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Патент USA US2407250

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Set. W, 1946.
H. G. BUSIGNIES
2,497,250?
DIRECTIVE ANTENNA
Filed Oct. 30, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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DIRECTIVE ANTENNA
Filed Oct. 30, 19-741,
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
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UNH’E'ED STATES RATEN? @FFECE
2,407,250
DIRECTIVE ANTENNA
Henri G. Busignies, Forest Hills, N. ‘1., assignor to
Federal Telephone and Radio Corporation, a
corporation of Delaware
Application ()ctober 30, 1941, Serial No. 417,152
10 Claims. (Cl. 250—-—‘1l)
1
This invention relates to directive antenna sys
tems, and in particular to improvements in vari
ably directive devices for transmitting and/or re
ceiving purposes.
It is an object of the invention to provide im
proved means for varying the directivity of an
antenna.
ml
rection ?nders, it has been proposed to transmit
radiant energy periodically in a plurality of dif
ferent directive senses and to employ received.
re?ections of such energy to determine distance,
direction, or other characteristics of a re?ecting
body. Alternately, and for similar purposes,
some of these systems propose transmitting radi
ant energy in a constant generally directional
More speci?cally, and with regard to directive .
sense while rendering a receiving antenna peri
antennas, it is an object to provide improved
means for periodically rendering an antenna ro 10 odicaily responsive to received re?ections of such
energy as reflected from variously located bodies.
tatingly directive throughout a generally conical
Such systems have been disclosed, for example,
orbit about the axis of said orbit.
in my copending application entitled “Aircraft
Still more speci?cally, it is an object to provide
Indenti?er,” ?led on even date herewith.
means for periodically rotating the directional
The above mentioned application related par
axis of a directive antenna at a constant angle
ticularly to radio apparatus for detecting the lo
with the axis of rotation, whereby the locus of
cation of aircraft or other reflecting bodies and
said directional axis is a generally conical orbit
proposed the use of an antenna system which was
about the axis of rotation.
recurringly directive throughout a generally coni
Another object is to provide an improved re
flector of radiant energy.
It is also an object to provide an improved ab
sorbent of radiant energy.
A further object is to provide improved means
for varying impedance offered to radiant energy
radiated or being detected by an antenna where
by directional transmission or reception may be
cal orbit. A mechanical set up was disclosed for
producing the desired directivity pattern, and it
was also mentioned therein that either a wholly
electrical system or a rotating ionized ?eld in
accordance with the present invention could be
employed.
Broadly speaking, the present invention pro
obtained.
poses to use the properties of an ionized ?eld
either to absorb or to re?ect radiant energy in
A more speci?c object is to provide means for
order to obtain novel directive effects. A cham
utilizing a moving ionized ?eld in conjunction
with an antenna for obtaining directional trans 30 ber ?lled with an ionizable medium and appropri
ately provided with electrodes for ionizing the
mission or reception.
same is suitably disposed with respect to an an
A still more speci?c object is to provide means
tenna whereby the ionized ?eld present therein
for setting up an ionized ?eld shifting eccentri
may either re?ect or absorb energy being radi
cally about an axis.
ated from or receivd by the antenna. Prefer
Other objects and various further features of
ably, the electrodes within the chamber are so
novelty and invention will hereinafter be pointed
disposed and energized that a shifting ionized
out or will become apparent to those skilled in
?eld is set up therein, which ?eld shifts eccen
the art from a reading of the following speci?
trically of an axis of the antenna with substan
cation in conjunction with the drawings included
herewith. In said drawings,
40 tially uniform density throughout its cycle of
shifting operation.
Fig. 1 is a schematic showing of a device for
Fig. 1 shows schematically a device for setting
producing an eccentrically shifting ionized ?eld
up such an eccentrically shifting, preferably ec
in accordance with features of the invention;
centrically rotating, ionized ?eld. The device
Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate schematically how a de
vice according to Fig. 1 may be employed in co 45 comprises a chamber 5 preferably of generally
circular cross section and having a plurality of
operation with an antenna to producenovel di
electrodes 6, ‘i, 8. 3, H} therein. Chamber 5 may
rective effects in accordance with the invention;
be ?lled with an ionizable gaseous medium, such
Fig. 4 illustrates schematically an alternative
as neon, for example, In the form shown, cham
embodiment of the device shown in Fig. 1;
ber 5 is provided with two pairs of diametrically
Fig. 5 illustrates schematically a, further alter
opposed electrodes, all spaced equally from a gen
native embodiment illustrative of the invention;
erally central electrode member iii. In accord
and
ance with the embodiment shown in Fig. l, at
Figs. 6 and. 7 are plan view showings of cer
any instant the ionized ?eld preferably extends
tain elements in the apparatus of Fig. 5.
