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Sept. l0, 1946.
J. K. JoHNsoN
2,407,282
.SYSTEM` FOR INDICATING MECHANICAL MOTION
Filed Dec; 18, 1941
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR
JOHN KELLY JOHNSON
BY
y
Arr RNEY
`
Sept. 10, 1946.
J. K. JOHNSON
2,407,282
SYSTEM FOR INDIOATING MECHANICAL MOTION
FiledDec. 18,11941
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
BCIfLLI'ldNV
IU O H N
BY
Nm
.RwáE
MKAVETTE RTYON
Y
S ON
Sept. 10, 1946.
2,407,282
J. K. JoHNsoN
SYSTEM FOR INDICATING MECHANICAL MOTION
Fi’led Dec. 18, `1941
amm.
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
6m .
INVENTOR
JOHN KELLY JOHNSON
BY
'
ATroRNE’Y
2,407,282
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407,282
`'SYSTEM FOR INDICATING MECHANICAL
>MOTION
John Kelly Johnson, Deerfield, Ill., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Hazeltîne Research, Inc.,
Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois
Application December 18, 1941, Serial No. ,423,515
10 Claims. (Cl. 177-351)
l
The invention relates generally to arrange
ments “for indicating mechanical motion »and re
lates particularly to such arrangements of a
type suitable for indicating relative rotary Ino
tion between two mechanical members.l
Many prior art arrangements have been pro
vided for indicating by electrical means relative
motion between two mechanical members. Some
of these prior art >arrangements have comprised
2
system also comprises a means for effectively
mechanically .coupling the primary element to one
of the above-mentioned members, means for ef
fectively mechanically coupling the secondary ele
ment to the other of the above-mentioned mem
bers, and means for supplying to the primary ele- '
ment oscillations of a frequency much greater
than the frequency of the motion between the
two »above-mentioned members, whereby there
a device having a rotor and stator, one or both
are applied to the secondary element oscillations
of which comprise a single-phase winding or
crossed windings, at the mechanical-motion
ance with the relative `motion between .the two
transmitting station, as well as a similar device
at the ymechanical-lflflotion receiving station where
the amplitude of which is modulated in accord
above-mentioned members. ’ The system addi
tionally includes means coupled with the sec
the `mechanical motion >occurring at the trans- `
ondary element for synchronously rectifying the
mitting station is to be indicated. In arrange
ments ef the type under consideration the signals
transmitted to the mechanical-motion receiving
station generally comprise two carrier waves of
the same frequency but _modulated differently in 20
oscillations .coupled thereto to .obtain a unidirec
tional voltage pulsating in accordance with the
the coupling system provided at the mechanical
motion transmitting station in accordance with
the frequency of motion. However, it may be
very undesirable to use apparatus vof the general
type under consideration at the `mechanical-mo
tion receiving station. For example, it may be
desirable to provide at the receiver ,a cathode-ray
tube indicator or an indicator responsive only to
the frequency of motion.
Another type of indicating system which has
been used is one eiîectively comprising an alter
.nator for generating a polyphase output at the
transmitting station together with >a suitable mo
tion-reproducing device such as `a cathode-ray
tube at the receiving station. In `such a system
voltages are supplied to' the receiving station
which can be used directly to deilect the cathode
ray beam of the indicator tube. However, in such
a system the response is dependent on the speed
of rotation of the device at the transmitting vsta
tion, a feature which in some cases is very unde
motion between the two members, ,as well ,as
means for utilizing the unidirectional voltage for
producing a synchronous indication of the >mo
tion between the members.
For a better understanding of the present >in
vention, together with other and .further objects
thereof, reference is had to the following descrip
tion taken in connection with the accompanying
drawings, and its scope will be pointed out in the
4appended claims.
Figs. 1 and 6 .of the drawings >are `schematic
circuit diagrams of radiated-.signal direction
finders, each including a system in accordance
with an embodiment of the present invention for
indicating relative mechanical motion.; Figs. 2te-2d,
inclusive, and Figs. Sli-3d, inclusive, comprise
graphs utilized to explain the operating charac
, teristics of the motion-indicating system of Fig.
1; while Fig. 4 and Figs. 5yd-5d, inclusive, repre
sent various patterns which may be procured by
the direction finders illustrated when utilizing
a motion-indicating system in Aaccordance with
the invention.
Referring now more particularly to Fig. 1 of
the drawings, the radiated-signal direction ñnder
there illustrated incorporates a system in accord
ance with the present invention for indicating
sirable.
