signal up as long as said modulated code cycle contin indication is provided by means of a standard ues to be. supplied to said code following relay at code consisting of regularly recurring code cy regularly recurring intervals. ' cles each‘ consisting of a current pulse followed 10 I shall describe one form of apparatus em by an “off” interval of the same duration as the bodying my invention, and shall then point out current pulse in which interval the supply of current is interrupted, and another indication is provided by a modification of this code in which a code cycle is modulated at regularly recurring the novel features thereof in claims. In the accompanying drawing, Fig. 1 is a dia grammatic view showing one form of timing means embodying my invention applied to a por tion of a coded signaling system for railways for distinguishing between two codes used for obtaining two different signal indications. Figs. 2 and 3 are diagrammatic views illustrating two intervals usually by shortening the “off” time and lengthening the “on” time the same amount that the “off” time is shortened. . One object of my invention is to provide im proved timing means capable of distinguishing between the modulated and regular code cycles in a signaling system of the type above-described. Another object of my invention is to provide improved timing means including a highly damped resonant circuit, and a relay which will pick up and subsequently release in response to the ?rst half cycle of each train of current oscil lations set up in said oscillating circuit and will thereafter remain released. A further object of my invention is to provide improved timing means including a relay the release time of which is substantially unaffected by changes in temperature or voltage, and which relay is immune to recti?er ripple. showing the energy impulses to which the timing relay of my invention responds. Similar reference characters refer to similar parts in each‘ of the several views. Referring ?rst to Fig. 1, the reference charac ter TR designates a relay which is at times sup plied with coded signaling current of the type shown in Fig. 2 and at other times with coded signaling current of the type shown in Fig. 3. As shown in Fig. 2, the signaling current consists of recurring code cycles each having an equal “on” and “off” time, while as shown in Fig. 3, Timing means embodying my invention are an Li the signaling current consists of a code pattern improvement upon that shown and described in an application for Letters Patent of the United States, Serial No. 452,902, ?led by Carl Volz on July 30, 1942, for Code detecting means. made up of a predetermined number of code cycles each similar to the cycles of the current shown in Fig. 2, followed by a modulated cycle formed usually by shortening the “off” time and lengthening the “on” time of the normal cycle, code patterns of the type between which timing means embodying my invention are capable of distinguishing. Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view According to my invention, I supply energy to I. a highly damped oscillating circuit including the although the modulated cycle might equally well primary winding of a transformer, over a contact of a code following relay, and I supply the energy be formed by shortening the “off” time and lengthening the “on” time. The number of code cycles per minute may be varied as conditions require, the particular code shown consisting of 75 cycles per minute, so that each‘ cycle is of .8 second duration. In the code shown in Fig. 3, which is induced in the secondary winding of said transformer by the oscillating current ?ow- - ing in said primary winding, to a timing relay which will respond to current of one polarity only, the parts being so proportioned and so arranged that said timing relay will pick up and release in response to the ?rst half cycle of said induced current and will subsequently remain released, whereby the release time of said relay is deter mined primarily by the frequency of oscillation of said oscillating circuit and not by the magni tude of the current. I also control a slow re a modulated cycle occurs every third cycle, and consists of an “off” period of approximately one third the length of the “01f” period of a normal cycle followed by an “on” period of approxi mately one and two-thirds the normal period. The above described codes are standard codes in widespread commercial use in railway signaling 55 systems wherein they are usually referred to re 2,407,232 3 4 curs between the long “on” periods of the 75M spectively as the '75 and 75M codes. A complete code. The reason for this will be made clear signaling system employing these codes is de presently. scribed and claimed in the above referred to The parts are shown in the positions they as Nicholson and Staples application Serial No. sume when the relay TR is being supplied with 452,894, and also in the above referred to Volz the 75M code. The relay TR is so constructed application, Serial No. 452,902, wherein the track that its contacts will follow the alternate “on” relay IZTR corresponds to the herein designated and “off” times of either the '75 or 75M code, and relay TR. The signaling current is