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Sept? 10, 1946-
c. c. l-_UNDY ET AL
Filed Feb. 27, 1943 '
4 sheets-sheet ,2
’ '
Sept. l0, 1946.
4 sheèts-sheet 5
Filed Feb. 27, 1945
Patented Sept. l0, 13946
Clarence C. Lundy, Floral Park, N. Y., and Hall~
Langstroth, Greenwich, Conn., assignors to
Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc.,V Brooklyn, ,
N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application February 27, 1943, Serial No. 477,466
18 Claims. (Cl. Z50-_11)
Fig. 9 is a section view taken along line 9_9,
in Fig. 8;
Fig.A 10 is a detail view of the potentiometer
ergy such as high VYfrequency radio beams and is
illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9; and
more particularly concerned with a special> move
Fig. 11 isan enlarged vertical section of the
ment-controlling mechanism for the apparatus. Ui
scanning mechanism shown in Figs. 8 and 9.
In accordance with the preferred embodiment
As shown in Fig. 1, a yoke II is formed with a
of the invention showing the same as a wide angle
depending hollow cylindrical collar I2 which pro
scanning device, the reflector or scanning mem
jects into a drive mechanism casing I3. Collar
ber of a short wave antenna »is continuously ro'
I2 is suitably supported on the casing I3 as by
tated about a ñrst or “spin” axis and at the same
bearings I4 and I5, for rotation about an axis
time is oscíllated about a second or “nod” axis.
One of the features of the present invention
Yoke II, as shown in Fig. 2, is provided with4
resides in the provision of lmeans for selectively
aligned bearings II'v in its arm for supporting a
arresting the scanning member at any desired po
reflector mounting member IE for oscillation
sition in the range of its permitted oscillatory _
about axis `B---B which, is preferably at right
movement while maintaining continuous motion
angles to axis A-,-A.» , Axis 'B-B is at right angles
about the spin axis.
. v
to the plane `>of .the paper in Fig. 1, being indi
A further provision of the invention consists in
cated therein atuB. `Abracket I1, rigidly fas
the utilization of a single drive means for obtain
tened to member I8, projects therefrom and car
ing motion about the spin and nod axis with the
ries aV reflector unit I8 having a parabolic re
employment of a clutch or disengageable connec
iiector surface I9. The axis C-C of reflector
tion between the nod determining mechanism and
This invention relates to scanning apparatus
for projecting and receiving beams of radiant en
, I8 is mutually perpendicular to axes A-A and
the drivev Imeans which is simultaneously disen
B-B respectively.
gaged when the nod asserting means of the appa
ratus is rendered effective.v
‘ `
At the end of casingv I3 opposite the reñector
Other features and structural details of the in
vention will be apparent from the following de
scription when read in relation to the accompany
I8, a shaft 2I, driven by a suitable motor (not
shown) extends Awithin the casing and is con
nected by gears 22 and 23, shaft 24 and gear 25
to a gear 25 rigid with the end of collar I2. Thus
Fig. 1 is an elevation partly in section, of a 30 when shaft 2I is driven, collar I2,and the whole
reflector assembly carried thereby are continu
preferred embodiment of the invention wherein
the reflector is oscillated through an eccentric
ously rotated about the spin axis A--A at pre
drive, and an electrically controlled clutch is pro
determined speeds. This accomplishes one
ing drawings, wherein
vided fcr arresting oscillation;
scanning movement of the reflector.>
Fig. 2 is a'section along line 2-2 of Fig. l, illus
Reflector ymount member I6 is formed with
trating how high frequency energy is introduced 35 spaced lugs 21 yextending rearwardly from the
into the reiìector;
reflector and providing a bifurcated pivoted con
Fig. 3 is a section along line 3;-3 of Fig. 1, illus
nection withY a link 28. Link 28 is also pivoted
trating the oscillation arresting mechanism in
to an arm 28 rigidly connected, as by collar 3|,
Fig. 4 is an enlarged elevation, partly in sec
tion, of the oscillation drive and arresting means
for controlling oscillation of the reflector;
Fig. 5 is a section along line E-E of Fig. 4 illus
40 to one end of a ,slideable sleeve 32 extending
through collar. I2.
vlìleyond the >point it projects from the Yother
end of the collar »I2 within casing I3, sleeve 32
trating further the clutch in the mechanism of 45 is connected by a suitable bearing ring 33 to` a
freely rotatable collar 34 which is fixed against
Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is an elevation, partly in section, of a
axial displacement relative to sleeve 32. A link
further embodiment of the invention wherein
35 is pivoted at one end to collar 34 and at its
the oscillation mechanism controls a stop se
lector switch device;
Fig. 7 is a fragmental View in elevation illus
trating a further manner'of converting trans
lation drive movement to oscillation of the re
Fig. 8 is an elevation View of a further modi
-fled form of our invention;
other end to the free end of a lever 36 movable
about a fixed pivot 3l on the casing.
