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Патент USA US2407232

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Sept. 10, 1946.
,
c. w. GILBERT
2,407,23
_
IMPULSE ACTUATED TIMING MEANS
Fziled July 14, 1943
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INVENTOR
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HIS ATTORNEY
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407,231;
UNITED STATES iPATENT OFFICE
2,407,232
IMPULSE ACTUATED TIMING MEANS
Chalmers W. Gilbert, Penn Township, Allegheny
County, Pa., assignor to The Union Switch &
Signal Company, Swissvale, Pa., a corporation
of Pennsylvania
\
Application July 14, 1943, Serial No. 494,753
4 Claims.
(Cl. 175—320)
1
2
My invention relates to impulse actuated tim
lease control relay jointly by a contact of said
code following relay and a contact of said timing
relay in such manner that saidcontrol relay will
pick up the ?rst time the above referred to mod
ulated code cycle is supplied to said code follow
ing relay and will subsequently remain picked
ing means.
In certain forms of railway signaling systems
such for example as that shown and described in
an application for Letters Patent of the United
States, Serial No. 452,894, ?led by F. H. Nichol
son and C. E. Staples on July 30, 1942, one signal
up as long as said modulated code cycle contin
indication is provided by means of a standard
ues to be. supplied to said code following relay at
code consisting of regularly recurring code cy
regularly recurring intervals.
'
cles each‘ consisting of a current pulse followed 10
I shall describe one form of apparatus em
by an “off” interval of the same duration as the
bodying my invention, and shall then point out
current pulse in which interval the supply of
current is interrupted, and another indication is
provided by a modification of this code in which
a code cycle is modulated at regularly recurring
the novel features thereof in claims.
In the accompanying drawing, Fig. 1 is a dia
grammatic view showing one form of timing
means embodying my invention applied to a por
tion of a coded signaling system for railways
for distinguishing between two codes used for
obtaining two different signal indications. Figs.
2 and 3 are diagrammatic views illustrating two
intervals usually by shortening the “off” time
and lengthening the “on” time the same amount
that the “off” time is shortened.
.
One object of my invention is to provide im
proved timing means capable of distinguishing
between the modulated and regular code cycles
in a signaling system of the type above-described.
Another object of my invention is to provide
improved timing means including a highly
damped resonant circuit, and a relay which will
pick up and subsequently release in response to
the ?rst half cycle of each train of current oscil
lations set up in said oscillating circuit and will
thereafter remain released.
A further object of my invention is to provide
improved timing means including a relay the
release time of which is substantially unaffected
by changes in temperature or voltage, and which
relay is immune to recti?er ripple.
showing the energy impulses to which the timing
relay of my invention responds.
Similar reference characters refer to similar
parts in each‘ of the several views.
Referring ?rst to Fig. 1, the reference charac
ter TR designates a relay which is at times sup
plied with coded signaling current of the type
shown in Fig. 2 and at other times with coded
signaling current of the type shown in Fig. 3.
As shown in Fig. 2, the signaling current consists
of recurring code cycles each having an equal
“on” and “off” time, while as shown in Fig. 3,
Timing means embodying my invention are an
Li the signaling current consists of a code pattern
improvement upon that shown and described in
an application for Letters Patent of the United
States, Serial No. 452,902, ?led by Carl Volz on
July 30, 1942, for Code detecting means.
made up of a predetermined number of code
cycles each similar to the cycles of the current
shown in Fig. 2, followed by a modulated cycle
formed usually by shortening the “off” time and
lengthening the “on” time of the normal cycle,
code patterns of the type between which timing
means embodying my invention are capable of
distinguishing. Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view
According to my invention, I supply energy to I.
a highly damped oscillating circuit including the
although the modulated cycle might equally well
primary winding of a transformer, over a contact
of a code following relay, and I supply the energy
be formed by shortening the “off” time and
lengthening the “on” time. The number of code
cycles per minute may be varied as conditions
require, the particular code shown consisting of
75 cycles per minute, so that each‘ cycle is of
.8 second duration. In the code shown in Fig. 3,
which is induced in the secondary winding of
said transformer by the oscillating current ?ow- -
ing in said primary winding, to a timing relay
which will respond to current of one polarity only,
the parts being so proportioned and so arranged
that said timing relay will pick up and release in
response to the ?rst half cycle of said induced
current and will subsequently remain released,
whereby the release time of said relay is deter
mined primarily by the frequency of oscillation
of said oscillating circuit and not by the magni
tude of the current.