usually ob each time relay TR closes its front contact 3 in tained by interrupting 100 cycle alternating cur rent by means of contacts which open and close 10 response to the “on” period of the 75M code, if back contact 5 of relay TRA is then closed as will the circuit for the proper time intervals, and be the case if the “on” period is of normal dura supplying the resulting interrupted current to tion, energizing current will be supplied to the the relay through a full wave recti?er. Inas oscillating circuit comprising the condenser Q and much as the source of the coded current is imma primary winding I of transformer TA. A part terial to my present invention, it is deemed un of this energizing current will ?ow through the necessary to describe it herein. upper portion of primary winding l, and the re Associated with the code following relay TR mainder of this current will ?ow through the are timing means comprising a timing unit TU condenser Q and lower portion of primary wind and a timing relay TRA, The timing unit TU includes a transformer TA 20 ing I in series. The upper portion of the primary winding l is preferably formed of a relatively few and a condenser Q. The condenser Q is con turns of low resistance so that the current can nected across the terminals of the primary wind build up in this portion sufficiently quickly to in ing l of transformer TA to form an oscillating circuit for a purpose which will appear presently, sure that the transformer core will become satu and this circuit is arranged to be supplied with 25 rated with flux during the brief interval of time that the contact 3 remains closed irrespective of energizing current when the relay TR is picked any variations in voltage which may be expected up and the relay rIRA is released over an energiz ing or exciting circuit which passes from one ter— minal B of a suitable source of direct current not to occur in the current source from which energy is supplied to the oscillating circuit, while the shown in the drawing through front contact 3 30 lower portion of the primary winding is pref erably formed of a relatively large number of of relay TR, a wire 4, a back contact 5 of relay turns of ?ne wire so that this portion of the TRA and thence through the upper portion of winding does not take up much core space ‘yet primary winding I, in multiple with condenser Q. has a su?iciently high inductance to enable the and the lower ‘portion of primary winding 1 in oscillating circuit to be tuned to resonance at series, to the other terminal 0 of the same source. the desired frequency with a condenser of rela The secondary winding 2 of transformer TA is tively small capacity. included in an energizing circuit for relay TRA. On the supply of energy to the primary wind This circuit becomes closed whenever relay TR ing i an electromotive force is induced in the closes its back contact 6, and may be traced from secondary winding 2, but no current flows since terminal C of the source through secondary wind the circuit for relay TRA including secondary ing 2, back contact 6 of relay TR and the wind winding 2 is then open at back contact 8 of track ing of relay TRA back to terminal C. It will be relay TR. noted that when this circuit is closed, the sec— When track relay releases following an ondary winding 2 and the winding of relay TRA are connected in series so that any current which 45 “on” time of normal length the resultant opening of front contact 3 of relay TR interrupts the ?ows in secondary winding 2 will be supplied to exciting circuit which was previously closed at the winding of relay TRA. this contact while the resultant closing of back The relay TRA is also provided with a stick contact 6 of this relay completes the previously circuit which becomes closed when relays TR and traced energizing circuit for relay TRA. As soon TRA are both picked up, and which passes from Y as the exciting circuit for the oscillating circuit terminal B through front contact 3 of relay TR, is interrupted, the flux in the core of transformer wire 4, front contact 5 of relay IRA, and the TA starts to decay and condenser Q starts to dis winding of relay TRA to terminal C. For reasons charge through the primary winding. The col which will appear presently the relay TRA is of lapse of the flux in the transformer core and the a quick acting type which will respond to current discharge of the condenser through the trans of one polarity only, and the relay is connected in former primary winding causes oscillations to be the stick circuit just traced in such manner that set up in the oscillating circuit formed by con when this circuit is closed the relay will be sup~ denser Q and the primary winding, and these plied with current of the polarity to which it re oscillations in turn cause an oscillating electro sponds. It will be seen, therefore, that if relay motive force to be induced in the secondary wind~ TRA is picked up when front contact 3 of relay ing 2 of transformer TA. TR becomes closed, it will subsequently be held It is obvious that each time relay TR releases in its picked-up position until front contact 3 subsequently opens. a brief interval of time will elapse between the opening of its front contacts and the closing