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Sept w. 1945
.'J. K. JOHNSON ETAL
RADIATED-SIGNAL D-ÍRECTION FINDERl
Filed. Dec .
~18, 1941
2,407,281
4 Sheets-Sheet' 1
l'NvENToR
`xoHN KELLY JOHNSON.
HA LD A. â-IEELER.
ATT'o Nr-:Y ï
Sept 10, 1946-
2,407,281
J. K.A JOHNSON Erm.
RADIATED-SIGNAL DIRECTION FINDER
-Filed Dec. 18, 1941
i
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
.1.fr."
l.
a
¿AEIC
*Il
dei
INVENTOR
BY
¿Noi
.
JOHN _KELLY JOHNSON.
HAROLD A. WHEElíR.
¿We
ATTO NEY
sepa. w, 1946.
2,407,282
J. K. JOHNSON ETAL
RADIATEDTSIGNAL DIRECTÍFON FÃINDER
Filed Dec. 18, 1941
4 sheéts-sheet 3
INVENTOR
HN
LLY JOHNSON.
"o KE A. ¿giu-2R.
'BY CààAR/OLD
ATTOR
Sept. 10, 1946.
2,407,281
'.J. K. JoHNsoN ETAL ,
1
RADIATED-SIGNAL -DIRECTION FINDER
Filed Dec. 18, .1941
Á Sheets-Sheet 4
l
ENToR
.
[JPÈMN KELLY JOHNSON.
-
BY. ,
l
D
WHEELER .
j
A.
ATTÓÃEY . f7@
»
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407,28l
UNITED STATES PATENT oFEicE
2,407,281
RADIATED-SIGNAL DIRECTION FINDER
John Kelly Johnson, Deerfield, Ill., and Harold A.
Wheeler, Great Neck, N. Y., assignors, by mesne
assignments, to Hazeltine Research, Inc., Chi
cago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois
Application December 18, 1941, Serial N0’.’{i23,'514 `
13 Claims.
(Cl. Z50-11)
2
This invention relates generally to radiated
signal direction finders and, particularly, to
radiated-signal direction finders of a type in
which lines sharply indicative of the direction
of reception of a signal are traced by a line
tracing device.
.
of the type in which lines indicative of the di
rection of reception of a received signal are
traced by a line-tracing device in such a manner
as to form a pattern with intersections particu
larly suitable for indicating the direction of re
ception of a received carrier signal.
In accordance with the invention, a radiated
signal direction ñnder comprises a receiving
pick-up system having a directive pattern, means
It is frequently desirable to provide a radiated
signal direction ñnder in which manipulation is
unnecessary while determining the direction of
reception of a received signal. It may be that 10 for rotating the directive pattern of the pick-up
conditions of reception are such that insuñicient
system, a line-tracing device, means for con
time is available to make such manipulations.
trolling the line-tracing device to trace a line in
For example, the carrier signals being received
synchronism with the rotation of said directive
pattern, and means responsiveto the amplitude
from a radio transmitter, the direction of which
is to be determined, are usually amplitude-modu 15 of a signal received by the pick-up system for
lated so that an accurate indication of the direc
shifting the line traced by the line-tracing de
tion of the transmitter is diñicult to obtain ex
vice in accordance with the directive pattern.
cept during short periods when the carrier wave
The radiated-signal direction iinder also com
of such a transmitter is not modulated. It may
prises means for supplying a- periodic control
be impossible for the operator of a direction 20 signal having Va frequency which is high with
finder to make the necessary manipulations dur
reference to the frequency at which the refier
ing one of these short periods in order accurately
ence pattern is rotated. It -further includes
means responsive to the control signal for cycli
to determine the direction> of the transmitter.
.cally laterally displacing the line traced by the
It is, therefore, highly desirable to provide a
direction ñnder which is fast acting and which 25 line-tracing device at the frequency of the con
requires no manipulation by the operator dur
trol signal, to trace intersecting lines the inter
ing the time interval in which the direction of
sections of which are sharply indicative of the
reception of a received signal is actually being
direction of reception of the received signal.
determined. It has been proposed to provide, in
For a better understanding -of the present in
a direction linder, an arrangement by which 30 vention, together with other and further objects
lines indicative of the direction of reception of
thereof, reference is had to the following de
a received signal are traced by a line-tracing
scription taken in connection with the accom
device. For example, it has been proposed to
panying drawings, and its scope will be pointed
_trace overlapping directive patterns of an an
out -in the appended claims.