I also control a slow re
a modulated cycle occurs every third cycle, and
consists of an “off” period of approximately one
third the length of the “01f” period of a normal
cycle followed by an “on” period of approxi
mately one and two-thirds the normal period.
The above described codes are standard codes in
widespread commercial use in railway signaling
55 systems wherein they are usually referred to re
2,407,232
3
4
curs between the long “on” periods of the 75M
spectively as the '75 and 75M codes. A complete
code. The reason for this will be made clear
signaling system employing these codes is de
presently.
scribed and claimed in the above referred to
The parts are shown in the positions they as
Nicholson and Staples application Serial No.
sume when the relay TR is being supplied with
452,894, and also in the above referred to Volz
the 75M code. The relay TR is so constructed
application, Serial No. 452,902, wherein the track
that its contacts will follow the alternate “on”
relay IZTR corresponds to the herein designated
and “off” times of either the '75 or 75M code, and
relay TR. The signaling current is usually ob
each time relay TR closes its front contact 3 in
tained by interrupting 100 cycle alternating cur
rent by means of contacts which open and close 10 response to the “on” period of the 75M code, if
back contact 5 of relay TRA is then closed as will
the circuit for the proper time intervals, and
be the case if the “on” period is of normal dura
supplying the resulting interrupted current to
tion, energizing current will be supplied to the
the relay through a full wave recti?er. Inas
oscillating circuit comprising the condenser Q and
much as the source of the coded current is imma
primary winding I of transformer TA. A part
terial to my present invention, it is deemed un
of this energizing current will ?ow through the
necessary to describe it herein.
upper portion of primary winding l, and the re
Associated with the code following relay TR
mainder of this current will ?ow through the
are timing means comprising a timing unit TU
condenser Q and lower portion of primary wind
and a timing relay TRA,
The timing unit TU includes a transformer TA 20 ing I in series. The upper portion of the primary
winding l is preferably formed of a relatively few
and a condenser Q. The condenser Q is con
turns of low resistance so that the current can
nected across the terminals of the primary wind
build up in this portion sufficiently quickly to in
ing l of transformer TA to form an oscillating
circuit for a purpose which will appear presently,
sure that the transformer core will become satu
and this circuit is arranged to be supplied with 25 rated with flux during the brief interval of time
that the contact 3 remains closed irrespective of
energizing current when the relay TR is picked
any variations in voltage which may be expected
up and the relay rIRA is released over an energiz
ing or exciting circuit which passes from one ter—
minal B of a suitable source of direct current not
to occur in the current source from which energy
is supplied to the oscillating circuit, while the
shown in the drawing through front contact 3 30 lower portion of the primary winding is pref
erably formed of a relatively large number of
of relay TR, a wire 4, a back contact 5 of relay
turns of ?ne wire so that this portion of the
TRA and thence through the upper portion of
winding does not take up much core space ‘yet
primary winding I, in multiple with condenser Q.
has a su?iciently high inductance to enable the
and the lower ‘portion of primary winding 1 in
oscillating circuit to be tuned to resonance at
series, to the other terminal 0 of the same source.
the desired frequency with a condenser of rela
The secondary winding 2 of transformer TA is
tively small capacity.
included in an energizing circuit for relay TRA.
On the supply of energy to the primary wind
This circuit becomes closed whenever relay TR
ing i an electromotive force is induced in the
closes its back contact 6, and may be traced from
secondary winding 2, but no current flows since
terminal C of the source through secondary wind
the circuit for relay TRA including secondary
ing 2, back contact 6 of relay TR and the wind
winding 2 is then open at back contact 8 of track
ing of relay TRA back to terminal C. It will be
relay TR.
noted that when this circuit is closed, the sec—
When track relay
releases following an
ondary winding 2 and the winding of relay TRA
are connected in series so that any current which 45 “on” time of normal length the resultant opening
of front contact 3 of relay TR interrupts the
?ows in secondary winding 2 will be supplied to
exciting circuit which was previously closed at
the winding of relay TRA.
this contact while the resultant closing of back
The relay TRA is also provided with a stick
contact 6 of this relay completes the previously
circuit which becomes closed when relays TR and
traced energizing circuit for relay TRA. As soon
TRA are both picked up, and which passes from Y
as the exciting circuit for the oscillating circuit
terminal B through front contact 3 of relay TR,
is interrupted, the flux in the core of transformer
wire 4, front contact 5 of relay IRA, and the
TA starts to decay and condenser Q starts to dis
winding of relay TRA to terminal C. For reasons
charge through the primary winding. The col
which will appear presently the relay TRA is of
lapse of the flux in the transformer core and the
a quick acting type which will respond to current
discharge of the condenser through the trans
of one polarity only, and the relay is connected in
former primary winding causes oscillations to be
the stick circuit just traced in such manner that
set up in the oscillating circuit formed by con
when this circuit is closed the relay will be sup~
denser Q and the primary winding, and these
plied with current of the polarity to which it re
oscillations in turn cause an oscillating electro
sponds. It will be seen, therefore, that if relay
motive force to be induced in the secondary wind~
TRA is picked up when front contact 3 of relay
ing 2 of transformer TA.