Lever 36 is pivoted intermediate its ends at 38
to one end ofV a link 39, and the other end of link
is formed as a strap fitting about an eccentric
cam 4I fixed to a shaft 42. » A helical gear 43 is
ñxed to shaft 42 Vmeshed'with another helical
gear 44 fastened, as by pin 45, to a counter
shaft 45.
Referring now to Fig. 4, a gear 41 is freely
movement on opposite sides of axis C-C being
determined by the relation of the cam and link
mechanism.> Preferably, the reflector is rocked
rotatably mounted on the other end of counter
shaft 45 and is meshed with a drive gear 48 rigid
through an angle of about 26° to each side of
axis C-C, Fig. 1, a total sweep of 40°. This
with drive shaft 2l. To countershaft 46 there
is keyed a lcylindrical bushing 49 on which is
freely rotatably mounted a ratchet member 5I
having an interrupted annular flange 52 project
ing back axiaily within a, suitably formed groove
53 between bushing 49 and gear 41.
Referring now to Fig. 5, flange 52 is formed to
include a plurality of axial slots 54, preferably
equispaced as shown. Opposite slots 54, the
inner periphery of groove 53 is provided with>
axially extending plane surfaced recesses 55.
Each slot 54 contains a cylindrical roller 56 hav,
ing a diameter slightly larger than the width of
groove 53 but less than the radial width of the
space lbetween the outer periphery of groove 53
nod movement of the reflector about axis B-~B
takes place at a substantially lower speed than
the speed of revolution of the reflector about
and the adjacent wall of recess 55. The circum
ferential dimension of each slot 54 is preferably
slightly larger than the diameter of the roller 56
axis A»~A, and the scanning is accomplished in
a substantially spiral path through a generally
solid cone of 40° apex angle.
With reference to Fig. 3, the mechanism will
now be described for arresting the nod ef re
flector i8 in any of the plurality of manually se
lected positions during its 40° angular sweep, and
maintaining it fixed at the nod angle during
continued rotation about axis A--A.
Ratchet members 51 and 5l are adapted to
be engaged in close succession by individual piv
oted stop pawls El and 62 which are simulta
neously actuated by the same plunger 53 of sole
noid 64. A known type of spring (not shown)
maintains plunger 63 extended to hold pawls 6|
and 62 in the retracted dotted line position of
roller circumferentially of the flange.
Fig. 3 when solenoid 64 is not energized. When
The above described connection between gear
solenoid 64 is energized, plunger 53 is retracted,
41 and ratchet member 5I functions as a clutch
permitting suitable springs 55 (one shown) to
in fulfilling the purposes of the invention. Gear
urge the pawls into arresting engagement with
¿i1 rotates o-nly in the direction shown by the
the ratchet members.
arrows in Fig. 5. With gear 41 driven in the di 30
The ratchet and pawl arrangement serves as
rection of the arrow in Fig. 5 and flange 52 free
a holding means _for positioning the scanning
thereii to permit a small displacement of the
to move in the same direction as a result of
ratchet 5l being unrestrained by pawl 62, gear
d1 rolls roller 56 after it in the same direction
carrying flange 52 before it until roller 56 enters
the narrowed down or restricted area of groove
and .becomes wedged 'between the adjacent
walls of groove 53 and recess 55 so that flange 52,
ratchet 5l, bushing 48 and gear 46 areV thereby
member or reñector in any one of a plurality of
positions within the range of the oscillatory
movement thereof. This holding means is nor
mally ineffective and, when rendered effective,
operates to disengage the clutch means described
so that under this condition no further movement
isV communicated to the nod mechanism by the
common drive shaft which continues to rotate the
positivelydriven in the same direction as gear 40 scanning member about its spin axis.