In connection with certain types of radio di 55 over substantially a quadrant sector of the cross
2,407,250
3
4
section shown, and is thus set up between the
energy and is preferably disposed along the axis
electrode I9 and either one or two adjacent of
of chamber 5' and generally at the focal point
thereof. In the sense of Fig. 3, antenna 22 will
have a normal radiation generally to the left and
the outer electrodes.
A suitable circuit for energizing the electrode
system so as to set up the desired eccentrically
rotating ?eld also shown in Fig. 1. In the form
shown, two preferably equal voltages spaced 90° ‘
to the right symmetrically about the axis thereof.
Energy radiated generally to the right of antenna
22 will however. strike the eccentrically rotating
ionized ?eld produced in chamber '5’. It is clear
wi in respect to each other, may be generated by
that the e?ect of such a ?eld will be to re?ect a
the two phase alternator H and supplied to po
tentiometers i2 and 53 respectively. The mid 10' portion of such energy generally to the left, thus
reinforcing radiation to the left and providing an
points of potentiometers l2 and it are connected
overall maximum radiation periodically rotating
to the central electrode H), as is indicated. by the
. eccentrically about the axis of antenna 22.
ground connection. Each end of potentiometer
In an alternate preferred form of the invention,
I2 is connected to electrodes of one pair of op
I provide means for extending the sector com
posed electrodes
9 through recti?er means It,
prising the ionized ?eld to cover an are greater
i5 respectively, and each end of potentiometer I3
than that possible with the apparatus disclosed
is connected to electrodes 5 and 8 of the ‘other
in connection with Fig. 1. Fig. 4 shows a circuit
pair of opposed electrodes through recti?er means
for generating such a ?eld in. which the ionized
it, ll.
‘With the circuit 50 described. an ionizing poten~ 20 area extends over substantially three quadrants
of the‘area comprehended within the outer elec
tial may ?rst be set up say. between electrodes 6
trodes. The chamber 5 and electrodes 6, l, 8, 9,
and IE1. It is clear that this potential is set up
when the voltage across potentiometer I3 ‘as ‘gen
erated by Winding 5 lb of the alternator is a maxi
it may be the same in structure as in the case of
Fig. l. , As also in the case of Fig. 1, alternator
mum and in the ‘direction indicated by the arrow ‘
H may supply substantially equal voltages in
quadrature relation to potentiometers l2 and I3
respectively. The midpoints of these potentiom
eters and central electrode H) are again grounded.
However, each of the lines connecting terminals
of potentiometers l2 and I 3 to the outer electrodes
is provided with recti?ers 23, 24, 25, 26 and appro
E8.
No ionizing potential will be set up between
electrodes 8 and iii at this instant due to the
blocking operation of recti?er Hi, as will be clear.
As alternator ll continues to rotate, the voltage
generated in winding Hb will decrease and a
voltage will appear across potentiometer ‘,2 as
generated by winding Ila.
This voltage may be
priately polarized batteries 21, 23, 29, 30. Batter
in the direction indicated by arrow l9, and due
to the passing action of recti?er I4 and the block
ies 2? . . . 39 may supply su?‘icient potential for
ionization purposes and recti?ers 23 . . . 26 pref
ing action of recti?er 45, will begin to set up an "
erably pass such potential and block an excess
thereover.
The effect of such a structure will be at any
instant to set up an ionized ?eld over a sector
comprising substantially the area between any
three of the outer electrodes and the central elec
trode in approximately the following manner.
Consider again the instant in which voltage gen
erated across potentiometer I3 is a maximum in
the direction It. Recti?er 23 will serve to block
ionizing potential between electrodes 1 and ‘iii.