of The relays TR and TRA jointly control a slow releasing relay HB by virtue of a circuit which its back contact, and it follows, therefore, that becomes closed when and only when relays TR the electromotive force which is induced in sec ondary winding 2 due to the opening of contact and TRA are both picked up, and which passes from terminal B through front contact 3 of relay 3 will not cause any current to be supplied to TR, wire 4, front contact 5 of relay TRA, front 70 relay TRA during the brief interval of time be contact 6 of relay TR and the winding of relay tween the opening of contact 3 and the closing HR to terminal C. Relay HE is made sufficiently of back contact 6. slow releasing so that when it becomes deener However, as soon as back contact 6 closes, this gized it will retain its front contacts closed for a electromotive force will then cause current to be time interval slightly longer than that which oo 75 supplied to relay TRA. As was previously pointed 2,407,232 5 out, relay ‘IRA is of a quick acting type which will respond to current of one polarity only, and “on” period, back contact 5 of relay TRA will be closed, and the closing of front contact 3 of the parts are so proportioned and relay TRA is connected in its energizing circuit in such man ner that it will pick up and release in response‘. relay TR will therefore again complete the ex citing circuit for the oscillating circuit to again store energy in this latter circuit. Accordingly on the subsequent “off” period of the code, relay TRA will again pick up. However, this relay Will to the first half cycle of this current, which half cycle for purposes of explanation I shall assume to be positive. The second half cycle of current release before the end of this “0 r” period, so that supplied to relay TRA will of course be negative, during the next picked-up period of relay TR and since relay TRA will only pick up on current 10 energy will be again stored in the timing unit of positive polarity, it will not respond to this TU. half cycle. The next half cycle will again be a The next “off” period in the code will be the positive half cycle but the oscillating circuit is short “off” period, and when track relay TR re so highly damped that any current which ?ows leases due to this “off” period, the stored energy during the third half cycle will not have sufficient 15 in the timing unit will pick up relay TRA. Due magnitude to cause relay TRA to again pick up. to the short “off” period, relay TRA will still be The parts are so proportioned that when relay picked up when relay TR next picks up due to TRA once picks up, it will remain picked up for the long “on” period, and relay HB will there a period of time which is longer than the short fore again be supplied with energy to maintain “off” period in the 75M code but which is shorter it in its picked-up position. than the “off” periods of the normal code cycles It will be seen, therefore, from the foregoing in either the 75M or '75 code. that when relay TR is being supplied with the It will be seen, therefore, that when the release 75M code, energy will be stored in the timing period in the code during which relay TRA be unit TU during each “on? period of normal comes energized is the short “off” period in the 25 length, and will be supplied to the relay TRA dur ‘75M code, the front contact 5 of this relay will ing the succeeding “off” period. The energy still be picked up when track relay TR next closes supplied to relay TRA will cause this relay to its front contacts. Under these conditions, the pick up and again release at the expiration of closing of front contact 3 of relay TR will not a time interval which, as will be described pres~ complete the energizing circuit for the oscillating 30 ently, depends upon the frequency of the oscil circuit because this energizing circuit will then be lating current induced in the secondary winding open at back contact 5 of relay TRA, but the clos 2 of transformer TA, and which frequency is so ing of contact 3 will complete the previously chosen that the relay will maintain its front contraced stick circuit for relay TRA including front tact closed during the short “off” periods in the contact 5 of relay TRA, and also the previously code but will open its front contact and close its traced energizing circuit for relay I-IB including back contact in a time interval which is less than front contact 5 of relay TRA and front contact 6 the duration of the “off” period of normal length. of track relay TR. The energy supplied to track Accordingly, each time the relay TR closes its relay TRA over its stick circuit keeps this relay front contacts following a short “01f” period in energized during the long “on” period following 40 the 75M code, the contacts of relay TRA will still the short “off” period, and since the circuit for be picked up, and the picking up of relay TR relay HB remains closed as long as relays TR and TRA are both picked up, it follows that relay HB under these conditions will complete both the stick circuit for relay TRA and the energizing will be supplied with energizing current through circuit for relay HB. However, each time the out the long “on” period which follows the short 45 relay TR