41. V/'hen flange 52 is seized and held stationary
by pawl G2 and a brief interval thereafter ratchet
51 is likewise seized and held by pawl 6I, roller
55 is displaced from its wedging position to be
'come freely rotatable within groove 53 and to -
permit relative rotation between gear 41, flange
and ratchet 5l, thus allowing reflector I8 to
cease nodding. Any equivalent clutch may be
employed in the connection between gear 41 and
ratchet 5l without departing from the spirit of ¿a
the invention.
The selective means for controlling the opera
tion of the solenoid 64 may be considered to in
clude a circuit that contains the solenoid, a source
of energy and a pair of switches, one of which is
manually adjusted. In the present instance, the
projecting reduced end 65 of shaft 45 carries a
rigid radial bracket 61 mounting a conductor
brush 58. The brush 5t is adapted to» successively
traverse a series of equispaced conductor segments
6,9 of' a commutator 19 fixed to casing I3. Con
ductor brush 68 is connected to a slip ring 1l
Ratchet 5| is one part of the resilient cou
pling, the other part of which is a ratchet mem
ber 51 rigid with gear 44. and journaled on the
mounted on the bracket G1. A conducting arm 12
mounted at 13 on post 14 yieldably engages the
projecting cylindrical hub 58 of ratchet 5l.
coiled spring 59 has its opposite ends anchored
in ratchet members 5l and 5l', and is coaxial with
shaft 46 as shown in Fig. 4. Spring 59 permits
flange 52 to move relative to ratchet 51 and bush~
terminal of the solenoid 64. They selective circuit
further includes, lead 15’ connected to the other
terminal of the solenoid 64, a battery Sil, off-on
switch 8i and a manually adjustable selector
switch generally designated at 62. Switch 8,2 in
ing ‘i9 suñîciently to allow roller 56 to move from
cludes a settable knob 18 having an arm 16 that
connects with one of a number of contact points
its wedged to its free rolling position and vice
versa. As wil1 appear any equivalent flexible
coupling may be used between ratchet mem
bers 5l and 51 without departing from the spirit
of the invention.
Thus, when ratchet member 5| is driven by
gear 41,~gear 44 is driven through the resilient
coupling to rotate eccentric 4l. Eccentric 4l
causes oscillation oflever 36 about ñxed pivot
31 to thereby reciprocate sleeve 32 parallel to ~
axis A--Z-l.>
As sleeve 32
29 .and link
The bearing ring at 33 permits si
rotation of sleeve 32 about axis A--~A.
reciprocates, it operates through arm
28 to rock the reflector mount about
slip ring 1i . Lead 15 connects they arm 12 and one
11, there being one co-ntact point for each of the
segments 6,9- of the commutator. These individual
connections are made through multiple conductor
cable 83. In the present instance, thirteen con
tacts 11 are provided, the same having individual
indications thereon showing the operator the
necessary position of arm 16 to effectively con
trol the arresting mechanism to stop the scan
ning member at a corresponding position in the
path of its permitted oscillatory movement. Cor~
respondingly, thirteen segments 6e are provided
with angular spacings of 3°. Obviously, the num
ber of segments 69 and the angular spacing be
axis B-B, the angular spreadl of this rocking 75 tween stop positions of the scanner may be varied.
as desired without departing from the. spirit of
The scanning reflector mayy be
the invention.
positioned at any one of thirteen positions about
its nod axis over a range of 36°. In operation, the»r
operator, for example, sets the knoby 18 to the con
tact on which it is positioned in Fig. 4, namely,
-6°. When brush 68 moves to position the seg
ment 69 to which this corresponding contact 'I'I
, is connected, the circuit is closed, solenoid 64 be
ing `energized to release the paWls GI-BZ at the
proper moment to engage the ratchets 5 I-5‘I and
correctly position thescanning member with a nod
of _6° about its nod axis.