The effect of decreasing ionizing potential be
tween electrodes ii and ill and increasing ionizing
potential between electrodes ‘5 and I ll will be bod
ily to displace the sectoral ionized pattern in a
clockwise sense about electrode l6 and when the
voltage across potentiometer l2 reaches a maxi
mum in the direction i9, the ionized sector will
appear wholly between. electrodes ‘l and IE}, as will
be clear. Thus, it is possible to generate an
ionized ?eld rotating eccentrically ‘about an axis,
and the use of such an ionized ?eld will now be
an application of potential between electrodes 5
and I3 and an ionized ?eld may thus, in the ab
sence of batteries 21, 28, 29, 39, be set up between
electrodes 8 and i0. However, simultaneously,
described in connection with two types of antenna
batteries 22', 28, 29, 3B are all supplying suf?cient
structures.
In Fig. 2, I show how the eccentrically rotating 50 potential for ionization and such potential is op
posed in sense to that set up between electrodes
?eld may be employed .as a radiant energy ab
6 and lil due to the voltage is. As a result the
sorber to produce desired directive effects. In
net potential applied between electrodes 6 and It
Fig. 2, chamber 5 is shown in partly broken away
at the instant under consideration is in the neigh
elevation and disposed preferably concentrically
borhood of zero (or at least should preferably be
with the axis of a directive antenna structure 20
less than an ionizing potential) so that at any
which may be employed in conjunction with apinstant a quadrant or other small sector may be
propriate transmitter or receiving means 2|. It
is clear that by successively eccentrically blocking
non-‘ionized.
It will now be clear, recalling the discussion
out the portions of the directive pattern generated
of operation of the circuit of Fig. 1 that, as the
by antenna Ell, novel directional transmitting ‘or
maximum voltage supplied by alternator H ro
receiving eifects may be obtained. In the case
tates in phase, the non-ionized quadrant or other
described, if antenna 28 is ‘a transmitting an
small sector just referred to may rotate accord
tenna, the pattern of radiated energy will be
ingly. It is thus possible to set up an eccen
periodically displaced eccentrically of the axis of
trically rotating ionized ?eld which at any in
antenna
throughout a generally conical orbit.
stant may‘comprise substantially more than half
In the form shown in Fig. 3, I show how an
the area within the outer electrodes.
eccentrically rotating ionized ?eld may be em
In the ‘embodiments of the invention thus far
ployed as a re?ector to produce novel directional
described it may be that the central electrode
effects in accordance withthe invention. Here
member 10 will have undesirable re?ecting, dis
again, a chamber 5’, containing the ionizable me-,
torting or'other effects upon radiated or received
dium, is shown in partly broken away elevation
In
energy. In that event I propose an alternative
embodiment illustrated in one form in Fig. 5.
connection with such a reflector, a dipole 22 may
This alternative apparatus eliminates any need
be employed as the radiator or receiver of radiant
for a central ‘electrode and provides the possi
but is preferably shaped generally parabolically
for better reflecting and focussing purposes.
2,407,250
5
6
bility of extending the ionized ?eld sector to in
g'—g may be rather low, but also in the same
clude a wide range of arcs from, say a quadrant
sense.
up to three quadrants.
The effect of a, maximum and large voltage ap
plied between electrodes A and D will be su?i
As in the case of the previously discussed struc
tures, the embodiment according to Fig. 5 com CIA cient to produce an ionized ?eld therebetween to
prises within an envelope 40 an ionizable medi
cover a substantial chord of the tube All. The
effect of less voltage being applied simultaneously
um and a plurality of electrode structures A—A',
B-B' . . . H-H’.
These electrode structures
between electrodes B and E, and C’ and H’, re
are preferably equally spaced generally along the
spectively, may be to set up an ionized ?eld
therebetween, if the voltage thus provided be
sufficient to produce ionization. As regards thev
relatively low voltages from windings 0-0’ and
g’—g, respectively, it is not likely that they will
closely-spaced electrodes, possible preferred
be suf?cient to produce ionization between elec
forms of which have been illustrated in Fig. 6 15 trodes C and F, and B’ and G’, respectively. The
net effect of application of potentials at the in
and 7. The form shown in Fig. 6 depicts elec
trode structure A--A’ as comprising two elec
stant under consideration will thus be to set
up a localized ionization ?eld extending over the
trodes A and A’, each‘ having protruding or lobe
sector generally de?ned by a starting limit at
shaped portions 4!, ill’ and correspondingly re
cessed lobe-shaped portions 42, 132'. In the form
electrode structure H-H’ and clockwise around
shown in Fig. '7 electrodes A and A’ each comprise
to electrode structure E-E’, as will be clear.
circumference of an imaginary circle.
