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Патент USA US2407252

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Sept. 10, 1946.
E- R- “0&5
PREFABRICATED BUILDING‘
Filed Oct. 22, 1943
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Sept, 10, 1946.
E. R. GLOSS.
2,407,252
PREFABRICATED BUILDING '
'Filed 001;. 22, ‘1943
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‘ Sept. 10, 1946. _
2,407,252
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PREFABRICATED BUILDING ‘
Filed Oct. 22, 1945
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Patented sept. 10, ‘1946
2,407,252
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE‘
2,407,252
PREFABRICATED BUILDING ‘
Edwin R. Gloss, United States Army,
Camp Swift, Tex.
Application October 22, 1943, Serial No. 507,252
6 Claims.
(01. 20--2)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757)
1
2
The invention described herein may be manu
factured and used by or for the Government for
governmental purposes, Without payment to me
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary vertical sectional-view
taken on line 2—2 of Fig. l and showing an end
of any royalty thereon.
‘ wall of the building unit;
'
Fig. 3 is a view partly in section and partly in
This invention relates to the’ construction of Cl perspective, showing a wall-and-roof element as
what are termed prefabricated buildings. It in
it is about to be assembled with a corresponding
volves new and improved structural units, adapted
floor element;
for ready assembly to produce a ?nished struc
Fig. 4 is a view partly in section and partly in
ture that in itself, because of the character of
, perspective, with parts broken away, showing two
its components, and the way they are put to~ 10 matching wall-and-roof elements about to be
gether, possesses advantages over known con~
joined at the ridge line of the structure;
structions in many respects.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view, with parts broken
The invention, including its several parts or
away, taken on line 5-5 of Fig. 1;
aspects, was conceived in an endeavor to solve
Fig. 6 is ‘an end view with parts broken away;
some of the problems arising out of the present ‘
showing how two wall-and~roof elements may be
war emergency, as for example, (1) scarcity of
assembled in two-ply face-to-face relation, for
many metals and other materials, as well as ?t
increased strength and/or insulating effect;
ments, attachments and hardware, ordinarily
Fig’? is a sectional view, with parts broken
used in the building of houses and other struc
away, taken on line ‘|—'! of Fig. 6;
tures, but now on what is known as the critical 20
Fig. 8 is a sectional view, with parts broken
list; (2) the pressing need for construction meth~
away, taken on line 8-8 of Fig. 1;
ods that will make possible the use of compara
Fig. 9 is a sectional view, with parts broken
tively unskilled labor, and the doing of a given
away, showing a form of edge joint between ad
job in the minimum number of “on the job erec
jacent wail-and-roof elements, where a plurality
tion hours ;” (3) the need for a system involving 25 of such elements are combined as in Fig. 13;
the minimum number of major structural mem
Fig. 10 is a view similar to Fig. 9, illustrating
bers, of such nature and so assembled that they
another form of edge joint between wall-and-roof
may in themselves provide the interior as well as
elements;
the exterior surface ?nish of the building; (4) the
Fig, 11 is a perspective view partly in section
importance of lightness in the component mem 30 and with parts broken away, showing the ceiling
bers Without sacri?ce of strength necessary to
and-cross‘brace element as one end of it is about
care for normal stresses or loads in the ?nished
to be assembled with a wall-and-roof element;
building; (5) the need for a structure that may
Fig. 12 is a section taken on the line l2_|2 of
be elfectively insulated against heat or cold to
Fig.1, looking in the direction of the arrows; and
any degree (within limits, of course); (6) the 35 Fig. 13 is a typical architect’s plan of a build
desirability of using so far as possible inter
ing made up of three such units as are indicated
changeable units, with provision for expansion
at A, B, and C in Fig. 1, joined together and indi
of a ?nished building when desired, with almost
cating interior partitioning arrangements, and
the facility that characterizes the familiar so
windows.