It is an object ofthe invention, therefore, to
provide an improved `arrangement for indicating
mechanical motion between two members `which 45 relative motion between two mechanical mem
bers, The direction finder itself, however, >is the
is not subject to one or more of the disadvantages
subject matter of a joint application, Serial No.
>of prior art arrangements mentioned above.
423,514, filed concurrently herewith in the names
It is still another .object of the -invention >to
of Harold A. Wheeler and John Kelly Johnson,
provi-de a ysystem for >indicating relative» motion
.and comprises a receiving pick-up system or an
between two members in <which the apparatus .
required at the motion-transmitting sending sta
tion may be light in weight and may require very
little space.
In accordance lwith the invention, a system for
indicating relative mechanical motion comprises
two 'members adapted to «have relative motion
therebetween .and `impedance-coupling means
_having relatively movable primary .and :secondary
tenna system having a directive pattern. Such
receiving antenna system is provided by the
dipole antenna lill, Il and the reflector I2. The
direction finder also comprises means for rotat
ing the directive pattern of the antenna system
Il), H.
This means comprises a motor I3 me
chanically coupled, as indicated by the dotted
line ld, to the antenna 'system Hl, Il and its asso
ciated reflector l2. The signal output of the an
elements the relative position >of which .deter
mines the electrical coupling therebetween, The 6.0 benna lll, -il is coupled to a receiving system
2,407,282
3
through a pair of inductively-coupled loops IB
and I9, loop I9 being stationary and loop I8
being driven, as indicated by the dotted line I4,
with the antenna system I0, II and its asso
ciated reiiector I2. The receiver coupled to an
of cathode-ray tube I5 are connected to loop 2Gb
through a system comprising a rotating loop 35h,
a stationary loop 36h, a vertical amplifier 3'Ib, a
vertical rectifier 38h and a vertical bias 39h.
The signal output of rectifier 23 is applied to
tenna system I0, II comprises, in cascade, a
radio-frequency amplifier 20 of one or more
stages, a frequency changer or oscillator-modu
lator 2|, an intermediate-frequency ampliñer 22
the radius modulator 29, and in order to effect
synchronous detection in rectiiiers 38a and 38h,
sine-wave oscillations developed in oscillator 28
are also applied to the rectifiers 38a and 38h
of one or more stages, and a rectifier 23. There 10 through the horizontal amplifier 31a and the ver
is also comprised in the arrangement of Fig. l a
tical amplifier 3`Ib, respectively. The amplitude
line-tracing device which includes a cathode-ray
of the oscillations supplied to units 31a and 3'Ib
tube I5 and means for causing the beam of the
from oscillator 28 is greater than that supplied
tube to traverse a circle on the fluorescent screen
to these units from elements 36a and 36h and of
I6 on the end of the cathode-ray tube.
15 substantially the same phase. This phase rela
The arrangement also comprises means for
tionship is not very critical but must be within
synchronizing the line-tracing device or the ro
90° and is preferably within about 20°. The sig
tation of the beam of the cathode-ray tube I5
nal output of rectifier 23 is also applied to the
with the rotation of the directive pattern of the
control grid of the cathode-ray tube I5 and suit
antenna system I 0, II, The means for rotating 20 able operating potentials are provided therefor
the beam of the cathode-ray tube I5 and for syn
in a manner which is, per se, well understood in
chronizing the scanning spot thereof with the
the art.
antenna system I0, II comprises a system in ac
Inasmuch as the directive antenna system I0,
cordance with the present invention for indicat
II has a directive radiation pattern the orienta
ing relative mechanical motion between two 25 tion of which varies relative to the direction of
members adapted to have relative motion there
reception of a desired signal, the amplitude of
between. These members may be considered to
the signal utilized in units 20 and 23, inclusive,
be, for example, the stator and the rotor of the
varies in accordance with this relative orienta
motor I3. Impedance-coupling means are pro
tion and additionally in accordance with the
vided in the motion-indicating system having 30 amplitude of the radiated signal being received.
relatively movable primary and secondary ele
In order to eliminate such amplitude variations
ments, the relative positions of which determine
in accordance with the amplitude of the radiated
the electrica1 coupling therebetween. Such im
signal, a control system is provided for the re
pedance-coupling means, in the embodiment
ceiver comprising units 20 to 23, inclusive. This
illustrated, comprise primary elements 25a and 35 control system, which forms the subject matter
25h and secondary elements 26a and 2Gb. The
of copending application Serial No. 423,516 filed
relative position of the respective primary and
concurrently herewith in the name of Harold A.
secondary elements determines the electrical
Wheeler, comprises a second antenna system 45
coupling tlfîerebetween. The primary elements
_having a radiation pattern which is less directive
25a and 25h are stationary and are angularly 40 than that of the first antenna system Ill, II,
spaced by a relatively small amount, while the
means connected with the second antenna sys
secondary elements 26a and 261) are angularly
tem 45 for deriving, in response to the desired
spaced at right angles to each other and are
signal received thereby, a control effect which
adapted to be rotated by the motor I3, as indi
varies primarily in accordance with the amplitude
cated bythe dotted line I4.
