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Патент USA US2407242

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54am. 1% 1946.
- FiledfApriil 1, 193sv
a Sheets-Sheet 1
la'ufence Bafche/der
Sept. Mb, 1946.
Filed April 1, 1933
8 Sheets-Sheet 2
/ /% /
Aaurence Bafche/der
Sept 1®,1%6.
Filed April 1, 1933
8 Shegts-Sheet 3
Laurence Bdfcbeidef
Sept. w, 1946“
2,407,242 -
Filed April 1, 1933
8 Sheets-Sheet 4.
' Laurence Bafme/dei’
Sept. W, 1946.
Filed April 1, 1955
8 Sheets-Sheet 5
Laurence Bafc/ze/der
Sept. W, 1946.
Filed 'April 1, 1933 '
8 Sheets-Sheet 6
\ GD /
Laurence ?afche/der
. Sept. 10, 1946.
Filed April 1, 1933
8' Sheets-Sheet 7
Laurence Bafche/der
Sept. 10, 1946.
Filed April 1, 1933
. 8 Sheets-Sheet 8
Laurence Bafche/der
u 9/
Patented Sept. 1%, 1946
2,407,242 ,
Laurence Batohelder, Cambridge, Mass, assignor,
by mesne assignments, to Submarine Signal
Company, Boston, Mass., a corporation of Dela
Application April 1, 1933, Serial No. 663,963
10 Claims. (Cl. 177—386)
The present invention relates to a system for
producing a beam of radiated energy whose di
rection can be controlled, and more in particular
to such a beam in-which the energy radiated is
in the form of compressional waves either of
sonic 0r frequencies above the audible range.
go to form a unit in which the phase of the energy
is the same. The individual units have different
phases which are supplied from a multiphase
Systems have already been devised in which
phases generated to the various sources so as to
give the beam of energy a swing corresponding
beams of radiated energy are emitted and means
generator which has been especially designed for
this system. A switching arrangement is also
provided for successively applying the various
to the rotation of the switch.
also has been devised for controlling the direc
Without describing in further detail the ad
tion of such beams. Two general methods have 10
vantages and objects of the present system the
been employed. In one method the source itself
invention will be described in connection with the
is turned in the direction in which it is desired
drawings showing an embodiment of the same in
to project the beam. In the other method when
which Fig. 1 shows a schematic wiring diagram
it is desired to turn the beam a certain amount
of the system; Fig. 2 shows a section of the sound
of retardation of the wave energy is given to suc
or supersonic transmitter; Fig. 3 shows a detail;
cessive units of the system so that the energies
Fig. 4 shows a ‘further detail of the transmitter
emitted by successive sources lag behind one an
showing a part top ‘view looking down on the sec
other by a given amount. Such a system is de
tion shown in Fig. 2; Fig. 5 shows the position
scribed in the Hayes et al. United States Patent
No. 1,636,510 and in this system it will be noted 20 of the unit on a vessel; Fig. 6 shows a part side
view of the switch used in the invention; Fig. 7
that a group ‘of sound transmitters arranged
shows an end view looking from the right to left
along a straight line at a de?nite spacing is ex
in Fig. 6 with a part of the scale broken away;
cited by an electrical oscillatory source through
Fig. 8 shows a detail of the switch; Fig. 9 shows >
retardation means which makes successive trans
mitters along the line lag in the production of 25 an enlarged end view in section of a part shown
in Fig. 6; Fig. 10 shows a transformer used in the
the sound energy a given amount behind the
adjacent source.
As contrasted with this system in the present
system the energy from the electrical source to
the transmitter is not delayed but it is created
or generated in a different phase in such a man
her that at the transmitting end the same wave
pattern is produced in the propagated wave as
generating system; Fig. 11 shows an end view
partly in section of Fig. 10; Fig. 12 shows in per
spective one section of the transformer; Fig. 13
shows schematically the phase circuit; Fig. 14
shows the development of the conversion of the
load circuit; Fig. 15 shows a modi?cation of the
apparatus as applied for starting electrical appa
ratus such as a synchronous motor and control
would be produced in the system just previously
described. The present invention may, therefore, 35 ling the speed and Figure 16 shows a sectional
be called the “phase method” as contrasted with
the prior system which may be called the “re
tardation method.”
In the present invention no retardation is used
View of the switch in Fig. 15 and means for op
erating it.