In ac
cordance with features of the invention and for
purposes which will later become apparent, each
such electrode structure comprises a plurality of
a plurality of relatively well spaced electrode sur
faces 133. lit’, and each of the surfaces say 43 of
electrode A is disposed between surfaces 63' of
electrode A’. Preferably electrodes A and A’ are
provided with a large plurality of lobes and re
cesses in the Fig. 6 form and with a large plural
Now, by considering successive instants, that
is, as the output of Winding a—a’ decreases in
magnitude and as, say the output of winding
b--b’ increases to a maximum, it will clearly be
seen that the ionized ?eld de?ned by the above
identi?ed sector will be bodily displaced corre
spondingly about the axis of tube 4a.
ity of surfaces in the Fig. 7 form, whereby the
In order to simplify showing and explanation
alternate use of either electrode A or A’ will
have little e?ect in displacing an ionized ?eld 30 of the circuit of Fig. 5 I have necessarily omitted
a showing of additional circuit elements which
set up between electrode structure A—A' and any
it may be desirable to add. For example, some
other electrode structure, as will later be clear.
kind of output control means may be associated
In Fig. 5 the various electrode structures A—A',
with alternator Gil, whereby the maximum out
B—B’, etc. are shown with‘ a solid-line designa
tion, e. g. A, and a dotted line, e. g. A’. Such a 35 puts of all the windings a-a’, b—b', etc. may
be simultaneously regulated. The utility of such
method of designation indicates schematically
a regulatory system will be very apparent, for
that the respective surfaces of both electrodes A
winding output may at one extreme be so ad
and A’ are coplanar (perpendicular to the sense
justed as to yield ionizing potentials only when
of Fig. 5) and insulatingly spaced with respect to
40 winding output is at a maximum. On the other
each other, as clearly shown in Figs. 6 and 7.
hand, winding output may be so increased that
In the embodiment of Fig. 5, I preferably em
ionizing potentials are produced in several adja
ploy means supplying a plurality of phase-dis
cent windings at once.
The effect of such regulation will be seen to
of electrodes within chamber 55'] to set up a de
sired rotating ionized ?eld. In the preferred 45 vary the angular size of ionized ?eld produced.
In the former of the above extreme conditions
form shown this plurality of voltages corresponds
placed voltages for energizing appropriate pairs
with the number of electrode structures A—A',
B-B’, etc. and may be supplied by an appropri
ately Wound alternator 44. Alternator 44 in
cludes a number of output terminals a-a’,
72-42 . . . 71-h’, yielding a corresponding num
ber of alternating voltages phase displaced pref
erably equally with respect to each other. The
mode of connecting the various phase outputs of
alternator M to electrode structures A—A',
B—B’, etc. shown in Fig. 5 is merely illustrative,
and it is to be understood that other connection
schemes may be devised to accomplish substan
tially the same results.
In the form shown, successive output windings
of alternator all are connected between an elec
trode of one electrode structure and that of an
other structure displaced a few structures away.
of output assumed, and at the instant when
winding a—~a' is yielding a maximum voltage, no
other windings supply adequate voltage for ioni
50 zation, so that the chord between electrode struc
tures A—A’ and D-D' will be the only ionized
?eld. In the latter condition, even the output
voltage of windings c—c’ and g’—g may be suf
ficiently large to produce a slight degree of ioni
zation. As a result then, at the assumed instant,
the ionized ?eld may extend almost completely
around the device. It is to be noted that,
inasmuch as the degree of ionization varies some
what with potential applied, the ionized ?eld
may extend completely around tube ?ll, and at
the same time be locally ionized to an extreme
extent, due to the various ionizing potentials
applied between electrodes of various electrode
structures. Thus, in the latter condition as
Speci?cally, the output of winding a—a' is ap~ 65 sumed, ionization may be taking place between
plied between electrodes A and D, the output of
at least one electrode of all the electrode struc
winding b—b’ between electrodes B and E, and
tures, but there will be a localized extremely
soon.
highly ionized ?eld extending roughly over the
Let us now consider the effect of successive
sector H—I-I’ clockwise to E--E’.
maximum voltages in the alternator windings
While I have described my invention particu
during operation. For illustration, assume the
larly in conjunction with devices employing a
instant at which voltage in winding a-a' is a
plurality of electrodes and means for appropri
maximum in one direction. Voltages in windings
ately energizing these electrodes to obtain an
b—b' and h'—-h will be somewhat less, but in the
eccentrically rotating or otherwise shifting ion
same sense; and voltages in windings c-c' and
ized ?eld, it is clear that other methods may be
2,407,250
7
employed. For example, it is known that an
alternating voltage of high enough frequency
may be suf?cient to produce a steady ionized
?eld.