45 of the radiated signal being received, and means
A sine-wave oscillator 28 is provided for sup
for utilizing the derived control effect to adjust
plying to the primary elements 25a and 25h
an operating characteristic of the receiver com
oscillations of a period much less than the ef
prising units 20 to 23, inclusive. As illustrated
fective minimum period of the motion between
in the drawings the antenna 45 comprises a ver
the respective primary and secondary elements. 50 tical conductor mounted on the reflector I2,
Sine-wave oscillator 28 is connected through a
adapted to be rotated therewith, and capacitively
radius modulator 29 and a right-lobe switching
coupled through a rotating plate 46 and asta
modulator 30a, to the primary element 25a and
tionary plate 41 to the input circuit of a receiver.
is connected through the radius modulator 29
This last-named receiver comprises, in cascade,
and a left-lobe switching modulator 30h, to the 55 a radio-frequency amplifier 48 of one or more
primary element 25h. In order to cause either
stages, a frequency changer or oscillator-modu
the right-lobe switching modulator 30a or the
lator 49, an intermediate-frequency amplifier 5D
left-lobe switching modulator 3012 to be effective,
of one or more stages, a detector and A. V. C.
there is provided a square-wave switching oscil
rectifier 5I, an audio-frequency amplifier 52 of
lator 32 having output circuits connected, respec
tively, to units 30a and 30h and adapted to cause
these units to be alternately operative at a fre
quency which is high with respect to the fre
quency at which the antenna system I0, II is ro
60 one or more stages, and a sound-signal repro
ducing device 53.
A voltage from the A. V. C.
rectifier in unit 5I is applied to one or more of
the tubes of stages 48, 49 and 50 to maintain
the amplitude of the signal input to detector 5I
tated. Secondary element 26a is connected to 65 within a relatively narrow range for a wide range
horizontal deflecting plates 33, 34 of cathode-ray
of received signal amplitudes, and, additionally,
the A. V. C. rectifier in unit 5I is utilized to con
tube I5 by means of a coupling system compris
trol the gain of stages 20, 2| and 22 to maintain
ing inductively-coupled loops 35a, 36a, a horizon
the amplitude of the signal input to rectiñer 23
tal amplifier 31a, a horizontal rectifier 38a and
a horizontal bias 39a. The loop 35a is connected 70 within a relatively narrow range for a wide am
directly to the terminals of the secondary ele
plitude range of the radiated signal being re
ment 26a. and is adapted to be rotated therewith
ceived insofar as fading of the received signal is
by motor I3 as indicated by the dotted line I4,
concerned. A suitable tuning meter 55 is pref
the loop 36a being stationary.
erably provided for the two receivers 20 to 23, in
Similarly, the vertical deflecting plates 4_0, 4I 75 clusive, and 4B to 53, inclusive, which may com
2,407,282
6
5
prise a high-resistance voltmeter coupled across
the A. V. C. source of unit 5I.
Referring now to the operation of the direc
tion ñnder of Fig. 1, it will be seen that the
arrangement comprises the directive
system I0, i i having a directive pattern,
the motor i3 is adapted to rotate the
system Iii, II to rotate the directive
antenna
and that
antenna
pattern.