The sound transmitter, as indicated in Fig. 5,
mounted in the vessel l in a position somewhat
between the generating unit and the transmitting 40 near the bow and located below the water line on
the hull is an elongated structure 2 running in a
sources. In addition to this the present system
horizontal direction and comprising a plurality
can be applied to the propagation and projection
of sound or supersonic sources 3, 3, 3. These
of waves of any frequency and is particularly
may be staggered as shown in Fig. 5 and may
adaptable to the projection of compressional
waves in the range above audibility where the 45 have any desirable arrangement in a plane form
ing, if desired, a circle or ellipse or other ?gure.
wave lengths are extremely short and where it is
This structure is shown in greater detail in Figs.
practically impossible to design an eincient re
2, 3 and 4. In Fig. 2 the skin of the vessel is
tardation system.
shown as 4 to which a heavy plate 5 may be at
In my complete system I have devised a trans
mitting source in which each unit is substantially 50 tached by means of the rivets B, the heavy plate
a point source of radiation. These units are
5 furnishing a seat for the sound or supersonic
preferably spaced apart in the system at distances
transmitter. The supersonic transmitter com
not greater than one-half wave length of the
prises a heavy plate 1 having outwardly project
energy transmitted in the propagating medium.
ing ?anges 8 through which by means of the bolts
Each individual source or group of sources may 55 9 the oscillator is bolted to the heavy rim 5. In
the central portion of the plate ‘I are a group of
including the vacuum tubes 33, 3%) and 4%}. The
perforations i6, i0, 58 having at the lower portion
a bevelled or conical wall as indicated by ii, ii,
i i in Fig. 2.
The plate 7 may be constructed to extend to
the surface of the vessel 5 but as indicated in
Figure 2 it is faced at the front by a hard rubber
piece i2 which is fastened to the plate 1 in any
suitable manner and which forms at its front
plate circuits of each of these tubes have tuned
surface a continuous surface with the skin of the
outputs til, c2 and &3 which are tuned or adjusta
bly tuned for a de?nite resonant frequency by
means of the tuning condensers M, 135 and 46.
The output transformers 5'2‘, 43 and IE9 have one
secondary connected to the grid or control elec—
trode of the next tube circuit, that is to say, the
circuit 35 is coupled through its plate output to
the grid of the circuit 35 and the circuit 36 is
similarlycoupled to the circuit 3'! which is cou
pled again to the circuit 35.
It will be noted in the circuit that the resistor
it! serves to drop the anode voltage so that the
In the perforations in the plate ‘I and.
the element 52 are positioned the units shown
in section in Fig. 3. Each of these units corn»
prises a magneto-strictive tube it having a head
ill mounted on the end thereof.’ The tube i3 is 15 same direct current supply can be used for the
oscillator as for the ampli?er about to be de
fastened in the plate '5 in any suitable manner,
' scribed. It shouldalso be noted that the resistor
but preferably, as indicated in the present con
iei’connected between the cathodes and the
struction, has a flared end 55 fitting in the con~_
negative side of the line serves to produce a nega~
ical perforation i I in the plate '5. This construc
tion is highly desirable both from the point of 20 tive grid bias on the grid electrodes. The grid
electrodes are also biased by the resistors H153 to
'view of manufacture and from technical results
produce a further negative bias on the grids.
obtained. It provides a very rigid joint without
This resistor may be bypassed by a capacity 154
the necessity of welding and makes it possible to
across it if the resistor is of a large magnitude.
tune each individual unit to the same frequency
as well as providing a unit which can readily be 25 Resistor E5o serves to control the amplitude of
oscillation since the bias voltage across it is pro~
disassembled and put together without changing
portional to the average grid current.
its acoustic properties. A clamping member it
By properly adjusting the plate tuning in each
having a conical shape of a slightly less taper
of these three circuits maintaining each circuit
than the end l5 of the tube fits into the end of
the tube and is adapted to clamp the tube i3 30 similar to the other circuit, it is possible to set
up a three-phase oscillation. I have found that
?rmly in the plate 'i. This is accomplished by
these circuits may be made to oscillate to produce
means of the threaded plug 57 which is threaded
three phases or more in a number of diifercnt
into the top of the plate '5 and drawn up tight to
hold the tube !3 ?rmly in place. Within the tube
modes, the most stable condition apparently
I3 and formed as a piece of the clamping member 35 being a frequency of oscillation which is above
the computed resonance in each plate circuit.