- In the modification of the invention shown in
Fig. 6 the reflector unit I8’ nods about an axis
provided by npivot connection 84 through means
of link 85, arm 86 and the reciprocating sleeve
ning member. accomplishes this purpose by the
continuous movement of turntable 98 and the
yoke 91 fixed thereto on which the »member is
. Means for moving the scanning member about
its nod axis B is provided in this instance by a
~ mechanism which includes link I I0, bell crank I I I
mounted between the extending arms of the yoke
on shaft II2 and the link |I3'. One end of the
link |I3 is universallyv connected to one ofthe
arms of the bell crank II I, the other endv of the
same being pivotally connected to nod gear I|4
mounted on a stub shaft extending from the bot
tom of turntable 98. The. connection of the link
I-|3 and gear II4'is eccentric to the axis of'the
gear II4` so that, as_ìthe gear rotates, oscillating
movement isimparted to the bell crankv by the
link which moves the‘scanning member about
the nod axis. Gear I|4 is driven by gear |I5,
of the bail 36, one arm of which is connected to 20 coaxial with spin axis A-A, and mounted on a
sleeve IIE on the upper portion of which are the
the sleeve by link 35 and the other arm of which
concentric drive gears II'I and |I8. Gear IIB,
a-s noted at 89 performs the function of ther com
which has the same diameter as the drive gear
mutator arrangement described in connection
|03 of the mechanism by which the member is
with Fig. 4. The conducting arm 89 of the bail
rotated, forms a part of the arresting mechanism
slides over thirteen contacts 90 mounted on the
for. controlling the movement ofthe member about
frame or casing of the apparatus, contacts 90 cor
its nod axis. Gear II1 is of smaller diameter
responding to the segments 69 of the commutator.
than the gears I I8 and |03 and is normally effec
The same operates in connection with the selector
tive to drive the gear II5 at a higher R. P. M.
switch 82 and detail circuit previously described
to perform the function of stopping thev scanning 30 than the R. P. M. of the turntable 90. Such rela
tive movement drives the nod gear I I4 and moves
member at a desired position within the range of
the scanning member .about the nod axis in the
its movement about the nod axis provided by pivot
manner previously described.
connection 84. The scanning member is' continu
20. The sleeve may be moved by the eccentric cam
mechanism previously described through means
Instead of the clutch provided in the form of
ously rotated about its axis A--A by the drive
means previously described, including drive gear 35 the invention shown in Fig. 1, we employ a dis-r
, engageable co-nnection for rendering the nod
22' which in this construction meshes with gear
9| on the rotating sleeve 92 on which the mount
means ineffective and the arresting means effec- ,
the scanner member by means of a sector and gear
movable therein, the parts being normally posi
tive. In the construction shown, gear |20 which
ing frame 93 is fixedly mounted. Rotating frame
meshes rwith gear |I8 is loosely mounted on the
93 has a laterally extending bifurcated portion
which contains the spaced bearings which form 40 drive shaft |05 and is supported by means of a
collar. Gear I2| which meshes with gear ||`I is
a part of the pivotal connection 84 of the scanner
similarly mounted on the shaft |05. The ad
mounting. Link 85 is directly connected to the'Y
jacent faces of the axially spaced gears |20 and
rear of the member I8' and moves in response to
I2| have radial grooves therein which receive
the nod driving mechanism to oscillate the memf '
a tongue |22 that extends through two axial slots
ber about the nod axis while the member con
in the shaft |05 and is ñxed to an elongated pin
tinues to spin about the axis A-A.
|123 located in a central axial opening in the shaft.
In the modification of the invention shown in
Pin |23'rotates with the shaft |05 Vand is axially
Fig. 7, the motion of link 85 is communicated to
connection, the respective parts of which are des ,50 tìoned as shown in Fig. 11 by means of spring |24
so that the tongue |22 engages the groove in the
ignated at 94 and 95.V
gear I2| lockingthe gear to the shaft |05 and y
In the form of the invention illustrated in Figs.
consequently driving gear II'I` to eñect nodding
8 to l1, inclusive, the scanning member 96 is
movement of the scanning member. It rwill be
mounted for movement about a nod axis B by
means of a yoke 91, the spread extending arms 55 understood that with gear I2I rendered effective
of which pivotally support the member. Yoke 91 ‘
is ñxedly mounted on the bottom of a turntable
98 whose axis is defined byL bearings 99 that pro
vide the spin axis A-A of the scanning member
96. Bearings 99 are mo-untedin the hub |00’ of
a fixed frame |00 o-n the top of which is mounted
a casing IOI lthat contains the parts of the -im
proved mechanism situated above the frame.
Turntable 98 is fixed to 'a sleeve |02 which also>
includes a gear |03. Continuous rotary movement
for the turntable is communicated to the sleeve
|02 by way of gear |03 which isv driven by a gear
|04 that is keyed to a drive shaft |05. The shaft
|05 may be driven .by suitable motive means such
by the disengageable connection, gear |20 and -
Vthe arresting> mechanism controlled thereby are
To bring the arresting mechanism into opera
tion, pin |23 is urged in a direction to compress
the spring |24. vThis movement is accomplished
when a'solenoid |25 is energized by closure of
switch |26. Plunger |21 at one end of the pin is
raised upwardly, thus elevating the pin and mov
65 ing> the tongue |22 out of engagement with gear
|2| and into engagement with gear |20. By this
action gear I I8 is driven directly by the shaft |05.