Y
tenna system by line-tracing devices in such 35 Referring to the drawings, Figs. 1, 6 and 'lare
manner that a crossover point of the directive
schematic circuit diagrams of different embodi
patterns provides an indication of the direction
ments of radiated-signal direction ñnders in
of reception of a signal being received by the
accordance with the invention; Figs. 2a to 2d, in
antenna. However, such prior art arrangements
clusive, and Figs. 3a to 3d, inclusive, are graphs
have been more complicated than is desired. 40 utilized to explain the operation of the direction
For example, some of such prior art devices
iinder of Fig. 1; Fig. 4 illustrates the pattern
actually comprise two complete line-tracing ar
produced on the screen of the cathode-ray tube
rangements each effective to trace one of the
of the direction finder of Fig. 1, ywhile Figs. 5a to
overlapping directive patterns. Other similar
5d, inclusive, illustrate different patterns which
prior art devices provide a single line-tracing 45 may be obtained by different embodiments of the
device together with a suitable optical system
direction iinder oi Fig. 6.
for providing overlapping patterns rendering
Referring now more particularly to Fig. 1 of
such systems more complicated than is desired.
the drawings, the radiated-signal direction finder
there illustrated comprises a receiving pick-up
It is, therefore, an object of the invention to
provide an improved radiated-signal direction 50 system such as an antenna system having a di
ñnder of the type under consideration which is
rective pattern. Such receiving antennna sys
not subject to one or more of the above-men
tem is provided by the dipole antenna l0, Il and
tioned disadvantages of prior art arrangements.
the reiiector l2. The direction ñnder also com
It is another object of the invention to pro
prises means for rotating the directive pattern
vide an improved radiated-signal direction ñnder 55 0f the antenna system Ill, H. This means com
2,407,281
3
prises a motor I3 mechanically coupled, as in
dicated by the broken line I4, to the antenna
system IG. II and its associated reñector I2.
The signal output of the antenna system I0, H
is coupled to a receiving system through a pair
of inductively-coupled loops I8 and I 9, loop I9
being stationary and loop I8 being driven, as
indicated by the broken line I4, with the antenna
system I0, II and its associated reflector I2. The
receiver coupled to antenna system IG, II com
prises, in cascade, a radio-frequency ampliiier 2íl
4
cathode-ray tube I5 by means of a coupling sys
tem comprising inductively-coupled loops 35a,
36a, a horizontal ampliiier 37a, a horizontal rec
tiñer 38a, and a horizontal bias 39a. The loop 35a
is connected directly to the terminals 0f the sec
ondary elements 26a and is adapted to be ro
tated by motor I3 as indicated by the broken line
I4, the loop 36a being stationary.
Similarly, the vertical deiiecting plates 40, 4I
of one or more stages, a frequency changer or
of cathode-ray tube I5 are connected to loop 2Gb
through a system comprising a rotating loop 35h,
a stationary loop 36h, a vertical amplifier 31h,
oscillator-modulator ZI,
a vertical rectifier 33h and a vertical bias 39D.
an intermediate-fre
quency amplifier 22 of one or more stages, and
a rectifier 23.
There is also comprised in theV arrangement of .
Fig. 1 a line-tracing device which includes a cath
The signal output of rectifier 23 is applied to
the radius modulator 29 and, in order to effect
ode-ray tube I5 and means for causing the beam
are also applied to the rectiñers 38a and 38h
through the horizontal amplifier Sla and the ver
of the tube to traverse a circle on the fluorescent
screen I 6 on the end of the cathode-ray tube.
The arrangement also comprises means for
controlling the line-tracing device or the rota
tion of the beam ofthe cathode-ray tube I5 to
trace a line in synchronism with the rotation of
the directive pattern of the antenna system IE?, I I.
The means for rotating the beam of the cathode
ray tube I5 and for synchronizing the scanning
spot thereof with the antenna rotation comprises
a system for indicating relative mechanical nio
tion between two members adapted t0 have rela
tive motion therebetween and forms the subject
matter of application Serial No. 423,515, ñled con
currently with the instant application in the name
of John Kelly Johnson. These members may be
considered to be, for example, the stator and the
rotor of the motor I3. Impedance-coupling
means are provided in the motion-indicating sys
tem having relatively movable primary and sec
ondary elements, the relative positions of which
determine the electrical coupling therebetween.
Such impedance-coupling means, in the embodi
ment illustrated, comprise primary elements 25a
and 25h and secondary elements 26a` and 2Gb.
The relative position of the primary and second
ary elements, respectively, determines the electri
cal coupling therebetween. The primary elements
25a and 25h are stationary and are angularly
spaced by a relatively small amount, while the
secondary elements 25a and 2519 are angularly
spaced at right angles to each other and are
adapted to be rotated by the motor I 3, as indi
cated by the broken line I4.
A sine-wave oscillator 28 is provided for sup
plying to the primary elements 25a and 25h os
cillations of a period much less than the effective
minimum period of the motion between the re
spective primary and secondary elements. Sine
wave oscillator 28 is connected, through a radius
synchronous-detection in rectiiiers Y3fm and 38h,
sine-wave oscillations developed in oscillator 28
tical ampliiier 3‘i'b, respectively. The amplitude
of the oscillations supplied to units 31a and 31h
from oscillator 28 is greater than that supplied
to these units from elements 36a and 36D and
of substantially the same phase. This phase rela
tionship is not very critical but must be within
90 degrees and is preferably within about 20 de
grees. The signal output of rectiiier 23 is also
applied to the control grid of the cathode-ray
tube I5 and suitable operating potentials are pro
vided therefor in a manner which is, per se, well
understood in the art.