to cause thepbeam of the cathode-ray> tube I5 to
trace a circular path on th'e liuorescent screen
I6‘of-tube I5. In summary, therefore, the ar
rangement just described comprises a system for
indicating mechanical motion comprising two
members` adapted to have relative motion there
between and these members maybe considered to
be the rotor and stator of motor I3. The system
thus comprises an impedance means having a pri
The line-tracing device I5, in the `absence of a
received signal, is effective to trace a circular 10 mary element 25a and a secondary element 26a,
which are `relatively movable and the relative
path on the fluorescent screen I6. 4In order `to
position of which determines the electrical cou
explain the manner in which this is done itwill
ñrst be assumed that the right-lobe switchingf
.modulator 30a is in an operative condition and
'that the square-wave switching oscillator 33» is
disconnected therefrom. Under these conditions
oscillations from oscillator 28 are applied, through
radius modulator 29 which, in the absence of a
received signal as assumed, functions as an am
pling therebetween.` The arrangement also
comprises means for effectively mechanically
coupling the secondary element 28a to the rotor
of the motor I3 and it will be seen that the. pri
mary` element 25a and the stator of motor I3
may be considered to be effectively mechanically
coupled for `the reason that each of these two
plifier, and the right-lobe switching modulator 20 units is stationary. Additionally, the system
comprises the sine-wave oscillator 28 for sup
39a., to the primary element 25a, the relative
plyingto the primary element 25a oscillations of
position of which with respect to the secondary
a frequency much greater than the effective max
element 23a, determines the electrical coupling'
imum frequency of the motion between the two
between these primary and secondary elements.
There are thus applied to the secondary element 25 elements 25a and 26a, whereby there are applied
to the secondary element 26a oscillations the am
26a oscillations the amplitudes of which are mod
plitudes of which areV modulated in accordance
ulated in accordance with the relative motion
with the relative motion between the stator and
between elements 25a and 25a. >The oscillations
rotor of motor I3. Means comprising rectiñer
so induced in element 28a are represented by the
.38a and the amplifier and bias unit associated
curves of Fig. 2a and correspond to the oscilla
therewith are coupled to the secondary element
tions produced by sine-wave oscillator 28 modu
25a for synchronously rectifying the oscillations
coupled thereto from the primary element 25a
to obtain a unidirectional voltage pulsating in
and 25a. The oscillations represented by the
curves of Fig. 2a. may be recognized as a modu 35 accordance with the motion between the stator
and the rotor of motor I3 and means, including
lated, signal the modulation components of which
the cathode-ray line-tracing device I5, is provid
can only be derived by a synchronous detection
ed for utilizing the unidirectional voltage so pro
process by which the correct percentage of modu
lated in amplitude and polarity in accordance
with the relative motion between members 25a
duced for producing a synchronous indication of
lation is restored to the signal. These oscillations
are coupled to the rectifier 38a through the ele- «, 40 one component of the motion between the rotor
and‘stator of motor I3. .
ments 35a, 36av and 31a. To restore the correct
Before considering >the effect of the square
percentage of modulation to these oscillations,
wave switching oscillator 32 upon the arrange
the sine waves provided by oscillator 28 are ap
ment just described, the effect of the signal ap
plied to the rectifier 38a through the horizontal
ampliiier 31d and are effective to transforml the 45 plied from rectifier 23 to the radius modulator 29
will be considered. The amplitude of this signal>
oscillations of Fig. 2a into a signal which is
varies in accordance with theV directive-radia
modulated in amplitude only by an amount equal
tion pattern of antenna system IB, I I and is max
to or less than 100%, as indicated by the curves
of Fig. 2b of the drawings. The horizontal recti
imum when the open face of the reflector I2` faces
iier 38a derives the modulation component oí> 50 the transmitter being received. The signal from
rectiñer 23 is applied to the modulator 29 to vary
this signal which varies, in accordance with the
the amplitude of the oscillations applied to units
relative motion between the two members 25a
39a and 33D. This effectively varies in accord
and 23a, this component being illustrated by the
ance with the signal from rectifier 23 the per
curve of Fig.v2c of the drawings. The signal out
put of horizontal rectifier 38a is> converted» to a` 55 centage of modulation of the signals applied to
the rectiiiers 33a, 38h so that the radius of the
signal with zero average value, as illustrated by
circle traced by the beam of tube I5 decreases
the curve of Fig. 2d of the drawings, by super
with decreasing amplitude of the received signal.
position of a horizontal bias potential in unit 38a
In this way the arrangement is effective to trace
and is applied to the horizontal deflecting plates
33, 34. The voltage applied to deilecting plates
33, 34, assuming a uniform speed of rotation of
motor I3, is, therefore, a sine wave having a
period equal to the period of rotation of motor I3.
Inasmuch las the vertical deflecting system is
substantially th'e same as the horizontal deflect
ing system, a similar voltage is applied to deflect
ing plates 43, 4I, which voltage, however, is dis
placed in phase by 90 degrees from the voltage
applied to deflecting plates 33, 34 due to the 90
degree physical displacement between the elements
25a and 25h.
The curves of Figs. 3a. to 3d are
generally similar, therefore, to the curves of Figs.
2a to 2d, respectively, and represent correspond
ing potentials Vof the vertical deiiecting system.