Gears I|8 and |03 which are the same diameter
are then driven by the shaft |05 so that the
as a motor (not shown) whose continuous motion 70 turntable 98 and gear I I5 rotate at equal speeds.
is communicated to the same by way of the Worm|06` and worm wheel |01.> Shaft I05`is suitably
mounted in the frame and casing by means of
bearings |08 and |09. It will be understood that
the Vdescribed mechanism for spinning the scan 75
No motion in this event is communicated from
gear II5 to nod gear |I4 and movement of the
scanning member about its nod axis stops. When
switch |26 is opened, the parts return to their
normal position of operation.
1 In orderrthatthezoperator. of the apparatusabea
informed ci the. ang-ularpositionof theiscanning"
member at .agiven instant, a bridge circuitais em.
the member.: continues.; to: move «z about'. its L. spin;
ployed in Which resistors 12S-i3!) and l3'l-Í-I32‘.
said‘ scanning memberis thejl‘eñector of a radiator.
are situated in the=respectívefbranches thereof.
6. ,An apparatus `as r.claimed in claim „5, in which-f
tiometer. I331mounted on.the :yoke .91 of Ytheape -
onreceiverfor h_iglrfrequency electrical energy..
7. .In a scanning apparatus, _a movable scanning ,
member, drivezmeans both for spinning said mem-
paratus. The moving arm 134! of .thespotenti'om
eter is controlled from shaitîl I2 of theubell crank.:l
about a1secondcaxisldisposedfat an angle .tothe .
Hl by way of gearsl I35'andil35.. An ammeter I31I
is ¿connected across. the branches. of the ; bridge?
means _ for. selectively, arresting 1 the'` member at
Resistors l30` and |32 aressitu'atediina poten?
circuit,..the pointer of> which'. swingsithrough- an.
arc'following themovementof Lthe scannin‘gmemi
ber aboutia ñrst axis and for. nodding said member
ñrst axis, and stop-means;y for the nod driving
ber about .its nod'axis.'A Thescaleî of ¿the'ame
one of a.: plurality Aof'` p‘ositionslin .thezrangeof its
movement about the second axis;t
8. InßaY scanning apparatus, .aamovable scan
meter is calibrated in degrees to indicate-:the
ning, member, drive meansifor. spinningisaid mem
instantaneous. position; of . thelmember.' By closeÍ
ber.- about,- a vertical. axisçdrivecmeansdfor node -
ing the switch at .a .desiredtima .theä operator is
thus able to arrest theïscanningfmembergat any
ding saidzmember. about a.:horizontal axis,.stop,`
means . forl said. >nod driving. means :for arresting .
particular nodv angle desired..
the member.v at oneof a pluralityof positions ,inSince many changes Acould be'made intheLabove: 20 the. range, of nod.> movement thereof,.e1ectro.-»
construction . and many .'apparentlywidely differ-'
magnetic. means. for. controlling said stopzmeans',.
ent-l embodiments of thisinvention could bemade
and selective switch means forfactuating saidelec
without departing from thescopexthereof, it is;intromagnetic controlling means..
tended that all matter contained inA the above
9. 1n .a scanning apparatus, a scanning .member
description or shown inithea'ccompanying .drawe
mounted for-move1nent;about two perpendicularly
ings shall be interpreted asïillustrativefan'd. not¿
disposedaxes, mechanism for spinning saidwmem.
inv a limiting sense. .
ber'about onezof the axesgxmechanisnrforrnod
Having described our invention, what’ We. claim.
ding the me-mber about'the. other 'axis ¿including
and desire to secureïby LettersëPatent‘is:
normallyinactive means for holding themember
1. A scanning apparatus; comprising. a...scanf
in one of a plurality of nod positions,4 a unidirec
ning member, drivingmeansgmeans actuatedbyl
said driving means for spinning saidscanning
member abo-ut a ñrs.taxis, means vactuated by said
driving means for oscillating 'sa-id scanning mem
ber through a predetermined angle about a second
tional drive meanscommon to said mechanisms,
clutch means connecting-said..I drive', meansY and
said nod mechanism, andy selective.»means for
rendering` said holding ¿meansactive to îdisengage
said clutch meansv as saidzscanning member-„ar
rives at arpredetermined 'angle of: nod.