is a core R8 at the end of which is a solid cylinder
In this type of circuit it will be noted that the
I9. Wound about the core is is a coil 28, the i
feed back or regeneration to establish oscilla
leads M of which are taken up through holes
tion in the circuit is passed from the circuit 35
22, 22 in the piece it. The magnetic circuit for
the coil 26 is thus formed through the core t8, 40 to circuit 35, from the circuit 38 to the circuit
(-27 and then back to the circuit 35, establishing
the circular piece is, the tube 53 and the base
vthenefore a complete circle of the energy setting
of the clamping element
The magnetic ?ui;
up the oscillation in the system. I have found
flows therefore lengthwise of the tube i3 and
that in this system a true three-phase oscillation
produces a longitudinal vibration of the tube and
a vibration of the plate H5 carried at the end 45 ‘is set up in which each phase is 120 degrees out
of phase with that in the preceding circuit. Since
thereof. It is preferable in the present case to‘
the oscillations are continuously circulatory in
set the resonance frequency of the plate id above
nature, the circuit might well be called a “merry
that of the tube l3. The tube 53 is preferably
go-round” circuit and this designation appears
made one-quarter wave length of the wave pro
to describe the type of oscillation quite vividly.
duced in the material and the diameter of the
At lower frequencies a machine may be used
plate id is preferably less than one-half wave
to generate three phase power or it is also pos
length of the sound or compressional wave that
sible to use a single phase vacuum tube circuit
is being propagated in the radiating medium.
with a split phase arrangement although I prefer
As indicated in Fig. 2 the leads to the coils 2B
are brought out to a terminal plate 23 on which 55 to use the arrangement described above as pro
viding very stable operation.
the terminal connections
2d are mounted. As
The secondary of each of the transformers 47,
indicated in Fig. 2 the three tubes spaced one
c3 and 49 control the amplifying circuits 5i], 5!
above the other are connected together in series
and 52 which, as indicated in Fig. 1, are prefer
to the leads ‘25 and 2E. The leads 25 and 2B fur
nish one phase for the system and all of the 60 ably of the push-pull type or, namely, class B
ampli?ers in which the ‘average plate current is
sources in the vertical line are energized in this
substantially zero. The output of the ampli?er
same phase. Each line is operated with a differ*
‘circuits 56, SI and 52 are connected by the leads
ent phase for which separate leads 2?,
‘53, 54 and 55 to the balanced primaries of the
are brought out to the phase switch shown more
65 power transformers 56, 5‘! and 58, respectively.
clearly in Figs. 6, 7, 8 and 9.
Instead of using separate transformers for each
The plate 7 is covered by a frame is held to
phase there is an advantage in using a single
the plate by bolts 39 through a ?ange in the
three phase transformer which permits a transframe. The casing or frame 29 is covered over
for of energy between the phases. If there is an
at the top with a plate 35 held by the bolts 32
indicated in Fig. 2. The conductors are brought ‘unbalance in the phases the present construction
allows a ‘transfer of energy to reduce this.
through the side of the casing 29 with a proper
The construction of these power transformers
stuf?ng box 33 as indicated in Fig. 2.
is more clearly indicated in Figs. 10, 11 and 12.
The generating circuit for generating the multi—
The power transformers 58, 51 and 58, as indi
phase power is shown in Fig. 1. This comprises
a group of similar tube circuits 35, as and 31" 75 cated in Figs. 10, 11 and 12, are constructed like
The trans
formers 55, 51’ and 58 have three substantially
closed magnetic paths which are coupled in delta
connection. As indicated in Fig. 10 the closed
another, and always form an equilateral triangle
the transformers All, 48 and $9.
with o as the center.
The multiphase transformer diagrammatically
indicated in Figs. 1 and 13 is connected to the
switch shown in Figs. 6, '7, 8 and 9, the taps a, b
core 59 may be the core corresponding to the
the core 69 corresponding to the
transformer El! and the core El corresponding
to the transformer 58. As shown in Fig. l2 the
closed core is substantially a rectangular frame
0 being connected to the conducting seg
ments indicated by a’,
c in Fig. 8. For each
group of transmitters there are provided three
switch segments 9d, 95 and 92 corresponding to
the connections indicated in Fig. 13 by the 'con—
tacts of the triangle 8t, 88 and 39 with the multi~
made up of substantially U-shaped laminations
El’ and straight strip laminations 62. For high
phase transformer.