The arrangement ïjust described, therefore, serves
upon the fluorescent screen I6 a` pattern repre
senting the directive-radiation pattern of an
tenna system II), Il. One such pattern is repre
sented by the dotted line A of Fig. 4, the solid-line
circle representing the end of the cathode-ray
tube-I5. Compass points, as indicated, may be
provided on the end oi the cathode-ray tube I5.
It will be understood, however, that in the ar
rangement just described the line traced by cath
ode-ray tube I5 is a continuous line and is not
dotted as shown.
‘
-
If now it is assumed thatY the right-lobe switch
ing modulator 39a is inactive, the left-lobe
switching modulator 39h is active, and the
_square-wave switching modulator 32 is discon
nected ‘from'the switchingy modulator 30h, it will
2,407,282
7
be seen that the only change in the system just
described is effectively a physical rotation of the
primary element which induces oscillations into
lthe secondary elements 26a and 2Gb. In the
case under present consideration, the primary
element 25h is the effective member. Under the
conditions just assumed, therefore, the line-trac
8
ed, by means of a two-position switch 62, to be
connected directly to sine-wave oscillator 28 0r to
this oscillator through the radius modulator 29
and the amplifier 6I. The phase shifter 60 is so
designed as to supply to the respective sets of de
flecting plates of cathode-ray tube I5, two sine
wave voltages which are 90 degrees apart, these
voltages being superposed on the deñecting volt
ages supplied through units 39a and 39h, respec
ing device I5 of Fig. 1 is effective to trace a di
rective pattern displaced from the one previously
described and may, for example, trace full-line 10 tively.
directive patterns of the type represented by
In considering the operation of the circuit of
curve B of Fig. 4.
Preferably, the angular rela
tionships between the elements 25a, 25h, 26a and
Fig. 6 and neglecting for the moment the opera
tion of phase shifter 60, it will be seen that the
26h, on the one hand, and the reflector I2 on the
arrangement is effective to plot the directive pat
other, are so proportioned that the point of over 15 tern of the antenna system I0, II upon the
lap of the directive patterns A and B represents
screen I ß of the cathode-ray tube in a manner
the true direction of th'e transmitter being re
similar to that described above. In other Words,
ceived.
this plot may be of the form indicated by the
If now the eiTect of square-wave switching os
line C of Fig. 5a. If switch 62 is now assumed to
cillator 32 upon the circuit of Fig. 1 is considered,
be in such a position as to couple the phase shifter
it will be seen that the primary elements 25a and
69 directly to the sine-wave oscillator 28, there is
25h are alternately effective in the system, these
superposed on the deflection potentials applied to
elements being switched at a very high frequency
the pairs of deñecting plates of cathode-ray tube
by the switching oscillator 32. In place of trac
I 5 two sine-wave voltages which are effective ad
ing continuous lines upon the cathode-ray tube 25 ditionally to impart to the indicating spot of the
as described, when the square-wave switching
cathode-ray tube I 5 a circular motion at the fre
oscillator 32 is utilized a portion of one pattern
quency of oscillator 28, which frequency is high
is ñrst traced, a portion of the next pattern is
with respect to the frequency at which the an
then traced, etc., and the patterns which are
tenna system is rotated. The pattern traced by
visible on the fluorescent screen I6 are of dotted v30 the spot under the condition assumed may take
form, as illustrated in Fig. 4. The effect of the
the form illustrated in Fig. 5a, neglecting the
signal derived from rectifier 23 and applied to the
curve C, and it is thus seen that the intersecting
control grid of cathode-ray tube I5 is to cause
lines in the upper middle region of this pattern
the outer portions of the directive loops traced on
are sharply indicative of the direction of recep
screen I6 to be as bright as the inner portions 35 tion of the radiated signal intercepted by antenna
of the loops, even though the spot is moving more
system I0, II.
rapidly.