, called “sectional book-case;” and (7) the utili
zation for the most part, of armaterial extraor
40
dinarily strong, easilymade and shaped, and yet
relatively certain as to supply, 1. e., ply-wood.
Having in. mindthe objects thus indicated,
among others,‘ the invention includes the ele
ments, combinations, arrangements and rela
tions of parts and procedural methods herein
afterset forth with reference to the drawings
forming part of this speci?cation.
In the drawings,
50
Fig. l is a vertical sectional view of a single
building unit embodying my invention, and show
ing thewall-and-rooi elements, the interior ceil
ing-and-cross-brace- element, and the ?oor ele
ment of such a unit;
1 Referring now to the numerals on the drawings,
there are‘shown in Fig. ltwo wall-and-roof ele
ments or panels, each comprising an outershell IT.
preferably of ply-wood, and an inner shell l8 of
the same material and parallel to and matching
shell H in width and length, these shells being
spaced apart by a series of rib members l9, pref
erably more than three in number, extending
from the lower edges of the. shells to their upper
edges respectively, and arranged at regular in
tervals and parallel to each other along the widths
of the shells; there being preferably a rib [9' at
each extremity of the widths of the shells, as in
dicated in Figs. 9 and 10. Ribs [9 are ?rmly
united to the confronting surfaces of the shells as
‘ by means of a strong and preferably water-proof
24073252
4
glue or adhesive, so that the effect is that of an
extraordinarily strong solid piece or panel, but
compartmented to provide dead air spaces when
assembly is complete (Figs. 9 and 10). Within
these spaces mineral wool or other insulating ma
terial may be packed, as indicated at 33 in Figs.
5, '7, 9 and 10. Further strength is imparted by
reason of the fact'that the composite shell, i, e.,
the inner and outer shell and the ribs l9 are
formed on parallel curves, so that when two units
are brought into the Fig. 1 relation there is con
stituted a Gothic arch.
Each wall-and-roof unit, _ ,
.
ing surfaces are to be in strong adhesive union,
and pressed together in any preferred way while
the adhesive is drying, it is evident that the floor
and the wall-and-roof sections are readily ?tted
and effectively held together.
Union of the upper ends of the two matching
wall-and-roof elements is accomplished as fol
lows (Figs. 1 and 4). For each of these elements
there is a ridge member comprising an upstand
ing extension 25’ having a curved tongue or part
25 which extends outwardly and downwardly ad
jacent to the lower end of the extension 25'.
The tongues 25 of the ridge members extend in
opposed relation to each other and fit between
it will be understood, is of length so that the de
sired altitude, measured from the apex of the
and are adhesively united to the inner faces of
arch (which will be the ridge of the building)
shells I‘! and £8 at their upper ends, with the
to the ?oor of the building, will be achieved; and
upper ends of the shells H and i3 abutting
its width will be such as to give the desired depth
against the outer faces of the upstanding exten
of building or building section.
- sions, whose confronting faces of the extensions
The pre-fabrication of the curved wall-and
roof elements by means of jigs and applied pres 20 are parallel when brought together and adhe
sively and/0r otherwise held in that relation, as
sure and adhesive and/or other securing means,
hereinafter described.
may be done in known ways.