Two geometrical properties of regular polygons
enter into the design of the system. Consider
frequencies it is necessary to use very fine lanai
nations and therefore I have found it advisable
not to lap the joints but simply to abut the joints
of the individual frames to which the frames may
any straight line lying in the plane of a regular
polygon. The sum of the squares of the projec~
tions of the line on the sides of the polygon is
equal to half the number of sides times the square
of the length of the line. Conversely the sum of
the squares of the projections of the sides of the
polygon on the line is equal to half the number
of sides times the square of one side. The line or
the polygon may be rotated with
to the
other without altering the sum of the squares of
the projections of either one on the other.
E9. fastened
The plate
and the
of plate
the screws
ll) at the
51, top
S8 and
represent equal loads connected in delta across
bottom of the unit may be held together
the sisters. These lines may conveniently be
called load lines. The power transferred from
to any load is proportional to the
of the projection of the load line on the
as indicated in Fig. 12.
As shown in Fig. 10 the three rectangles are
put together with the corner of one leg resting
slightly inside of the corner of the leg before it.
This construction makes the core for each coil
63, 64 and 55 somewhat odd in shape but no diffi
culty is found with winding the coil and assem
bling the unit. The whole unit may be held to
gether by a Bakelite plate (i5 ?tting within the
triangle formed by the top and bottom members
Referring to Fig. 13, the lines 8?, 323 and as
means of the stay bolt ii and the nut 12.
The individual transformers 55, 51 and 5% ac
tually are units in what may be called a polygon
transformer 13 which will be understoorl more
clearly perhaps in connection with the diagram
sic of the polygon corresponding to that phase.
form a regular polygon, it is
The primaries of 56, fill and
evident from the first geometrical theorem
We Ll at the total power supplied by all
58 have
(It is assumed
e length Of the load line is constant in all
the ‘lies iii, 83, and 88 form
shown in Fig. 13.
1y to the three phases in the primary, namely the
secondaries ‘ill, 75 and 16. These are indicated
in Fig. 13 as Phase I, Phase II and Phase III.
The secondaries also have respectively the sa"
by the
in T1,
73 andThese
‘i9 and
.veral triangle, it is evident from the
secon. theorem that the total power drawn from
any one phase by all three loads is constant as
the load lines are rotated.
lire length of the load line determines the
respond to the sections marked Phase I Reversed, 45 voltage impressed on the load. If the length is
constant, the voltage is constant, and a simple
relation exists between power and impedance.
Phase II Reversed and Phase III Reversed. In
addition to these secondaries there are six small
secondaries 8|), 8!, 82, 83, 84, and 85, 8B corre~
sponding to Phase I and indicated by the short
Under this circumstance, the impedance looking
into the polygon transformer from either the gen
line in the direction of Phase I between Phase 11' 50 erator or the load will be independent of the po
sition of the delta load on the system. This re
Reversed and Phase III, 2! corresponding to
sult migl'it have been shown directly from the
Phase I Reversed between Phase II and Phase III
geometrical properties of regular polygons, since
Reversed, and the other small secondaries cor
13 the effective turns ratio is the projec
responding to the inwardly directed lines marked
Phase II, Phase III, Phase II Reversed and Phase 55 tion of a load line on a phase, and the impedance
transformation is the square of the turns ratio.
III Reversed.
The constancy of impedance in this phase shifting
In Figure 13 is indicated a voltage vector dia
system is of the utmost importance both in trans
gram in which the lines forming the hexagon
reception of radiant energy.
represent the voltages of each phase. As indi
As the load to each unit in the transmitter
cated in Fig. 1 each phase and each phase re
shown in Fig. 2 is indicated as si: gle phase, it is
versed is tapped at three places corresponding in
necessary to convert the power drawn from the
the diagram in Fig. 13 to b, a, b, and each small
multiphase transformer as three phase to single
secondary corresponding to the six c’s. Each sec“
phase. This is accomplished by means
a net
ondary connected to c has been chosen to pro
duce an average voltage between the voltage from 65 work to be described later. The switch shown in
Figs, 6, 7,.8 and 9 comprises a
S3 in the
the center 0 to the points a and b but may be
surface of which are set the segments a’, ‘o’, 0’
chosen, if desired, to lie on the circumference of
already described. The drum 53 is supported by
the circle which is tangent to the sides of the
a shaft “Sill which, as shown in the right end of
regular polygon, or may be of any other con
Fig. 6, is held in the bearing d5 by means of the
venient length.
set screw
As shown at the left end of Fig. 6
It will be noted that the points, a, b and 0 lie
the shaft 94 is threaded to receive the nut 9'3
substantially on the circle which is tangent to the
and at its end rests in the bearing 98 held in place
sides of the regular polygon, and the phases of
there by the set screw til. The nut 9"! holds the
the load as indicated in Fig. 13 by the lines 87',
88 and 89 are equal and 120 degrees from one 75 drum $3 ?rmly on the shaft 96 since at its right
by means of a suitable electric motor as, for in
stance, a motor of the Selsyn type. The scale
I46 mounted on the shell I4‘! is free to rotate on
end a shoulder IE3 is provided on the shaft against
which the drum is pressed.