Inasrnuch as the directive antenna system I0,
Il has a directive radiation pattern the orienta
tion of which varies relative t0 the direction of
reception of a desired signal, the amplitude of
the signal utilized in units 20 to 23, inclusive,
varies in accordance with this relative orientation
and in accordance with the amplitude of the radi
ated signal being received. In order t0 eliminate
such amplitude variations in accordance with the
amplitude of the radiated signal, a control system
is provided for the receiver comprising units 20
to 23, inclusive. This control system, which forms
the subject matter of copendingapplication Serial
v No. 423,516, filed in the name of Harold A. Wheel
er concurrently with the ñling of the present ap
plication, comprises a second antenna system 45
having a radiation pattern which is less directive
than that of the ñrst antenna system Ill, II and
preferably non-directive, means coupled with the
second antenna system 45 for deriving, in re
sponse to the desired signal received thereby, a
control effect which varies primarily in accord
ance with the amplitude of the radiated signal
being received, and means for utilizing the de
rived control effect to adjust an operating char
acteristic of the receiver comprising units 2E] to
23, inclusive. As illustrated in the drawings, the
antenna 45 comprises a vertical conductor mount
modulator 29 and a right-lobe switching modu
lator 3ila, to the primary element 25a and is con ISO ed on the reilector I2, adapted to be rotated there
with, and capacitively coupled through a rotating
nected, through the radius modulator 29 and a
plate 4.5 and a stationary plate 41 to the input
left-lobe switching modulator 30h, to the primary
circuit of a receiver. This last-named receiver
element 25h. In order to cause either the right
comprises, in cascade, a radio-frequency ampli
lobe switching modulator Sila or the left-lobe
ñer 43 of one or more stages, a frequency changer
switching modulator 3517 to be eiîective, there
or oscillator-modulator 49, an intermediate-fre
is provided a square-wave switching oscillator 32,
quency amplifier 50 of one or more stages, a de
comprising means for supplying a periodic con
tector and A. V. C. rectiñer 5I, an audio-fre
trol signal. This oscillator has output circuits
quency amplifier 52 of one or more stages, and
coupled, respectively, to units 3%11, and Süb and is
a sound-signal reproducing device 53. A voltage
adapted to cause these units to be alternately op
from the A. V. C. rectifier in unit 5| is applied to
erative at the frequency of the control signal, spe
one or more of the tubes of stages 48, G9 and 5û
ciñcally a frequency which is high with respect
to maintain the amplitude of the signal input to
to the frequency at which the antenna system
detector 5I within a relatively narrow range for a
I0, II is rotated. Secondary element 23a is con
nected to horizontal deflecting plates 33, Srl of 75 wide range of received signal amplitudes, and,
2,407,281
5
-additionally, the A. V. C. rectiñer in unit 5I ls
utilized to control the gain of stages 20, 2| and
22 to maintain the amplitude of the signal input
placed in phase by 90 degrees from the voltage
applied to deñecting plates 33, 34 due to the 90
degree physical displacement between the ele
to rectiñer 23 within a relatively narrow rangev
for a wide amplitude range of the radiated signal
being received. A suitable tuning meter is pref
ments 26a and 2Gb, The curves of Figs. 3a to
3d are generally similar, therefore, to the curves
of Figs. 2a. to 2d, respectively, and represent cor
responding potentials of the vertical deflecting
system. The arrangement just described, there
fore, serves to cause the beam of the cathode-ray
erably provided for the two receivers 20 to 23, in
clusive, and 48 to 53, inclusive, which may com
prise a high-resistance voltmeter 55 coupled
10 tube I 5 to trace a circular path on the fluorescent
across the A. V. C. source of unit 5|.
Referring now to the operation of the direction
screen I 6 of tube I5.
finder of Fig. 1, it will be seen that the arrange
Before considering the effect of the square
ment comprises the directive antenna system I0,
wave switching oscillator 32 upon the'arrange
y I I having a directive pattern, and that the motor
I3 is adapted to rotate the antenna system I0, I I
to rotate the directive pattern. The line-tracing
device I5, in the absence of a received signal, isV
ment just described, the eiîect of the signal ap
plied from rectifier 23 to the radius modulator
29 will be considered. The amplitude of this sig
nal varies in accordance with the directive-radi
eñ’ective to trace a circular path on the fluores
ation pattern of antenna system I 9, II and ls
cent screen I6. In order to explain the manner
maximum when the open face of the reflector I2
in which this is done it will first be assumed that 20 faces the transmitter being received. The signal
the right-lobe switching modulator 30a is in an
from rectifier 23 is applied to the modulator 29
operative condition and that the square-wave
so that the radius of the circle traced by the
switching oscillator 32 is disconnected therefrom.