In Figs. 1 and 11 I have indicated a ceiling
The floor element construction will be clear
and-cross-brace element, comprising a box-like
from a comparison of Figs. 1, 3 and 12. It rests
on conventional sills 8, and is made up of one or 25 structure with a top wall 24, a bottom wall 22,
end walls 21, and beams or ribs 23 (Figs. 1 and
more parallel smaller than normal floor beams
8), between and adhesively united to each of said
I8, parallel sill members l2 at right angles to
walls, thus providing a compartmented structure,
beams l8, cats l5, and a horizontal ?oor H and
whose cells or compartments may be packed with
sub-floor 9 preferably of ply-wood enclosing and
spaced apart by and adhesively united to the
parts l0, l2 and I5, whereby is formed a very
strong though light floor structure, compart
mented as shown by reason of the relations be
tween the various parts. In the several compart
ments may be placed suitable insulating mate
rial, particularly in the spaces between sills l2
and cats l5, Sills l2 are of length equal to the
Width of the wall-and-roof section just de
scribed; they are in effect end closures and sup
ports between ?oor I l and sub-floor 9, and imme
diately over them and adhesively united to end
edge portions of floor I I are raised building shoes
13 of length equal to that of sills l2. This box
type ?oor panel may be readily pre-fabricated in
any wood-working shop by setting the various
parts up in jigs and applying a water-proof adhe
sive to all joints and bearing surfaces, followed
by pressing of the entire panel in a jig, resulting
insulating material if desired. This ceiling panel
may be readily prefabricated from ply-wood. and
it will be dimensioned so that its length will cor
respond to the distance between roof-and-wall
sections at a chosen height above the floor while
' its width matches that of the wall section. It is
set in place as indicated in Figs. 1 and 11, mold
ings 29 being adhesively or otherwise secured to
the shells 18 at the proper height, and the ceil
ing panel being put in place so that it rests upon
moldings 20, with its ends 21 in contact with
the respective shells I8. All surfaces that arev to
be in contact are covered with adhesive before
they are brought together; and in order that ef
fective pressure may be applied I prefer that the
- curve of the wall-and-roof element shall be
- somewhat less in radius than is required for the
?nished building, It follows that when opposite
wall-and-roof elements are'erected and pressed
against the ends of the ceiling panel, there will
in a large, light floor unit of exceptional strength
and insulating qualities. By reason of the fact 50 be an opening between the confronting faces of
the ridge parts'25’. These faces are covered with
that the floor panel extends well beyond the sup
water-proof adhesive and then brought together
porting plate 8 on each side, the relative foun
with suitable clamps, so that the wall-and-roof
dation and excavation size‘ and costs are reduced,
thereby diminishing the foundation perimeter
elements are ?rmly united at the ridge, and so
and the number of square feet of cellar area, as
55 that the ceiling panel which by reason of its
length and the relation of the various parts is al
compared with the floor area of the super-in
ready held in compression between shells I8, is
cumbent building.
put under still further compression, thereby
As an example of means for quick and effective
compressing the applied adhesive and joining
assembly of the wall-and-roof elements with the
floor panel, I have shown (as to each wall-and 60 the ceiling panel and the wall-and-roof elements
to form a rigid whole,
roof element) the inner shell l8 of length so that
When a building is to have a depth greater than
its lower edge rests on floor II, while the lower
the width of one of the roof-and-wall elements,
edge of shell I‘! extends down to and even below
it becomes necessary to employ two or more of
the level of sub-?oor 9. Within the space be
tween the shells ll’ and I8, slightly above the 65 said elements for each side of the building, in
edge-joined relation. In Fig. 9 I have shown one
lower edge of shell I 8 (Fig. 3) is a secondary plate
way of accomplishing such joint. In that case
or sill member l4, ?rmly adhesively united to
the ribs [9 at the ends of adjacent roof-and-wall
both shells and to the lower ends of ribs I9 (Fig.
elements are provided with recesses in which are
1), as part of the fabrication of the wall-and
roof element. With the described construction 70 accommodated a spline l9’. The confronting
faces of the ribs l9, the surfaces of the recesses in
it is evident that the slotted lower edge of the
the ribs, and the surfaces of the spline, are all
wall-and-roof element may be set down over the
primary shoe l3, with the lower end surface of
covered with suitable water-proof adhesive, and
the parts are brought together in the Fig. 9 rela
shell H in face-to-face engagement with the
outer face of sill l2. Since all joints and meet 75 tion, and held until the adhesive sets. Any spaces
2,407,252
'5
v6
between the confronting edges of the respective
classic. g‘., walléanderoof element, ?oor panel,
shells ll and it may be ?lled with mastic 19"
or the like, and if desired may be covered with
etc.) may be made in quantity, of some standard
size and inter?tting‘and adhesively joinable with
corresponding units of the same or different class.