Extending from the supports IIII and I02 of
the tube MI and may be driven by turning of the
the bearings is an electric insulating strip I03
upon which the brushes 9!), 9i and 92 are fas 5 handwheel I42 through the operation of the
sprocket wheel I31. A small sprocket wheel I48
tened. Concentric with the drum and free to be
is carried upon the shaft I33 for this purpose and
rotated about it are the insulating shells I34
when the shaft I33 turns, the sprocket I48
which may be of Bakelite or any other suitable
through the chain I49 turns the sprocket wheel
material. The insulating shell Illa is made up of
three rings IE5, H35 and I31. Mounted on the 10 I53 which, in turn, controls the rotation of the
ring it? at the right in Fig. 9 on a shoulder cut
scale I43.
The scale is suitably calibrated as indicated
in the ring is a sprocket wheel I63. The three
in Fig. '7 and a ?xed indicator is used supported
rings I35, Iil? and IE1 may be held together by
on the frame or casing of the switch.
the same bolts I33 holding the sprocket ring to
the shell. A groove I I3 is cut in each of the three 15
Each group of leads 993M and 92 draws a three
rings and in this groove is positioned by means
phase power from the segments as indicated by
of the spring III a brush H2 bearing against
the association of Figs. 8 and 13, and in the op
the segments Of the drum. The dotted outlines
eration of the system each of these groups is ad
II3 and lid indicate, respectively, the brushes in
vanced ‘when using a uniform spacing of trans
the rings I36 and I 3?. Each brush is of such
mitters in accordance with an arithmetical pro
a width that it can rest only on one segment at
gression. The system may also have a ?xed
a time. As will be seen from Fig. 8 these three
group in which the phase is never shifted and
brushes are placed apart on the circumference
the three leads for this group may be perma
120 degrees such that when the brush H2 bears
nently connected to any suitable three segments
on the segment a’, the brushes H3 and H4 also
of the drum.
bear on the segments a’. A spacing slightly dif
In the present system each vertical group of
ferent from 120 degrees may be chosen to obtain
units is operated in the same phase and there
successive switching of the three brushes on the
fore a single-phase power is desired. In order,
segments, Under these conditions the phases will
however, to preserve a balance of the Whole sys
be at times slightly unbalanced but for some pur
tem I have found it essential to draw the power
poses this disadvantage would be outweighed by
off the system as though it were a three-phase
the smaller steps of phase shift obtained. At the
load and this has been accomplished by a proper
outside of the rings IE5, I63 and It? are conduc
load network as indicated in the development in
tive slip rings H5, H3 and III against which the
Fig. 14 where A shows a delta load, B the corre
brushes 3%, 8! and 92 bear, respectively. Each
sponding Y load and C the actual design used in
the present system. I have discovered that by '
unit, as indicated on the drum, is constructed in
the same fashion and each group has three
a proper assignment of electrical constants to a
brushes bearing upon the segments of the drum.
network, as indicated in IIEA, the phase of the
The shells which are free to rotate about the drum
load as viewed from all of the three phases is
are rotated by means of the sprocket wheels and
uniform, that is, the impedance looking out
ward is always the same. By proper calculation
the chains I I8, I I9, etc., which are driven from a
second set of dissimilar sprocket wheels I20, I25,
it can be shown that if the load across one phase
I22, I23, I213, I25, I26, I27, I28, I29, ISI! and I3I.