beam of tube I5 decreases with decreasing ampli
Under these conditions oscillations from oscil
tude of the received signal. In this WayV the ar
lator 28 are applied, through radius modulator
rangement is eiîective to trace upon the ñuores
29 which, in the absence of a received signal as
cent screen I6 a pattern representing the direc
assumed, functions as an ampliñer and the right
tive radiation pattern of antenna system I0, II.
lobe switching modulator 30a to the primary ele
One such pattern is represented by the dotted line
ment 25a, the relative position of which with re
A of Fig. 4„ the solid-line circle representing the
spect to the secondary element 26a determines 30 end of the cathode-ray tube I5. Compass points,
the electrical coupling between these primary and
as indicated, may be provided on the Aend of the
secondary elements. There are thus applied to
cathode-ray tube I5. It will be understood, how
the secondary element 26a oscillations the ampli
ever, that in the arrangement just described the
tude of which is modulated in accordance with
line traced by cathode-ray tube I5 is acontinu
the relative motion between elements 25a and .
26a. The oscillations so induced in element 26a
are represented by the curves of Fig. 2a and cor
respond to the oscillations produced by sine-wave
oscillator 28 modulated in amplitude and polarity
ous line and is not dotted, as shown.
If now it is assumed that the right-lobe switch
ing modulator 30a is inactive, the left-lobe
switching modulator 30h is active, and the square
wave switching oscillator 32 is disconnected from
in accordance with the relative motion between 40 the switching modulator 30h, it will be seen that
members 25a and 26a. The oscillations repre
the only change in the system just described is
sented,by the curves of Fig. 2a may be recognized
[effectively a physical rotation of the primary
as a modulated signal the modulation compo
element which induces oscillations into the sec
nents of which can only be derived by a synchro
ondary elements 26a and 26h. In the case under
nous detection process by which the correct per 45 present consideration, the primary element 25h
centage of modulation is restored to the signal.
is the eiiective member. Under the conditions
These oscillations are coupled to the rectiñer 38a
just assumed, therefore, the line-tracing device
through the elements 35a, 36a and 31a. To re
I5 of Fig. 1 is eifective to trace a directive pat
store the correct percentage of modulation to
tern displaced from the one previously described
these oscillations, the sine waves developed by 50 and may, for example, trace a directive pattern
oscillator 28 are applied to the rectiñer 38a
similar to curve B of Fig.'4. Preferably, the
through the horizontal amplifier 31a and are ef
angular relationships between the elements 25a,
fective to transform the oscillations of Fig. 2a
25h, 26a, and 2Gb, on the one hand, and the
into a signal which is modulated in amplitude
reflector I 2 on the other, are so proportioned
only by an amount equal to or less than 100%, 55 that the point of overlap of the directive pat
as indicated by the curves of Fig. 2b of the draw
terns A and B represents the true direction of
ings. The horizontal rectifier 38a derives the
the transmitter being received.
modulation component of this signal which varies
If now the effect of square-wave switching os
in accordance with the relative motion between
cillator 32 upon the circuit of Fig. 1 is consid
the two members 25a and 26a, this component 60 ered, it AWill be seen that the primary elements
being illustrated by the curve of Fig. 2c of the
25a and 25D are alternately eiîective in the sys
drawings. The signal output of horizontal recti
tem, these elements being switched at a high fre
íier 38a is converted to a signal with zero aver
quency by the switching oscillator 32. In place
age value, as illustrated by the curve of Fig. 2d
of the drawings, by superposition of a horizontal 65 of tracing continuous lines upon the cathode
ray tube as described, when the square-wave
bias potential in unit 39a and is applied to the
horizontal deilecting plates 33, 34. The voltage
applied to deñecting plates 33, 34, assuming a
uniform speed of rotation of motor I3, is there
switching oscillator 32 is utilized, a .portion of
fore a sine wave having a period equal to the
which are visible on the fluorescent screen I5 are
period of rotation of motor I3.
Inasmuch as the vertical deñecting system is
of dotted form, as illustrated in Fig. Li.v The ef
fect of the signal derived from rectiñer 23 and
applied to the control grid of cathode-ray tube
I5 is to cause the outer portions of the direc
tive loops traced on screen I6 to be as bright
substantially the same as the horizontal deflect
ing system, a similar voltage is applied to deflect
ing plates 4I), 4I, which voltage, however, is dis
one pattern is first traced, a portion of the next
pattern is then traced, etc., and the- patterns
2,497,281;
8
7
as. the inner portions of the loops even; though
in .that a diiferent. >arrangement» comprising; a
the spot is moving more rapidly..
phase,` shifter IiIl> andz associated connections has
beenî added in order to provide a pattern. onscreen
I6 which has intersecting lines suitable forin
dicating the. direction of reception of a received
signal. The circuit of Fig. 6 thus comprises only
.