In one preferred embodiment of the arrange
In the arrangement just described a slow varia
ment of Fig. 6 the curvature at the peak of the cir
tion of the amplitude of the radiated signal which
cular motion imparted through phase shifter 60
is intercepted by antennas l0 and I I would be also 40 is substantially equal to the minimum effective
effective to shift the pattern traced by line-trac
curvature of the directive pattern of the antenna
ing device I5 and the operation of the arrange
system I0, II upon the screen I6, and this is the
ment will be as described only when there is no
condition which is represented by the pattern of
such variation of the amplitude of the radiated
5a. In other words, the circular motion
signal which is being intercepted. It is for the 45 Fig.
which is imparted to the scanning spot of tube I5
purpose of compensating for such slow variations
through the phase shifter 60 is of curvature sub
of amplitude that the automatic ampliñcation
stantially equal to the minimum effective curva
control system for units 20, 2I and 22 is provided.
ture of the directive pattern indicated by the
The receiver comprising units 48 to 53, inclusive,
curve C.
operates in a conventional manner, and it will 50 In another preferred embodiment of the inven
be understood that this receiver, as well as the
tion the curvature of the circular motion so im
receiver comprising units 20 to 23, is adapted to
be tuned to the desired signal by means of tuning
meter 55. The automatic ampliñcation control
effect, which is effective to vary the gain of one
or more of stages 20, 2I and 22, is effective at least
partially to compensate for slow amplitude var
iations of the radiated signal which is intercepted
by the antenna system I0, I I.
The arrangement of Fig. 6 is generally similar
to the arrangement of Fig. 1 and similar circuit
elements in the two figures have identical refer
ence numerals. The arrangement of Fig. 6 dif
fers from the arrangement of Fig. 1 primarily in
that square-wave switching oscillator 32 and its
associated elements have been omitted and in that
a different arrangement comprising a phase shift
er 60 and associated connections has been added
in order to provide a pattern on screen IB which
has intersecting lines suitable for indicating the
direction of reception of a received signal. The
circuit of Fig. 6 thus comprises only a single pri
mary coupling element 25a which is connected to
sine-Wave oscillator 28 through radius modulator
29and an amplifier 6 I. Phase shifter 60 is adapt
parted is greater than the effective minimum
curvature at the peak of the directive pattern on
the screen I5 and, under such conditions, the
arrangement of Fig. 6 may be effective to trace
a pattern on the screen I6 as represented by
Fig. 5b.
'
If the switch 62 is now operated so that phase
shifter 60 is connected to the oscillator 28 through
the radius modulator 29 and the amplifier 6I, it
will be seen that the radius of the circular motion
imparted to the scanning spot by phase shifter 60
is varied in accordance with the amplitude of the
bias voltage provided from rectifier 23. Under
these conditions the pattern of Fig. 5a is changed
to that of Fig. 5c or the pattern of Fig. 5b is
changed to that of Fig. 5d.
While there have been described what are at
present considered to be the preferred embodi
ments of this invention, it will be obvious to those
skilled in the art that various changes and modi
lications may be made therein without departing
from the invention, and it is, therefore, aimed in
75 the appended claims to cover all such changes
2,407,282
-9ï`
and modifications as fall within the. true spirit
and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
v
.
1. A system for indicating relative mechanical
motion comprising, two members adapted to have
relative motion therebetween, an impedance-cou
pling means having relatively7 movable primary
and secondary elements` the relative position of
which determines the electrical coupling there
between, means for effectively mechanically cou
10
dication of said motion between said two mem
bers.
4. A system for indicating relative mechanical
motion comprising,l two members adapted to have
relative motion therebetween, an impedance-cou
pling means having relatively movable primary
and secondary elements the relative position of
which determines the electrical coupling there-`
between, means for effectively mechanically cou
pling- said primary element to one of said mem
bers, means for eiïectively mechanically coupling
bers,
pling means
said primary
for effectively
elementmechanically
to one of said
coupling
said secondary element to the other of said mem
bers, means for supplying to said primary ele
said secondary element to the other of said mem
ment oscillations of a frequency much greater
bers, means for supplying to said primary eie
ment oscillations of a frequency much greater 15 than the efiective. maximum frequency of said
motion between said two members, whereby there
thanv the effective maximum frequency of said
are applied to said secondary element oscillations
motion between said two members, whereby there
the amplitudes of which are modulated in accord
are applied to said secondary element oscilla
ance with said relative motion between said two
tions the amplitudes of which are modulated Vin
members, synchronous rectifying means con
accordance with said relative motion between said
nected with said means for supplying oscillationsl
two members, means connected with said sec
to said `prim-ary element and connected to said
ondary element for synchronously rectiiying said
secondary elementl with such relative phase as
oscillations coupled thereto to obtain a unidirec
to obtain from said rectifying means a unidirec
tional voltage pulsating in accordance with said
tional voltage pulsating in accordance with said
motion, and means for utilizing said undirec
moti-on, and means `for utilizing said unidirec
tional voltage tor producing` a. synchronous in
tional voltage for producing a synchronous in
dication ci said motion between said, two mem
dication of said motion between said two mem
bers.