TR becomes closed, it will subsequently be held
It is obvious that each time relay TR releases
in its picked-up position until front contact 3
subsequently opens.
a brief interval of time will elapse between the
opening of its front contacts and the closing of
The relays TR and TRA jointly control a slow
releasing relay HB by virtue of a circuit which
its back contact, and it follows, therefore, that
becomes closed when and only when relays TR
the electromotive force which is induced in sec
ondary winding 2 due to the opening of contact
and TRA are both picked up, and which passes
from terminal B through front contact 3 of relay
3 will not cause any current to be supplied to
TR, wire 4, front contact 5 of relay TRA, front 70 relay TRA during the brief interval of time be
contact 6 of relay TR and the winding of relay
tween the opening of contact 3 and the closing
HR to terminal C. Relay HE is made sufficiently
of back contact 6.
slow releasing so that when it becomes deener
However, as soon as back contact 6 closes, this
gized it will retain its front contacts closed for a
electromotive force will then cause current to be
time interval slightly longer than that which oo 75 supplied to relay TRA. As was previously pointed
2,407,232
5
out, relay ‘IRA is of a quick acting type which
will respond to current of one polarity only, and
“on” period, back contact 5 of relay TRA will
be closed, and the closing of front contact 3 of
the parts are so proportioned and relay TRA is
connected in its energizing circuit in such man
ner that it will pick up and release in response‘.
relay TR will therefore again complete the ex
citing circuit for the oscillating circuit to again
store energy in this latter circuit. Accordingly
on the subsequent “off” period of the code, relay
TRA will again pick up. However, this relay Will
to the first half cycle of this current, which half
cycle for purposes of explanation I shall assume
to be positive. The second half cycle of current
release before the end of this “0 r” period, so that
supplied to relay TRA will of course be negative,
during the next picked-up period of relay TR
and since relay TRA will only pick up on current 10 energy will be again stored in the timing unit
of positive polarity, it will not respond to this
TU.
half cycle. The next half cycle will again be a
The next “off” period in the code will be the
positive half cycle but the oscillating circuit is
short “off” period, and when track relay TR re
so highly damped that any current which ?ows
leases due to this “off” period, the stored energy
during the third half cycle will not have sufficient 15 in the timing unit will pick up relay TRA. Due
magnitude to cause relay TRA to again pick up.
to the short “off” period, relay TRA will still be
The parts are so proportioned that when relay
picked up when relay TR next picks up due to
TRA once picks up, it will remain picked up for
the long “on” period, and relay HB will there
a period of time which is longer than the short
fore again be supplied with energy to maintain
“off” period in the 75M code but which is shorter
it in its picked-up position.
than the “off” periods of the normal code cycles
It will be seen, therefore, from the foregoing
in either the 75M or '75 code.
that when relay TR is being supplied with the
It will be seen, therefore, that when the release
75M code, energy will be stored in the timing
period in the code during which relay TRA be
unit TU during each “on? period of normal
comes energized is the short “off” period in the 25 length, and will be supplied to the relay TRA dur
‘75M code, the front contact 5 of this relay will
ing the succeeding “off” period. The energy
still be picked up when track relay TR next closes
supplied to relay TRA will cause this relay to
its front contacts. Under these conditions, the
pick up and again release at the expiration of
closing of front contact 3 of relay TR will not
a time interval which, as will be described pres~
complete the energizing circuit for the oscillating 30 ently, depends upon the frequency of the oscil
circuit because this energizing circuit will then be
lating current induced in the secondary winding
open at back contact 5 of relay TRA, but the clos
2 of transformer TA, and which frequency is so
ing of contact 3 will complete the previously
chosen that the relay will maintain its front contraced stick circuit for relay TRA including front
tact closed during the short “off” periods in the
contact 5 of relay TRA, and also the previously
code but will open its front contact and close its
traced energizing circuit for relay I-IB including
back contact in a time interval which is less than
front contact 5 of relay TRA and front contact 6
the duration of the “off” period of normal length.