Another form of each connection is shown in CI
it will thus be seen that there is herein pro~
Fig. 10, where the ribs [9 ‘ project well beyond the
vided a novel and efficient form _of prefabricated
edges of the respective shells ll and I8 and are
building which is well adapted for the purpose
formed to enter correspondingly shaped recesses
intended. Even though there has been herein
38 in a connecting piece 3|. Here again any
shown certain features of construction and as
spaces between the edges of shells I1 and I8 and
, sembly of parts, it is nevertheless to be under
the opposed edges ofv the connecting piece may
stood that various-changes may be made therein,
be ?lled with mastic or the like 32, and if desired
if the changes do not depart from the spirit or
covered with battens. Of course, where the build
scope of the claims. '
ing is to be thus sectionalized, with wall-and
Having described my invention, what I claim
roof elements in edge-joined relation, there will
as new and wish to secure by Letters Patent is:
be corresponding multiplication of the matching
1. A building structure including a ?oor, dual
floor panels, edge-joined by adhesive to each
wall and roof panel units, each of said units com
other andto the wall-and-roof elements. And
prising inner and outer shells formed on similar
similarly with respect to ceiling units, if these
curves and extending upwardly from said ?oor,
are used.
‘
a ridge member uniting the upper ends of the
As indicated in Fig. 6, there may be cases where
units together and including complemental por
it is desired to have greater insulating effect in
tions mounted On the upper ends of said units,
the building, and in such cases a plurality of
said portions having upstanding extensions and
wall-and-roof elements may be employed, in ply
curved tongues extending outwardly
downrelation as shown in Fig. 6, the contacting faces
wardly adjacent to the lower ends of the exten
of the elements being preferably adhesively
of
sions,
saidsaid
shells
tongues
and adhesively
?tted between
united
thetoupper
the inner
united. In the same way, other structural ele
ments herein described, as, for example, the floor
faces thereof and said extensions having parallel
battens.
,
‘
panel and the ceiling-and-cross-brace element,
confronting faces adhesively united.
may be pluralized and in multi-ply relation, 30
compartmented
2. A building structure
interiorly including
braced wall
a floor,
and roof
whether for the sake of strength or insulating
effect, or both.
panel units, each of said units comprising inner
It will be understood that the ends of the build
and outer shells formed on similar curves and
ing will be closed by means of generally ?at clo
extending up from said ?oor, aridge member
sure members 2 '(Fig, 2) whose perimeter will be - uniting the upper ends of the units together and
adapted to ?t the end spaces de?ned by the curved
including comrplemental portions mounted on the
wall-and-roof elements and the floor panel on
upper ends of said units, said portions having up
which they rest. Furthermore, the wall-and-roof
standing extensions and curved tongues extend
elements and the end closure elements 2 may be
ing outwardly and downwardly in opposed rela
provided with suitable openings for light and
tion to each other adjacent to the lower ends
ventilation as indicated in Fig. 13, and one or
of the extensions, said tongues ?tted between the
more of these elements may be a prefabricated
upper ends of said shells and adhesively united to
unit of ply-wood to fit between adjacent ribs [9,
the inner faces thereof and said upstanding exten
it being understood that window openings are
sions having parallel confronting faces adhesively
perhaps most conveniently located between such l united.
adjacent ribs. One of these window units is in
3. A building structure including a floor panel
dicated at 23 in Fig. 1.