2.. A. system for indicating relative` mechanical
motion comprising, two members adapted to have
relative motion therebetween, inductive-coupling
bers.
.
5. A system for indicating relative mechanical
motion comprising, two members adapted to have
relative rotary motion therebetween, an imped
ance-coupling means having, relatively movable
means having relatively movable primary and sec
ondary elements the. relative position of which
primary and secondary elements the relative posi
determines the electrical coupling therebetween,
means for effectively mechanically coupling said 35 tion of which determines» the electrical coupling
therebetween, means for effectively mechanically
primary element to one- of said` members, means
coupling said primary element to one of said
for effectively mechanically coupling said sec
members, means for eiîectively mechanically cou
ondary element to the other of said members,
pling said secondary element to the other of said
means for supplying to said primary element
oscillations of a frequency much greater than the. 40 members, means for supplying to said primary
element oscillations of a frequency much greater
eiîeiive maximum frequency of said motion be
than the eiîective maximum frequency of said
tween said two members, whereby there are ap
motion between said two members, whereby there
plied to said secondary element oscillations the
are applied to said secondary element oscillations
amplitudes of which are modulated in accordance
with said relative motion between said two mem 45 the amplitudes of which are modulated in accord
ance with said relative motion between said two
bers, means. connected with said secondary ele
members, means connected with said secondary
ment for synchronously rectifying said oscilla
element. for synchronously rectifying said oscilla
tions. coupled thereto to obtain a. unidirectional
tions. coupled thereto to obtain a unidrectional
voltage pulsating in accordance‘with said motion,
and means for utilizing said unidirectional volt 50 voltage pulsating in, accordance with said motion,
a cathode-ray tube, means for utilizing said
age for producing a synchronous indication of
said motion between said two members.
'
3. A system for indicating relative mechanical
motion comprising, two members adapted to have
relative motion therebetweem an impedance-cou
pling means having relatively movable primary
and secondary elements the relative position of
which determines the electrical coupling there
between, means for effectively mechanically cou
pling said primary element to one of said mem
bers, means-for effectively mechanically coupling
said secondary element to the other of said mem
bers, an oscillator for supplying to said primary
element oscillations, of a frequency much greater
than the effective maximum frequency of said
motion between said two members, whereby there
are applied to said secondary element. oscillations
the amplitudes of which are modulated in ac
cordance with. said relative motion between said
two-members, means connected with said sec
ondary element for synchronously rectifying said
oscillations couple-d thereto» to obtain a unidirec
tional voltage pulsating ìnfaccordancewith said
motion, and means for utilizing said unidirec
tional voltage. for' producing 1a synchronous in
pulsating unidirectional voltage to deñect the
cathode-ray.beamv of said tube in one direction,
and means `for deriving a similar phase-displaced
55 unidirectional pulsating voltage for displacing
said beam normal. to said first. direction to pro
duce a synchronous indication of said rotary mo
tion between said two members.
6.` A system for indicating relative mechanical
60 motion comprising, two members adapted to have
relative rotary motion therebetween, an imped
ance-coupling means having two secondary ele
ments which are substantially 90 degrees dis
placed and a primary element relatively movable
(a5-with respect to said secondary elements, the rela
tive positions of said secondary elements with
respect to the primary element determining the
electrical coupling between the primary element
and the respective secondary elements, means for
eiïectively mechanically' coupling said primary
element. to .one of said members, means for ef
fectively mechanically `coupling said secondary
elements to the other of said members, means for
supplying to said primary element oscillations of
75 a. frequency much greater than thev eiîective
11I
12
maximum rotational frequency of said motion
ducing a synchronous indication of said motion
between said two members, whereby there are
between said two members.
applied to said secondary'elements oscillations
`
9. A system for indicating relative mechanical
motion comprising, two members adapted to have
the amplitudes of which are modulated in accord
ance with said relative motion between said two
members, means respectively connected to each
of said secondary elements for synchronously rec
` relative rotary motion therebetween, an imped
ance-coupling means having two secondary ele
ments which are substantially 90 degrees dis
tifying said oscillations coupled thereto to ob
placed and a primary element relatively movable
tain unidirectional voltages pulsating in accord
with respect to said secondary elements, the rela
ance with said motion, and means for utilizing l0 tive positions of said secondary elements with re
said unidirectional voltages for producing a ro
tary synchronous indication of said motion be
tween said two members.