closes its contacts following an “off” “off” period in the modulated code cycle. The period of normal length, relay TRA will be re closing of the energizing circuit for relay I-IB leased, and no energy will be supplied to either causes this relay to pick up if it is not already relay TRA or relay HB during the next “on” picked up, and, due to the slow release character period in the code, but energy will be supplied istics of relay HB pointed out previously, when 50 to the timing unit TU to cause relay TRA to relay HB once becomes picked up it will retain pick up during the next “off” period. he energy its front contacts closed for a time interval which supplied to relay BB is supplied throughout the is slightly longer than the intervals between the long “on” period in the code, and is of sufficient long “on” periods in the 75 code. magnitude to cause it to remain picked up until On release of track relay TR following each the next long “on” period occurs. long “on” period in the 75M code, contact 3 will When 75 code is supplied to relay TR, relay interrupt both the stick circuit for relay TRA and TRA picks up during each “on” period and re the energizing circuit for relay HB, while the leases during the next “off” period, and since opening of front contact 6 of relay TR will addi relay TRA is always released when relay TR picks tionally interrupt the energizing circuit for relay 60 up, the energizing circuit for relay HE remains HB. AS soon as the stick circuit for relay TRA open at front contact 5 of relay TRA. Relay HB becomes interrupted, this relay will release, but therefore remains released under these condirelay HB will remain picked up even though its tions. energizing circuit is then interrupted for the It will be apparent, therefore, that relay HB reasons pointed out in the preceding paragraph. 65 will be picked up when 75M code is being supplied When back contact 5 of relay TR becomes closed to relay TR, and will be released when '75 code following the long “on” period in the 75M code, is being supplied to this relay. It will also be it again completes the energizing circuit for re apparent that the picking up of relay HB depends lay TRA, but inasmuch as energy was not sup upon the release time of relay TRA, and that plied to the oscillating circuit during the preced 70 it is therefore necessary that this release time ing picked-up period of relay TR, no energy is should insofar as possible be independent of present in the timing unit, and relay TRA there changes in the voltage of the source B—~C or . changes in ambient temperature. The release When relay TR picks up in response to the time of relay TRA depends for the most part on ?rst “on” period of the code following the long 75 the frequency of the energy impulse supplied fore remains released. 2,407,232 8 thereto and is independent of the magnitude or indicating traffic conditions in the manner de this current. This can best be seen from an scribed in either the Nicholson and Staples ap examination of Fig. 4 which is a diagram illus plication, Serial No. 452,894, or the V012 appli trating the energy impulses which are supplied cation, Serial No. 452,902, referred to hereinbe to relay TRA from the timing unit. Referring fore. to Fig. 4, it will be seen that as soon as back Although I have herein shown and described contact 8 of relay TR closes, current having a only one form of apparatus embodying my inven magnitude considerably greater than the pick tion, it is understood that various changes and up current of relay TRA is supplied thereto. modi?cations may be made therein within the This is due to the fact that the oscillating elec 10 scope of the appended claims without departing tromotive force which gives rise to this current from the spirit and scope of my invention. starts to build up in secondary winding 2 when Having thus described my invention, what I front contact 3 of relay TR opens, and as a claim is: result by the time back contact 6 closes, this 1. Impulse actuated timing means comprising electromotive force has already reached a rela a relay which will respond to current of one tively high value. The relay TRA being quick act polarity only, an oscillating circuit, means for at ing responds quickly to this impulse, although the times setting up oscillations in said circuit, and relay can pick up at any time while the current means for supplying said relay with an oscillating in the impulse remains above the pick-up current current in response to the oscillations set up in of the relay, and this time is more than adequate said circuit, said circuit being highly damped and to insure adequate response of the relay even said means being connected with said relay in though the magnitude of the current should de such manner and the parts being so proportioned crease considerably below that shown. However, that said relay will pick up and again release in the magnitude of the current is not likely to de response to the ?rst half cycle of said current and crease to any great extent because the trans 25 will thereafter remain released. former TA is so designed that its core will be 2. Impulse actuated timing means comprising a come saturated at a voltage of the source B—C highly damped