of track relay TR. The energy supplied to track
Accordingly, each time the relay TR closes its
relay TRA over its stick circuit keeps this relay
front contacts following a short “01f” period in
energized during the long “on” period following 40 the 75M code, the contacts of relay TRA will still
the short “off” period, and since the circuit for
be picked up, and the picking up of relay TR
relay HB remains closed as long as relays TR and
TRA are both picked up, it follows that relay HB
under these conditions will complete both the
stick circuit for relay TRA and the energizing
will be supplied with energizing current through
circuit for relay HB. However, each time the
out the long “on” period which follows the short 45 relay TR closes its contacts following an “off”
“off” period in the modulated code cycle. The
period of normal length, relay TRA will be re
closing of the energizing circuit for relay I-IB
leased, and no energy will be supplied to either
causes this relay to pick up if it is not already
relay TRA or relay HB during the next “on”
picked up, and, due to the slow release character
period in the code, but energy will be supplied
istics of relay HB pointed out previously, when 50 to the timing unit TU to cause relay TRA to
relay HB once becomes picked up it will retain
pick up during the next “off” period.
he energy
its front contacts closed for a time interval which
supplied to relay BB is supplied throughout the
is slightly longer than the intervals between the
long “on” period in the code, and is of sufficient
long “on” periods in the 75 code.
magnitude to cause it to remain picked up until
On release of track relay TR following each
the next long “on” period occurs.
long “on” period in the 75M code, contact 3 will
When 75 code is supplied to relay TR, relay
interrupt both the stick circuit for relay TRA and
TRA picks up during each “on” period and re
the energizing circuit for relay HB, while the
leases during the next “off” period, and since
opening of front contact 6 of relay TR will addi
relay TRA is always released when relay TR picks
tionally interrupt the energizing circuit for relay 60 up, the energizing circuit for relay HE remains
HB. AS soon as the stick circuit for relay TRA
open at front contact 5 of relay TRA. Relay HB
becomes interrupted, this relay will release, but
therefore remains released under these condirelay HB will remain picked up even though its
tions.
energizing circuit is then interrupted for the
It will be apparent, therefore, that relay HB
reasons pointed out in the preceding paragraph. 65 will be picked up when 75M code is being supplied
When back contact 5 of relay TR becomes closed
to relay TR, and will be released when '75 code
following the long “on” period in the 75M code,
is being supplied to this relay. It will also be
it again completes the energizing circuit for re
apparent that the picking up of relay HB depends
lay TRA, but inasmuch as energy was not sup
upon the release time of relay TRA, and that
plied to the oscillating circuit during the preced 70 it is therefore necessary that this release time
ing picked-up period of relay TR, no energy is
should insofar as possible be independent of
present in the timing unit, and relay TRA there
changes in the voltage of the source B—~C or
.
changes in ambient temperature. The release
When relay TR picks up in response to the
time of relay TRA depends for the most part on
?rst “on” period of the code following the long 75 the frequency of the energy impulse supplied
fore remains released.
2,407,232
8
thereto and is independent of the magnitude or
indicating traffic conditions in the manner de
this current. This can best be seen from an
scribed in either the Nicholson and Staples ap
examination of Fig. 4 which is a diagram illus
plication, Serial No. 452,894, or the V012 appli
trating the energy impulses which are supplied
cation, Serial No. 452,902, referred to hereinbe
to relay TRA from the timing unit. Referring
fore.
to Fig. 4, it will be seen that as soon as back
Although I have herein shown and described
contact 8 of relay TR closes, current having a
only one form of apparatus embodying my inven
magnitude considerably greater than the pick
tion, it is understood that various changes and
up current of relay TRA is supplied thereto.
modi?cations may be made therein within the
This is due to the fact that the oscillating elec 10 scope of the appended claims without departing
tromotive force which gives rise to this current
from the spirit and scope of my invention.
starts to build up in secondary winding 2 when
Having thus described my invention, what I
front contact 3 of relay TR opens, and as a
claim is:
result by the time back contact 6 closes, this
1. Impulse actuated timing means comprising
electromotive force has already reached a rela
a relay which will respond to current of one
tively high value. The relay TRA being quick act
polarity only, an oscillating circuit, means for at
ing responds quickly to this impulse, although the
times setting up oscillations in said circuit, and
relay can pick up at any time while the current
means for supplying said relay with an oscillating
in the impulse remains above the pick-up current
current in response to the oscillations set up in
of the relay, and this time is more than adequate
said circuit, said circuit being highly damped and
to insure adequate response of the relay even
said means being connected with said relay in
though the magnitude of the current should de
such manner and the parts being so proportioned
crease considerably below that shown. However,
that said relay will pick up and again release in
the magnitude of the current is not likely to de
response to the ?rst half cycle of said current and
crease to any great extent because the trans 25 will thereafter remain released.