is R, the loads across the other phases, respec
The sprocket wheels I28 to I3E, it will be‘ noted,
tively, are for C
have their edges lying on a straight but inclined -_ 745
and for L
For uniform spacing of the transmitting units
+jw/ 3R
the phase shift for each unit follows a simple
This may vbe obtained by using as C a capacity
arithmetic progression. For any other spacing
the sprocket wheels must be chosen accordingly. 50 whose reactance is
In the present case each wheel has progressively
—J'\/ 3R
more teeth by the same amount than the wheel
Whose reactance is
of the next smaller size and the number of teeth
of each of the wheels is a multiple of the number
of teeth in the smallest wheel. Therefore, the
section I32, indicated in Fig. 6, with the same ro
tation of the sprocket shaft I33 moves twice as
far as the section IE4 and therefore its brushes
+J‘w/ 3R
where the load across the other phase is R. The
corresponding Y arrangement for this system de
mands that the resistance shall be BB in place
are advanced in phase double the phase that its
of R.
predecessor is advanced. The shaft I33 is sup
With a magnetostriction oscillator which is an
ported to move in the bearings I34 and I35 and 60 inductive load I have found that the same phases
all of the sprocket wheels IZQ to I3I are pinned
may be obtained by the use of a proper auto
to the shaft by pins I33, I35, etc. The sprocket
If an auto transformer is chosen
shaft I33 is driven by the sprocket wheel I31
in which the branches have self reactances of
through the chain I38 which, in turn, is operated
mi and 202 respectively and mutual reactance of
by the sprocket I39 ?xed by means of the set 65 $111 then the equivalent T network contains arms
screw I48 ?rmly on the tube Ill! bearing the
having reactances respectively of
handwheel M2. The tube MI is free to move on
the extended shoulder I Q3 of the shaft 94 and
it is held in place upon the extension I43 by
means of the screw Hill beneath which is a washer
(mi-Hm) and (xz-l-mm)
70 and the staff reactance of
I45. As the handwheel I42 is turned, the sprocket
I39 is rotated and thereby the sprocket I3'I driv
This is shown in MC. The load of the trans
ing the sprocket shaft I33. Instead of the hand
mitter may be assumed to be made up of a
Wheel drive, as indicated by I42, a power drive
may be used and this may be controlled remotely 75 resistance RL and an inductive reactance in. also
as indicated in 140. The net reactance. therefore
of the load
In order to balance out in the other branches
of the Y a similar (to must be used so that there
fore the reactance
di?icult to start them. A synchronous motor is
usually started as an induction motor or by some
other means and the speed of the synchronous
motor is determined when the frequency and the
number of poles on the motor are ?xed. Synchro
nous motors are, therefore, rarely run at other
than a, de?nite constant speed. There are, how
ever, certain advantages in the use of synchronous
motors which would make their use highly desir
10 able if the speed and the starting could be easily
By making the are in the three branches of the Y
similar and equal, they may be ignored. R0 in
the present instance must equal RL——R.1 and also
controlled. In accordance with the application
shown in Figs. 15 and 16 this is accomplished in
the present invention.
In Fig. 15 the contacts a, b and c on the plate
260 correspond to the contacts a, b and 0 shown
in Figs. 1 and 13. Mounted concentric with the
plate 200 is a shaft 20l which is adapted to ro
RL—R2 so that the R1 and R2 in the lower
branches of the Y may be balanced out. Equal
tate in the bearing 202 in the plate and carries at
impedances may be removed from each branch of
one end a switch arm 203 and at the other end a
a Y without unbalancing the network and there
fore the his and R1 and R2 may be eliminated. 20 pulley 204 driven by the adjustable speed motor
205 which may be controlled by the rheostat 206.
If these conditions are adopted, the diagram
The switch arm 203 has three arms 201, 208 and
in 500 becomes the equivalent of 5GB and there
209 each of which carries two brushes 210, 2! i,
fore the impedances of the phases are equal. In
212, 213, 214 and 215. The brushes 210 to 215,
the design of the auto transformer it will be
inclusive, are arranged substantially at the cor
noted that one branch will have a reactance of
ners of an equilateral triangle and as indicated
in Fig. 15 they may rest upon one segment or on
successive segments, but no single brush may span
two segments.
while the other branch will have a reactance of
A group of conductive rings 2I6, 2H, 2l8, 219,
220 and 22| are also mounted on the plate 200
concentric with the shaft 20!. The rings ZIB
and 2|‘! are continually connected with the
The reactance of the first branch will 'be there
brushes 210 and 2| I, respectively, while the
fore considerably greater than that of the sec
ond branch although the resistances are to be 35 brushes H2 and 21-3 and 214 and 2| 5 are simi
larly connected with the rings 2l8 and 2i 9 and
the same. This may be accomplished by wind
ing the smaller reactance with ?ner wire and the
220 and HI. These rings are connected in pairs
to the three-phase transformer 222, or if desired
to three separate transformers, the ends of the
vide the greater length of wire necessary to give
the greater reactance a resistance equivalent to 40 winding 223 being connected to the inner two
rings, the winding 224 to the middle two rings
the resistance of the smaller reactance.
and the winding 225 to the outer two rings. The
In the operation of the system the multiphase
mid point of each of the three windings is con
power is generated by the tube circuit shown in
nected to each phase of the synchronous motor
the lower part of Fig. 1 and the so-called poly
larger reactance with coarser wire so as to pro
gon transformer in the upper part of the ?gure.