oscillating circuit including an in considerably below that likely to be encountered in practice, and the energy stored in the trans former is therefore substantially constant regard less of voltage variation. Some of the energy ductance and a capacitance, means for at times setting up oscillations in said circuit, a winding supplied to relay TRA is of course due to that stored in the condenser Q, and while the amount of this energy is effected by variations in the Voltage of the cource of energy, the amount of energy stored in the condenser is relatively small compared to that stored in the transformer so that variations in the energy stored in the con denser will have negligible effect on the mag nitude of the current supplied to relay TRA to pick it up. Relay TRA will start to release as soon as the current impulse supplied thereto decreases below the release value. The actual time required for inductively coupled with said circuit, and arelay capable of responding to current of one polarity only at times connected with said winding in such manner that the ?rst half cycle of the cur rent supplied thereto in response to oscillations set up in said oscillating circuit will flow in the direction to pick up said relay, the parts being so proportioned that said relay will pick up and re lease in response to said ?rst half cycle of cur rent and will thereafter remain released. 3. Impulse actuated timing means comprising a relay which will respond to current of one polar ity only, an oscillating circuit including capaci tance and inductance, means for at times sup plying said circuit with current impulses which the relay to release after the current decreases . saturate said inductance to cause said circuit to below its release value will depend on the inertia oscillate at its natural period, and means for sup of the moving parts, and on the speed with plying said relay with an oscillating current in re which the flux decreases. If the relay is a polar sponse to the oscillation set up in said circuit, biased relay and the armature has not released by said circuit being highly damped and said means the time the current reverses in direction, the 50 being connected with said relay in such manner growth of current in the reverse direction will that said relay will pick up and release in re act to accelerate the release of the relay. The sponse to the ?rst half cycle of said current and portion of the current curve which occurs after will thereafter remain released, whereby the re the current decreases below the release current of ' lease time of said relay will depend upon the the relay is very steep, and it will be seen, there frequency of the oscillation induced in said cir fore, that positive rapidv release is assured and cuit and will be unailected by changes in tem that the release time is controlled almost en perature or the voltage of the exciting source. tirely by the frequency of the oscillation and is 4. Impulse actuated timing means comprising a practically independent of the magnitude of the transformer having a primary winding and a sec current. Furthermore, considerable latitude may 60 ondary winding, said primary winding being di be permitted in the degree of damping of the os vided into two portions one of which has a low cillation since it is only necessary that the cur inductance and the other of which has a relatively rent of the third half cycle be below the pick high inductance, a condenser connected across up value of relay TRA. said primary winding and forming with said pri The frequency of oscillation of the oscillating mary winding a highly damped oscillating cir circuit can readily be varied to vary the release cuit, means for at times supplying said oscillating time of the relay TRA, and it follows that I have circuit with current impulses to cause said circuit provided a convenient and highly accurate form to oscillate at its natural period, a part of said current being caused to ?ow through the low in of impulse actuated timing means. While this timing means is particularly suitable for use in 70 ductance part of said primary winding and being of sufficient magnitude to saturate the core of a coded signaling system for railways, it is not said transformer, a timing relay which responds limited to this use, and may be employed when to current of one polarity only, and means for ever it is desired to accurately time relatively supplying said relay with the current which is short time intervals. The relay HB may be used to control signals for induced in said secondary winding when said os 9 2,407,232 cillating circuit is oscillating in such/‘manner that the first half cycle of current supplied to the relay will have the polarity to which said relay re sponds, the parts being so proportioned that said timing relay will pick up and release in response to said ?rst half cycle of current and will there after remain released, whereby the release time - 10 of said relay will depend upon the frequency of the oscillations induced in said oscillating circuit and will be una?ected by changes in tempera ture or the voltage of the source from which current impulses are supplied to said oscillating circuit to cause it to oscillate. CI-IALMERS W‘. GILBERT.