former TA is so designed that its core will be
2. Impulse actuated timing means comprising a
come saturated at a voltage of the source B—C
highly damped oscillating circuit including an in
considerably below that likely to be encountered
in practice, and the energy stored in the trans
former is therefore substantially constant regard
less of voltage variation. Some of the energy
ductance and a capacitance, means for at times
setting up oscillations in said circuit, a winding
supplied to relay TRA is of course due to that
stored in the condenser Q, and while the amount
of this energy is effected by variations in the
Voltage of the cource of energy, the amount of
energy stored in the condenser is relatively small
compared to that stored in the transformer so
that variations in the energy stored in the con
denser will have negligible effect on the mag
nitude of the current supplied to relay TRA to
pick it up.
Relay TRA will start to release as soon as the
current impulse supplied thereto decreases below
the release value. The actual time required for
inductively coupled with said circuit, and arelay
capable of responding to current of one polarity
only at times connected with said winding in
such manner that the ?rst half cycle of the cur
rent supplied thereto in response to oscillations
set up in said oscillating circuit will flow in the
direction to pick up said relay, the parts being so
proportioned that said relay will pick up and re
lease in response to said ?rst half cycle of cur
rent and will thereafter remain released.
3. Impulse actuated timing means comprising a
relay which will respond to current of one polar
ity only, an oscillating circuit including capaci
tance and inductance, means for at times sup
plying said circuit with current impulses which
the relay to release after the current decreases .
saturate said inductance to cause said circuit to
below its release value will depend on the inertia
oscillate at its natural period, and means for sup
of the moving parts, and on the speed with
plying said relay with an oscillating current in re
which the flux decreases. If the relay is a polar
sponse to the oscillation set up in said circuit,
biased relay and the armature has not released by
said circuit being highly damped and said means
the time the current reverses in direction, the 50 being connected with said relay in such manner
growth of current in the reverse direction will
that said relay will pick up and release in re
act to accelerate the release of the relay. The
sponse to the ?rst half cycle of said current and
portion of the current curve which occurs after
will thereafter remain released, whereby the re
the current decreases below the release current of ' lease time of said relay will depend upon the
the relay is very steep, and it will be seen, there
frequency of the oscillation induced in said cir
fore, that positive rapidv release is assured and
cuit and will be unailected by changes in tem
that the release time is controlled almost en
perature or the voltage of the exciting source.
tirely by the frequency of the oscillation and is
4. Impulse actuated timing means comprising a
practically independent of the magnitude of the
transformer having a primary winding and a sec
current. Furthermore, considerable latitude may 60 ondary winding, said primary winding being di
be permitted in the degree of damping of the os
vided into two portions one of which has a low
cillation since it is only necessary that the cur
inductance and the other of which has a relatively
rent of the third half cycle be below the pick
high inductance, a condenser connected across
up value of relay TRA.
said primary winding and forming with said pri
The frequency of oscillation of the oscillating
mary winding a highly damped oscillating cir
circuit can readily be varied to vary the release
cuit, means for at times supplying said oscillating
time of the relay TRA, and it follows that I have
circuit with current impulses to cause said circuit
provided a convenient and highly accurate form
to oscillate at its natural period, a part of said
current being caused to ?ow through the low in
of impulse actuated timing means. While this
timing means is particularly suitable for use in 70 ductance part of said primary winding and being
of sufficient magnitude to saturate the core of
a coded signaling system for railways, it is not
said transformer, a timing relay which responds
limited to this use, and may be employed when
to current of one polarity only, and means for
ever it is desired to accurately time relatively
supplying said relay with the current which is
short time intervals.
The relay HB may be used to control signals for
induced in said secondary winding when said os
9
2,407,232
cillating circuit is oscillating in such/‘manner that
the first half cycle of current supplied to the relay
will have the polarity to which said relay re
sponds, the parts being so proportioned that said
timing relay will pick up and release in response
to said ?rst half cycle of current and will there
after remain released, whereby the release time
-
10
of said relay will depend upon the frequency of
the oscillations induced in said oscillating circuit
and will be una?ected by changes in tempera
ture or the voltage of the source from which
current impulses are supplied to said oscillating
circuit to cause it to oscillate.
CI-IALMERS W‘. GILBERT.
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