I of ply wood, adhesively edge-joined dual wall
It will be understood, and it is repeated here,
and roof panel units, each of said units compris
that all major units forming a part of my build
ing inner and outer shells formed on parallel
ing will be made so far as possible of some such
curves and extending up from said ?oor panel,
material as ply-wood, and that all joints and
rib members holding said shells of the units in
contacting surfaces of various units and the parts
spaced relation and extending from lower ends
thereof will be formed and united with water
of said units to upper ends thereof, a ridge mem
proof adhesive. It will be appreciated that with
ber uniting the upper ends of said units together
a building whose side walls and roof are con
and comprising com'plemental portions mounted
tinuous and curved as indicated, there is no need
on the upper ends of said units, said portions hav
for ?ashings, gutters or leaders, and rafters,
ing upstanding extensions and curved tongues
girders, tie rods, studs, scantlings and the like ele
extending outwardly and downwardly in opposed
ments, which are separately applied in conven
relation to each other adjacent to the lower ends
tional building practice, are eliminated as sep
of the extensions, with the tongues ?tted between
arate elements, either because they are not neces
the upper ends of said shells and adhesively united
sary or because equivalents of them are pre
to inner confronting faces thereof and to the
fabricated in the various units or their absence
upper ends of said rib members and said upstand
compensated for by the conformations and other
ing extensions having confronting faces adhe
characteristics of the complete building and/ or its 69 CA, sively united.
components.
4. A building structure including a ?oor panel
The cellular or compartmented construction,
having an upper floor member and a lower subs
with interior bracing, is considered to be of im
floor member, raised building shoes mounted on
portance from the standpoint of strength and
end edge portions of said upper member of said
insulating effect, and is therefore preferred for
?oor panel, dual compartmented interiorly braced
each of the major units, 1. e., wall-and-roof ele
wall and roof panel units, each of said units com
ment, ?oor panel, ceilin'g-and-cross-brace, and
prising spaced inner and outer shells formed on
end closures, and all of these are to be made of
parallel curves and extending up from said ?oor
wood so far as possible, preferably ply-wood.
panel, said inner shells ?tted down over said build_
And it is clear that the units of each different 75 ing shoes and engaging said upper floor member
2,407,252
at their lower edges and said outer shells extend
ing down past the upper ?oor member to the
lower ?oor member whereby a weather tight
closure is provided at the bottom of said struc
ture, a ridge member uniting the upper ends of
said units together and comprising complemental
6. A building structure including a floor panel
having an upper floor member and a lower sub
?oor member, raised building shoes mounted on
end edge portions of said upper ?oor member,
dual compartmented interiorly braced wall and
roof panel units, each of said units comprising
portions mounted on the upper ends of said units,
inner and outer shells formed on similar curves
said portions having tongues and upstanding
and extending up from said ?oor panel, up~
extensions with the tongues ?tted between the
wardly extending rib members holding said shells
upper ends of the shells and adhesively united to 10 in spaced relation, sill members mounted between
inner confronting faces thereof and said exten
and adjacent to the lower ends of said shells,
sions having confronting faces adhesively united.
said inner shells ?tted down over said building
5. A building structure including a ?oor, con
shoes and engaging said upper member of the ?oor
fronting dual wall and roof panel units, each
panel at their lower ends and said outer shells
of said units comprising spaced inner and outer 15 extending down past the upper floor member to
shells formed on parallel curves and extending
the lower floor member, said sills engaging said
upwardly from said floor, a ridge member unit
shoes and adhesively united to said shells and to
ing the upper ends of said units together and
lower ends of said rib members, a ridge member
including complemental portions mounted on the
uniting the upper ends of said units together
upper ends of said units, said portions having,
and including compartmented portions mounted
outwardly and downwardly curved lower tongues
on the upper ends of said units, said portions hav
and upstanding extensions with the tongues ?tted
ing outwardly extending tongues and upstand
between the upper ends of said shells and adhe
ing extensions, said tongues ?tted between the
sively united to inner confronting faces thereof
upper ends of said shells and adhesively united
and said extensions having parallel confronting 25 to inner confronting faces thereof, said extensions
faces adhesively united and a compartmented
having parallel confronting faces adhesively
interiorly braced ceiling and cross brace member
united and members closing the ends of said
extending between and adhesively united to and
structure.
in compression between each of said confronting
EDWIN R. CLOSS.
wall and roof panel units.
30
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