In the operation of the system it will be noted
The groups of three brushes 90, 91 and 82, in
that in any position of the switch arm 203 three
dicated in Fig. 6, bear upon the contact points
phase current is always being supplied to the
indicated by a, b and c in Fig. 1, each group
synchronous motor 220. If the arm 203 is sta
fo ruing for itself an equilateral triangle. The
switch shown in Figs. 6, ‘7, S and 9 is used to ad 50 tionary, it seems quite obvious that the frequency
of the current supplied to the motor is the fre
vance progressively the position of these groups
quency that is supplied to the polygon trans
of brushes so that as the switch is rotated, the
former indicated in Fig. 1. This, for instance,
groups begin to spread out in a fan shape draw
may be sixty cycles. If, however, the arm 203
ing power in differing phases from the trans
is rotated in the same direction as the rotation of
former. Each vertical group shown in Fig. 5
will, therefore, be provided with ‘a different phase.
the phase, the frequency supplied to the syn
For projection of a beam normal to the plane
chronous motor 226 will be reduced, and if the
arm should be rotated one revolution per second,
of the group of receivers all the units will have
a sixty-cycle supply would be reduced to ?fty~
power presented in the same phase. As ‘the beam,
however, is to be swung to the right or left, the
nine cycles. By rotating, therefore, the arm 203
phase will be changed commencing from the ver
sixty revolutions per second, the frequency sup
tical groups at one end to the ‘vertical groups at
plied would be zero. In starting the motor, there
the other extreme end. With a. uniform spac
fore, the switch arm 203 is brought up to the
ing of groups the last group will be retarded or
speed such that the frequency supplied to the
advanced in phase n-l times the retardation or 65 synchronous motor is practically zero; or, in other
advance between a single unit where n is the
words, such that the phase rotation in the stator
number of units. The beam can in this manner
of the motor is very slow. The rotoryunder these
be swept over the entire horizontal ?eld, the only
limit being the boundary limits provided by the
surface of the vessel.
In Figs. 15 and 16 there is shown a further ap
plication of the present invention. It is well
known that synchronous motors are limited in
their utility chie?y because it is practically im
possible to vary their speed and also because it is '
circumstancescan be slowlystarted and its speed
can be increased as the speed of the switch ‘arm
203 is diminished until the motor 226 will be op
erating .directly through the supply when the
switch arm 203 has come to rest.
In ‘order to prevent the short circuiting of two
adjacent segments and at the same time to have
the motor permanently supplied with power a
double group of brushes are used in conjunction
phase loads each having terminal connections
and means for spacing said terminal connections
symmetrically about the terminals of the power
with the three transformer windings 223, ‘224
and 225.
It should also be noted that not only is the
apparatus described in connection with Figs. 15
and 16 applicable to starting of synchronous mo
tors, but it is also applicable to changing their
speeds. This application seems quite‘ obvious
source and means for progressively varying the
position of said load terminals with each other,
said means maintaining the successive spacing
between successive loads equal.
since, for any rotation in the direction of the ro
4. In a system for producing a controllable
beam of radiated wave energy, a power distribu
favorable conditions.
phases electrical constants symmetrically balanc
tation of the phases of the‘ arm 293, the fre 10 tion source adapted to produce voltages of phases
forming a substantially regular polygon at points
quency supplied to the motor will be reduced and
of terminal connections: a plurality of three
therefore the motor speed would be materially
phase loads each having terminal connections
reduced. This, however, does not affect the
and means for spacing said terminal connections
motor torque which can be maintained at uni~
formly high value so as to enable proper start~ 15 symmetrically about the terminals of the power
source. means for progressively varying the posi
ing under load conditions.
tion of said lead terminals with each other, said
The present system ?nds a material applica
last-named means maintaining the successive
tion in the starting and stopping of electric rail
spacing between successive loads equal, said
way motors where up to the present time it has
been very dimcult to use synchronous motors and 20 three-phase loads including in one phase a group
of transmitters or receivers and in the other
alternating current transmission under the most
ing the transmitting or receiving load.