7. A system for indicating relative mechanical
motion comprising, two members adapted to have ]5
relative rotary motion therebetween, an imped
ance-coupling means having two secondary ele
spect to the primary element determining the
electrical coupling between the primary element
and the respective secondary elements, means
for elîectively mechanically coupling said pri
mary element to one of said members, means for
eiïectively mechanically coupling said secondary
elements to the other of said members, means for
ments which are substantially 90 degrees dis
supplying to said primary element oscillations of
placed and a primary element relatively movable
a frequency much greater than the effective max
with respect to said secondary elements, the Vrela 20 imum frequency of said motion between said two
tive positions of said secondary elements with re
members, whereby there are applied to said sec
spect to the primary element determining the
ondary elements oscillations the amplitudes of
electrical coupling between the primary element
and the respective secondary elements, means for
which are modulated in accordance with said re1
ative motion between said two members, means
respectively connected to each of said secondary
elements for synchronously rectifying said oscil
lations applied thereto to obtain unidirectional
elements to the other of said members, means for
voltages pulsating in accordance with said mo
supplying to said primary element oscillations of
tion, a cathode-ray tube, means for respectively
a frequency much greater than the effective 30 utilizing each of said pulsating unidirectional
maximum frequency of said motion between said
voltages to deflect the cathode-ray beam of said
two members, whereby there are applied to said
tube in two directions normal to each other to
secondary elements oscillations the amplitudes of
produce a rotary synchronous indication of said
effectively mechanically coupling said primary 25
element to one of said members, means for effec
tively mechanically coupling the- said secondary
which are modulated in accordance with said rel
motion between said two members, and means
ative motion between said two members, means CO Cl for modulating the voltage supplied to each of
respectively connected to each of said secondary
said rectifying means to modulate the radius of
elements for synchronously rectifying said oscil
the rotary synchronous indication provided by
lations coupled thereto to obtain unidirectional
said cathode-ray beam.
voltages pulsating in accordance with said mo
10. A system for indicating relative mechani
tion, a cathode-ray tube, and means for respec 40 cal motion comprising, two members adapted to
tively utilizing each of said pulsating unidirec
have relative rotary motion therebetween, an
tional voltages to deflect the cathode-ray beam
impedance-coupling means having two secondary
of saidA tube in two directions normal to each
elements which are substantially 90 degrees dis
other to produce a rotary synchronous indication
placed and a primary element relatively movable
of said motion between said two members.
with respect to said secondary elements, the rel
8. A system for indicating relative mechanical
ative positions of said secondary elements with
motion comprising, two members adapted to have
respect to the primary element determining the
relative motion therebetween, an impedance-cou
electrical coupling between the primary element
pling means having relatively movable primary
and the respective secondary elements, means for
and secondary elements the relative position of
which determines the electrical coupling there
eiïectively mechanically coupling said primary
element to one of said members, means for effec
between, means for eiîectively mechanically cou
tively mechanically coupling said secondary ele
pling said primary element to one of said mem
ments to the other of said members, means for
bers, means for effectively mechanically coupling
supplying to said primary element oscillations of
said secondary element to the other of said mem ,'55 a frequency much greater than the effective max
bers, means for supplying to said primary ele->
imum frequency of said motion between said two
ment oscillations of a frequency much greater
members, whereby there are applied to said sec
than the effective maximum frequency of said
motion between said two members, whereby there
are applied to said secondary element oscillations
ondary elements oscillations the amplitudes of
which are modulated in accordance with said
relative motion between said two members, means
respectively connected to each of said secondary
elements for synchronously rectifying said oscil
two members, synchronous rectifying means,l lations coupled thereto to obtain unidirectional
means for supplying said ñrst-named oscilla- _" voltages pulsating in accordance with said mo
tions to said rectifyingl means, means for oo_n 65 tion, a cathode-ray tube, means for respectively
utilizing each of said pulsating unidirectional
necting said rectifying means vto said sec-_
voltages to- deflect the cathode-ray beam of said
ondary element _to supplyY oscillations to said
tube in two directions normal to each other to
rectifying means of an amplitude substan
produce a rotary synchronous indication of said
tially less than those of said first-named oscilla
tions supplied to said rectifying means andof 70 motion between said two members, and means
for modulating the oscillations supplied to said
substantially the same phase to obtain from said
primary element to modulate the radius of the
rectifying means a unidirectional voltage pulsat
rotary Ysynchronous indication provided by said
ing in accordance with said motion, and’means
cathode-ray beam.
for utilizing said unidirectional-voltage for pro
the amplitudes of which are modulated in ac
cordance with said relative motion between said
'
-
-
JOHN KELLY JOHNSON.
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