It will be observed that the circumferentially
disposed electrodes in all showings oi the dis
charge device are neither shovm as having ?at
nor generally arcuate surfaces,_ but rather as
having a slightly undulatory form. This show
ing has been made to call attention to the fact
that some sort of design and experimental work
will be necessary with respect to these surfaces
in order to obtain the most uniform strength of
8
for successively energizing said electrodes, Where
by ionization within said envelope is eccentri
cally localized and rotated about the axis of said
eccentricity.
5. A directive antenna system according to
claim 1, wherein said reflector is disposed gen
erally transverse to radiation from said element.
6. A directive antenna system according to
claim 1, wherein said re?ector is disposed gener
ally transverse to radiation from said element
and said chamber is of generally parabolic cross
section.
7. A directionally responsive antenna system
comprising an antenna for translating electro
ionized ?eld between electrodes as that ?eld ro
tates or shifts eccentrically in accordance with 15 magnetic waves, a reflector for said waves dis
the invention. 1, therefore, consider that the
precise form of electrode ?nally to be adopted is
purely a matter of design.
While the foregoing description has been made
in 133.1 ticular detail in connection with the pre
ie‘rcd forms illustrated, it is to be understood
posed adjacent said antenna, said. re?ector com
prising an envelope of non-conductive material,
ionizable means within said envelope, a plurality
of opposed pairs of electrodes within said en
20 velope for ionizing said ionizable means to pro
duce an ionized path, and means for successively
energizing
electrodes in a predetermined
sequence whereby the con?guration of said path
he scope and spirit of this invention.
is varied to change the directivity of said an
at I claim is:
v. A directive antenna system comprising a 25 tenna system.
8. A re?ector for a directive antenna system
comprising an envelope of non-conducting mate
said element, said re?ector comprising an en~
‘ .at many modi?cations thereof may be made
i
rial, the shape oi said envelope being substan
tially paraboloidal, ionizing means Within said
ionizitrg said ionizable means, said electrode 30 envelope for producing an ionized path, said
ionizing means comprising an ionizable gaseous
means including electrodes disposed generally
velope
of non-conductive
material,
ionizable
means within said envelope, electrode means for
along the circumference of a circle, and means
[or successively energizing said electrodes, where
by ionization within said envelope is eccentri
cally localized and rotated about the axis of said
eccentricity.
2. A directive antenna system according to
claim 1, wherein said radiating element is gener
ally uni-directionally directive and said reflector
is disposed transverse to substantially all the
radiation of said element.
3. A radiant energy directional. system includ
ing antenna means, means disposed in proximity
to and positioned to reflect energy directed by
said antenna means for setting up a locally ion
ized ?eld, and means for periodically displacing
said ionized ?eld to variably effect the directional
effect
said energy.
4.. A directionally responsive receiving anten
na system including a receiving element, a re
hector disposed adjacent said element to re?ect
energy thereto, said reflector comprising an en—
velope
non-conductive material, ionizable
means wi . *1 said envelope, electrode means for
ionizing said ionizable means, said electrode
means including electrodes disposed generally
along the circumference of a circle, and means
medium and a plurality of pairs of electrodes,
said electrodes being disposed along a generally
circular circumference near the periphery of said
tube, means providing a plurality of phase-dis
placed voltages equal in number of said pairs of
electrodes, and means for sequentially applying
said voltages to said pairs of electrodes, whereby
the con?guration or said path is varied to change
the directivity of said antenna system.
9. A reflector for a directive antenna system
in accordance with claim 8, wherein each elec
trode of said opposed pairs comprises a plurality
of closely spaced electrode members, each of
45 said members having lobe-shaped portions in
spaced relation to a corresponding lobe-shaped
portion of another of said members.
10. A re?ector for a directive antenna system
in accordance with claim 8, wherein each elec
trode of said opposed pairs comprises two closely
spaced members, each of which comprises rela
tively widely spaced electrode surfaces, and each
of the surfaces of one of said members is dis
posed between the surfaces of another of said
members.
HENRI G. BUSIGNIES.
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