In the arrangement just described„a slow vari
ation of the amplitude of the radiated signal
which is intercepted by antennas Il) and I l> would
be also effective to shift the pattern traced by
line-tracing device I5 and the operation of the
a single primary coupling element 25a which is
coupled to sine-wave oscillator 28 through radius
arrangement will be as described only when there
diated signal which is being intercepted.. It is î
modulator 29 and an amplifier BI’. Phase shifter
60 is adapted, by means of a two-position switch
for the purpose of compensating forA such slow
variations of amplitude that the automatic am
28 or to this oscillator through the radius modu
is no such variation of the amplitude of the ra
62, to be coupled'directly to> sine-wave oscillator
lator 29 and the amplifierl 6I. Thev phase shifter
pliñcation control system. for» units 20,. 2| and
22 is provided.. The» receiver comprising units
48 to 53, inclusive, operates. in' a conventional
60 is so designed as to supply to the respective
sets of> deflecting plates of" cathode-ray> tube I5
two sine-wave voltages which are 90 degrees apart,
these voltages being'superposed on the deiiect
manner. and it. will. be understood thatv this- re’
ceiver, aswell as the receiver comprising; units
20 to 23, inclusive, is adapted to be> tuned to.V the
desired signal with the aid of tuning meterY 55.
ing voltages supplied through units 39a and 39h,
respectively.
stages 20, 2l and 22, is eiîective at least partially
to compensate for slow amplitude variations of
the radiated signal whichA is intercepted by vth
In’considering the operation of the circuit of
Fig. 6, and 'neglecting> for the moment the op
eration of phase shifter 66, it will be seen that
the arrangement is effective to plot the directive
pattern of theantenna system I5, II uponV the
antenna system I0, II.
screen I6 of the cathode-ray tube in a manner
The automatic ampliñcation control effect, which
is effective to vary the gain of one or more of
i
20
similar to that described above. In other words,
this plot may be' ofthe form indicated bythe
line C of Fig. 5a. If switch 62 is now assumed
avreceiving pick-up system including the antenna
to be in such a position as to couple the phase
I0, II which has a directive- pattern and that
means comprising motor I3 are provided for ro 30 shifter 60 directly to the sine-wave oscillator’28,
there is superposed on the deflection potentials
tating the directive pattern of the pick-up sys
applied to the pairs of defiecting plates of cath
tem. A line-tracing device comprising tube I5
ode-ray tube I5 two sine-wave voltages which are
is provided, together with means including the
eifective additionally to impart to the indicating
element 25a for synchronizing the. line-tracing
spot ofthe cathode-ray tube I5 a circular motion
device with the. rotation of the directive pattern
at the frequency of oscillator 28, which fre
of the antenna system I0, II.. The system addi
quency is high with respect to the frequency at
tionally’includes means comprising the rectiñer
which the antenna system is rotated. The pat
23 responsive to the amplitude of a signalreceived
tern traced by the spot under the condition as
by the pick-up system I0, I I for shifting the line
traced on screen I6 in accordance with the di 40 sumed may take the form illustrated in Fig. 5a,
and it is thus seen that the intersecting lines in
rective pattern of the antenna systemV I0, II, as
the upper middle region of this pattern are
Well as means including the square-wave switch
Inxsummary, therefore,l it is seenthat the ra
diated-signal direction finder of Fig. 1 comprises
sharply indicative of the direction of reception
of the radiated signal intercepted by antenna
ing the line traced at a frequency which is high
with respect to the frequency at which the. direc 545 system I0, II.
In one preferred embodiment of the arrange
tive pattern of the antenna system I0, II is ro
ment of Fig. 6, the curvature of the circular mo
tated to trace intersecting lines, the intersections
tion imparted through phase shifter 60 is sub
of _which are sharply indicative of the direction
stantially equal to the minimum curvature at the
of reception of the received signal. It will fur
peak of the directive pattern of the antenna sys
ther be seen that the cathode-ray line-tracing de
tem Iíl, II upon the screen I6, and this' is the
vice is normally effective to trace a circular path
condition which is represented by the pattern of
with the cathode-ray beam of thetube, and that
Fig. 5a. In other words, the circular motion
the radius modulator 29 comprises means respon
which is imparted to the scanning spot of tube
sive to the amplitude of the signal received by
the pick-up system I0,v II for modulating the .55 I5 through the phase shifter ‘39y is of. curvature
substantially equal tothe minimum effective cur
radius of the circular path in accordance with
vature of the directive pattern indicated bythe
the directive pattern of the pick-up system I Il,
II, and that the switchingv oscillator 32 is in
curve C.
eludedl in a means for cyclically displacing the
In another preferred embodiment of the in
line traced by cathode-ray tube I5 to form di 60 vention, the curvature of the circular motion so
rectiveV patterns as illustrated in Fig. 4 in which
imparted is greater than the minimum curva
intersecting lines provide. a sharp indication of
ture at the peak of the directive pattern on the
the directionV of reception of the received' signal.
screen I6 and, under such conditions, the ar
Furthermore, it will be seen that the> two pri
rangement of Fig. 6
be effective to trace a
mary elements 25a‘and 25h, together'with square 65 pattern on the screen I6 as represented by Fig.
wave switching oscillator 32, comprise means for
5b.
cyclicallyl angularl'y'displacing the radiusv of the
ing oscillator 32 for cyclically laterally displac
circular path traced by the cathode-ray beam.