The use of the system will be readily under
5. In a system for producing a controllable
stood. It may be used for signal communication
and by the substitution of antennae for sound or 2-5 beam of radiated wave energy, a power distribu
tion source having means for producing a plu
compressional wave emitters the same system may
rality of voltages, each having vectors forming a
be employed for radio transmission.
voltage vector diagram of substantially a regular
The system also ?nds application in the de
polygon and means for energizing a beam radi
tection of submerged objects and in horizontal
sound ranging for the determination of sub 30 ator comprising a three-phase source having
three terminals adapted to be symmetrically
merged objects or sound ranging a’ distance from
placed about the power distribution source, one
the coast where reflections are desired from the
of said three phases being the beam radiator
coast itself.
The’ system may also be used for obtaining re
6. In a system for producing a controllable
?ections from objects such as ships or rocks and 35
beam of radiated wave energy, a power distribu
may therefore be used to prevent collision in a
tion source having means for producing a plu
state of fog.
The system may also be applied to aircraft
rality of voltages, each having vectors forming
a voltage vector diagram of substantially a regu
ranging either for searching for aircrafts or for
an aid in navigating the aircraft itself either by 40 lar polygon and means for energizing a beam
radiator comprising a three-phase source having
the use of the system in radiating sound or super
three terminals adapted to be symmetrically
sonic waves or radio waves, and similarly also the
placed about the power distribution source, one
system can be employed for determining direc
of said three phases containing the beam radiator
45 itself.
re?ected radio beam.
'7. In a system for producing a controllable
Having now described my invention, I claim:
beam of radiated wave energy, a beam radiator,
1. In a system for producing a controllable
a power distribution source having terminal taps
beam of radiated wave energy, a beam radiator,
with voltage phases between taps forming a volt
a power distribution source having terminal taps
with voltage phases between taps forming a volt 50 age vector diagram of substantially a regular
polygon and a plurality of three-phase loads
age vector diagram of substantially a regular
formed with terminals symmetrically positioned
polygon, a plurality of loads formed with branches
with respect to the voltages of the power distribu
having input terminals symmetrically connected
tion source, each of said loads having means for
about the terminal taps of the power distribution
producing the same power load on all phases of
source, said loads comprising in one branch the
the power distribution source.
load of the beam radiator and in the other
8. In a system for producing a controllable
branches loads each 120 degrees out of phase with
beam of radiated wave energy, a beam radiator,
the ?rst load and each other.
a power distribution source having terminal taps
2. In a system for producing a controllable
with voltage phases between taps forming a volt
beam of radiated compressional wave energy in
age vector diagram of substantially a regular
cluding a plurality of vertically arranged wave
polygon, a plurality of three-phase loads, means
producing groups having radiated surfaces spaced
for connecting said loads to said power distribu
apart not more than one-half wave length of the
tion source with each load advanced from the
wave to be emitted in the propagating medium
and having a vertical dimension of a number of 65 preceding load in the same phase displacement,
said loads each having in one branch the beam
wave lengths, means for energizing each group
radiator and in the other branches loads sym
with a progressive phase displacement propor
metrically positioned 120 degrees out of phase
tional to the spacing, the plurality of groups oc
with the ?rst load.
cupying suflicient wave lengths to produce a ver
9. In a system for producing a controllable
tically concentrated beam.
beam of radiated compressional wave energy in
3. In a system for producing a controllable
cluding a plurality of vertically arranged wave
beam of radiated wave energy, a power distribu
producing groups having surfaces spaced apart
tion source adapted to produce voltages of phases
tions of objects and'the location of objects by
forming a substantially regular polygon at points
of terminal connections, a plurality of three
not more than one-half wave length of the wave
5 to be emitted in the propagating medium and
having vertical dimensions of a number of wave
viding forward and reversed phases and section
lengths and means for energizing each of said
groups with voltages having different phases.
ing off the secondary system in uniform groups
of turns and means connecting said sections in v
10. In a system for producing a controllable
series to produce a voltage distribution source
beam of radiated wave energy, a power distribu 5 having a vector voltage diagram of substantially
tion source comprising a three-phase primary
a regular polygon.
system and a three-phase secondary system, said
secondary system having a plurality of taps pro
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