If the switch 62 is now operated so that phase
shifter 66 is connected to the oscillator. 28
The arrangement of Fig. 6 is` generally simi
lar to the arrangement-offFig; 1 and similar cir 70 throughthe radius modulator 23 and the ampli
fier 6I, it will be seen that the radius of the cir
cuit elements in the two figures have identical
cular motion imparted to othe scanning spot by
reference numerals.. The'arrangementr of` Fig. 6
phase shifter SQ is varied in accordance withA the
differs from thel arrangement ofFig.r 1 primarily
amplitude of the bias. voltage provided from rec
in- that square-wave switchingy oscillator 32 and
its. associatedV elements have: been. omitted and 75 tiñer 23.l Under these. conditions the pattern of
2,407,281
Fig. 5a is changed to that of Fig. 5c or the pat
tern of Fig. 5b is changed to that of Fig. 5d.
In Fig. 7 of the drawings there is illustrated
a modification of the arrangement of Fig. 1
which is suitable for use in direction-finder sys
tems rotating rapidly at a fixed speed. The ar
rangement of Fig. 7 is generally similar to the ar
rangements of Figs. l and 6 and similar circuit
elements have identical reference numerals.
10
Frequency of radiated signals being>
received ___________ __megacycles-- 100 t0 156
While there have been described what are at
present considered to be the preferred embodi
ments of this invention, it will be obvious to
those skilled in the art that various changes and
modifications may be made therein without de
parting from the invention, and it is, therefore,V
'aimed in the appended claims to cover all such
The arrangement of Fig. 7 differs primarily from
changes and modifications as fall Within the true
the' arrangement of Fig. 1 in the portion of the
spirit and scope of the invention.
system provided for causing the beam of line
What is claimed is:
tracing device I5 to trace a circular path in the
1. A radiated-signal direction ñnder, compris
absence of a received signal. In order to effect
this operation in Fig. 7 the stationary members 15 ing, a receiving pick-up system having a directive
pattern, means for rotating said directive pattern
25a and 25h of Fig. l have been directly connect
of said pick-up system, a line-tracing device,
ed, respectively, to the horizontal deiiecting
means for controlling said line-tracing device to
plates 33, 34 and to the vertical de?lecting plates
trace a line in synchronism with the rotation of
40, 4I, the element 25a. being coupled to deflect
ing plates 33, 34 through a radius modulator 64a 20 said directive pattern, means responsive to the
amplitude of a signal received by said pick-up
and horizontal bias 39a, and the element 25h
system for shifting the line traced by said device
being coupled to the vertical deiiecting plates 4U,
in accordance with said directive pattern, means
4| through a radius modulator 64b and vertical
for supplying a periodic control signal having a
bias 39h. A magnet B5 is associated with ele
ments 25a and 25h on the shaft driven by mo 25 frequency which is high with reference to the
frequency at which said directive pattern is ro
tor I3. In this case the elements 25a and 25h
tated, and means responsive to said control signal
are physically displaced by 90- degrees.
for cyclically laterally displacing the line traced
In considering the operation of the arrange
by said device at the frequency of said control
ment of Fig. 7 it will be seen that, when the shaft
with magnet 65 is driven by the motor I3, sine 30 signal to trace intersecting lines the intersections
wave voltages are induced in the elements 25a
and 25D which are 90 degrees displaced and, ne
glecting the effect of radius modulators 64a, and
64b, cause suitable voltages to be applied to the
deñecting plates of tube I5 to cause the beam of 35
of which are sharply indicative of the direction
cathode-ray tube I5 of frequency which is high
responsive to said control signal for cyclically lat
erally displacing the line traced by said device at
the frequency of said control signal to trace inter
of reception of said signal.
2. A radiated-signal direction finder compris
ing, a receiving pick-up system having a directive
pattern, means for rotating said directive pattern
of said pick-up system, a line-tracing device for
the tube to trace a circular path on the screen
tracing a circular path, means for controlling
I6. If the effect of .the radius modulators 64a
said line-tracing device to trace a circular line
and 64b is considered, it will be seen that the
in synchronism with the rotation of said direc-v
amplitudes of the deflecting voltages applied to
tive pattern, means responsive to the amplitude of
tube I5 are varied in accordance with the ampli
a signal received by said pick-up system for shift
tude of the signal derived from rectifier 23, and
ing the line traced by said device in accordance
that the arrangement of Fig. 'I is thus effective
with said directive pattern, means for supplying
to trace the directive pattern of the antenna sys
a periodic control signal having a frequency
tem I 0, II on the screen I6. The sine-Wave os
cillator 28 and phase shifter 6U serve to impart 45 which is high with reference to the frequency at
which said directive pattern is rotated, and means
a circular motion to the indicating spot of the
with respect to the frequency at which the an- '
tenna system I0, II is rotated in order to trace a
pattern of one of `the types indicated in Fig. 5a 50 secting lines the intersections of which are sharp
ly indicative of the direction of reception of said
or Fig. 5b.
y
signal.
While the invention has been described with
3. A radiated-signal direction finder compris
reference to a radio direction ñnder, it will be
ing, a receiving pick-up system having a directive
evident that the principles of the invention are
equally applicable to light-signal or sound-signal 55 pattern, means for rotating said directive pattern
or supersonic-signal direction finders, operating
in air or water, and it will be understood that
the term “pick-up system,” as used in this speci
of said pick-up system, a cathode-ray line-trac
ing device, means for controlling said line-trac
ing device to trace a line in synchronism with
the rotation of said directive pattern, means re
sponsive to the amplitude of a signal received by
ñcation, is intended also to include pick-up ar
rangements for receiving light or sound waves.
60
said pick-up system for shifting the line traced
While applicant does not intend to be limited
by said device in accordance with said directive
to any particular constants for the embodiments
pattern, means for supplying a periodic control
of the invention described, there follows a partial
signal having a frequency which is high with ref
list of constants which have been found to be
particularly suitable in the embodiment of the 65 erence to the frequency at which said directive
pattern is rotated, and means responsive to said
invention illustrated in Fig. 1:
control signal for cyclically laterally displacing
Frequency of rotation of reflector I2
the line traced by said device at the frequency of
cycles per second__ 1 to 2
said control signal to trace intersecting lines the
Frequency of switching oscillator 32
70 intersections of which are sharply indicative of
kilocycles-- 1`
the direction of reception of said signal.
Frequency of sine-wave oscillator 28
kilocycles~- 250
Intermediate frequency produced by fre
4. A radiated-signal direction finder compris
ing, a receiving pick-up system having a direc
tive pattern, means for rotating said directive
quency changer 2I ________ __megacycles..- 8.25 75 pattern of said pick-up system, a cathode-ray
ii"
2,407,281"
line-tracing devicefor tracing a circular path.’
12
8. A radiated-'signaI direction finder compris
ing, a’receiving pick-up system having a direc
With the cathode-ray beam of the tube, means
tive pattern, means for rotating said directive pat
for controlling said line-tracing device to trace
tern of said pick-up system, a device for tracingf
a circular path in synchronism with the rotation
a line with an indicating spot, means for synchro
of said directive pattern, means responsive to the
nizing said line-tracing device with the rotation
amplitude of a signal received by said pick-up
of said directive pattern, means responsive to
system for modulating the radius of said circular
the amplitude of a signal received by said pick
path in accordance with said directive pattern,
up system for shifting the line traced by said de
means for supplying a periodic contro] signal hav
ing a frequency which is high with reference to 10 vice in accordance with said directive pattern,
means for additionally imparting to said indicat
the frequency at which said directive pattern is
ing spot a circular motion of frequency which is'
rotated, and means responsive to said control sig
high with respect to the frequency at which
nal for cyclically laterally displacing the line
said directive pattern is rotated to trace a pat
traced by said device at the frequency of said
tern having intersecting lines sharply indicative
control signal to form directive patterns in which
of the direction of reception of said signal, and
the intersections of intersecting lines provide a
means for varying the radius of said circular mo
sharp indication of the direction of reception of
tion in accordance with the amplitude of said sig
said signal.
nal received by said pick-up system.
5. A radiated-signal direction finder compris
9. A radiated-signal direction ñnder compris
ing, a receiving pick-up system having a direc 20
ing, a receiving pick-up system having a direc
tive pattern, means for rotating said directive
tive pattern, means for rotating said directive
pattern of said pick-up system, a line-tracing de
pattern of said pick-up system, a line-tracing
vice, means for controlling said line-tracing de
device for tracing a circular path With an indi
vice to trace a line in synchronism with the ro
tation of said directive pattern, means responsive 25 cating spot, means for synchronizing said line
tracing device with the rotation of said directive
to the amplitude 0f a signal received by said
pattern, means responsive to the amplitude of
pick-up system for shifting the line traced by
a signal received b-y said pick-up system for mod
said device in accordance‘vvith said directive
ulating the radius of said circular path in ac
pattern, a source of oscillations having a frequency
which is high with respect to the vfrequency at 30 cordance with said directive pattern to trace said
directive pattern on said line-tracing device, and
which said directive pattern is rotatedj and
means for additionally imparting to said indicat
means for utilizing said oscillations cyclically lat
ing spot a circular motion of curvature greater
erally to displace at the frequency of said 'os
than the minimum curvature at the peak of said
cillations the line traced by said device to trace
intersecting lines‘the intersections of which are 35 directive pattern on said line-tracing device and
of frequency which is high with respect to the
sharply indicative of the direction of reception of
frequency at which said directive pattern is ro
said signal.
tated to trace a pattern having intersecting lines
6. A radiated-signal direction finder compris
sharply indicative of the direction of reception
ing, a receiving pick-up system having a direc
of said signal.
tive pattern, means for rotating said directive
l0. A radiated-signal direction ñnder compris
pattern of said pick-up system, a line-tracing
ing, a receiving pick-up system having a direc
device for tracing a circular path, means for
tive pattern, means for rotating said directive
controlling said line-tracing device to trace a
pattern of said pick-up system, a line-tracing de
circular lpath in synchronismY with the rotation
vice for tracing a circular path with an indicat
of said directive pattern, means responsive to the
ing spot, means responsive to the amplitude of a
amplitude of a signal received by said pick-up
signal received by said pick-up system for modu
system for modulating the radius of said circular
lating the radius of said circular path in accord
path in accordance with said directive pattern,
ance with said directive pattern to trace said di
means for supplying a periodic control signal hav
ing a frequency which is high With reference to 50 rective pattern on said line-tracing device, and
means for additionally imparting to said indicat
the frequency at Which said directive pattern
ing spot a circular motion of curvature substan
is rotated, and means responsive to said control
tially equal to the minimum curvature at the peak
signal for cyclically angularly Vdisplacing the
of said directive pattern on said line-tracing de
radius of said circular path at the frequency of
vice and of frequency which is high with respect
said control signal to form intersecting directive
to the frequency at which said directive pattern
patterns the intersections of Which provide a
is rotated to trace a pattern having intersecting
sharp indication of the direction of reception of
lines sharply indicative of the direction of recep
said signal.
tion of said signal.
'7. A Vradiated-signal direction ñnder compris
11. A radiated-signal direction finder com
ing, a receiving pick-up system having a direc 60
prising, a receiving pick-up system having a di
tive pattern, means for rotating said directive
rective pattern, means for rotating said directive
pattern of said pick-up system, a device for trac
ing a line with an indicating spot, means for
pattern of said 'pick-up system,-a cathode-ray
synchronizing said line-tracing device with the
tube including means adapted'to developI two
pick-up system for shifting the line traced by
said device in accordance with said directive pat
tern, and means for additionally imparting to
produce beam-deñecting fields having S30-degree
rotation of said directive pattern, means respon 65 beam-deflecting ñelds normal to each other,
means for energizing ,said last-named meansto
sive to the amplitude of a signal received by said
relative phase displacement to trace a circular
path With the beam of said tube in synchronism
With the rotation of said directive pattern, 'means
said indicating spot a circular motion of fre
responsive to the intensity of a signal received
quency which is high with respect to the fre
by said pick-up system for varying in accordance
quency at Which said directive pattern is rotated
therewith the energization of said beam-deflect
rto trace a pattern having' intersecting lines
ing field means by said energizing means, means
sharply indicative of the directionof reception of
75 for supplying a periodic control signal having a
Said signal.
‘
13
2,407,281
frequency which is high with reference to the
frequency at which said directive pattern is ro
tated, and means responsive to said control signal
for cyclically laterally displacing the path traced
by the beam of said tube at the frequency of said
control signal to trace intersecting lines the in
tersections of which are sharply indicative of the
direction of reception of said signal.
14
sections of which are sharply indicative of the
direction of reception of said signal.
13. A radiated-signal direction finder compris
ing, a receiving pick-up system having a directive
pattern, means for rotating said directive pat
tern of said pick-up system, a cathode-ray tube
including means adapted to develop two beam
deflecting ñelds normal to each other, means in
12. A radiated-signal direction finder compris
cluding a source of oscillations for generating
ing, a receiving pick-up system having a directive 10 and applying to said last-named means two alter
pattern, means for rotating said directive pat
nating potentials having SiO-degree relative phase
tern of said pick-up system, a cathode-ray tube
displacements and having frequencies synchro
including means adapted to develop two beam
nized with the rotation of the directive pattern
deñecting fields normal to each other, means for
of said pick-up system, whereby said tube traces
generating and applying to said last-named means 15 a circular line in synchronism with the rotation
two alternating potentials having QO-degree rela
of said pick-up system, means responsive to the
tive phase displacements and having frequencies
intensity of a signal received by said pick-up sys
synchronized with the rotation of the directive
tem for controlling the amplitude of said alter
pattern of said pick-up system, whereby said tube
nating potentials in accordance therewith, means
traces a circular line in synchronism with the r0 20 for supplying a periodic control signal having a
tation of said pick-up system, means responsive
frequency which is high with reference to the
to the intensity of a signal received by said pick
frequency at which said directive pattern is ro
up system for controlling the amplitude of said
tated, and means responsive to said control sys
alternating potentials in accordance therewith,
tem for cyclically laterally displacing the line
means for supplying a periodic control signal 25 traced by said tube at the frequency of said con
having a frequency which is high with reference
trol signal to trace intersecting lines the inter
to the frequency at which said directive pattern
sections of which are sharply indicative of the
is rotated, and means responsive to said control
direction of reception of said signal.
system for cyclically laterally displacing the line
traced by said tube at the frequency of said con 30
JOHN KELLY JOHNSON.
trol signal to trace intersecting lines the inter
HAROLD A. WHEELER.v
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