axis, arresting means -for stopping said oscillat
ing means without interruption ofthe rotation of
10. An apparatus as claimedin claimz9', in whichr
Said selective meansisxprovi‘ded by `a; circuit hav
said scanning member about said first axis, and
ing >a solenoidand va 'controlling switchA therein.
selective means for presetting said arrestingl
11. YIn ascanning apparatus,> a, scanning. mem
means to stop the oscillation of said scanning> 40
ber mounted " for oscillationy abouti anA axis, .nor
member at a chosen angle ofnod.
mally operative,- mechanism for constantly oscil
2.A An apparatus as claimed in claim l, in which
lating .said member> including normally; inactive
said scanning memberis the reflector of an an
means for ho-lding` thermember inA onexof ía.. plu
tenna that receives or transmits high frequency
rality of, positions, drive means forA saidconstantly
electrical energy.
oscillating mechanism,- clutch. means .connecting
'_ 3. In a scanning apparatus, a rotatable scan
said drive means `and said .oscillating mechanism,
ning member, drive 'means‘for rotating said mem
and means for ysimultaneously disengaging . said
ber about a ñrst axis, means mounting said,mem.clutchmeans and selectively'crendering.said lio-ldsY
ber for oscillation about a second axis disposed at
an angle to said ñrst axis, , normally> effective 50 ing means-active;
means actuated by ’said drivemeans .for oscillat
ing said member about said second axis, _and stop
means, rendering said oscilla-tion actuatingmeans
ineffective, for selectively arresting< said'member
at a desired position in thepath of its movement
about the second axis.
4; In a scanning apparatus, a scanningmeme
ber mounted for movement about a spin.axis,
means for spinning said member, amounting lfor.y
12. An apparatus as claimedin c1aim.l1,.in
whichsaid holding means includes a'pair of 'co
axial, springcoupled ratchets and afpair: of co--
operating; normally inactive; pawls.13.'An»antenna- for’short wave. electrical en
ergy including, a reflector havingrvertical and
horizontal supporting, axes, ,_ means ' for. spinning
the'reñector aboutfitssvertical axis, means for
nodding,` thefreflector: about its horizontal> axis,
drive means'forsaidspinning and nodding means,
said member providing a second axis about which. 60
clutch ‘means> connecting 4said drive and lnodding
the member nods, means for noddingsaidlmem
means, normally ineffective holding, means for re
ber, normally inactivestopmeansfor said. node
taining said reilector. in oneof a plurality of nod
ding means for arresting said member` inoneof.
and means for simultaneouslygdisen
a plurality of positions in the range Oíitsmove
gagingsaid clutchmeans and selectively render
ment about the second axis, and selectiveA means 65 ingsaid `holding. means effective.
for rendering said stopmeans active,- saidgmeans,
14. An vantenna as claimed in claim 13, in which
for spinning said member and said means. for
said last-.named means: is a circuit having a
nodding said member being drivenv from a com
solenoid and a position'selectingswitch therein;
mon drive shaft.
15. Ina scanning apparatus, a movablescan
5. A scanning apparatus‘comprising; a scanning> 70 ning member, >drive means for‘spinning :said mem
member mounted for" movement about _‘ a spinV
ber about a first axis, normally active drive means
axis and a nod axis, drive means both‘forspirr-Y
actuated from said spinning drive means for n_od
ning and nodding said member‘,`and astop means
ding.- said' member` about. a second . axisv disposedV
for selectively arrestingl the ~ nod'u movement of“
atan angle tov the first axis,.normally; inactive.
the member at one ofa‘plurality'of‘positions*While' 75 means for arresting the member at a preselected
`position Within the range of its movement about
the second axis, and means for simultaneously
rendering said nod drive means inactive and said
arresting means active.
16. In a scanning apparatus, a scanning mem
means cooperative with said spinning means for
nodding said member about a second axis, m'eans
for disengaging said nodding means from said
spinning means, and means for accurately stop
ping said scanning member at a desired position
about the second axis thereof.
18. In ascanning apparatus including a scan
ber mounted for movement about a spin axis,
means for spinning said member, a mounting for
ning member, driving means for spinning said
said member providing a second axis about which`
scanning member about a first axis, and oscillat
the member nods, means actuated from said
spinning means for nodding said member, nor 10 ing means actuated by said driving means for
nodding said scanning member about a second
mally inactive means for arresting said member
axis, the combination comprising means for ar
to position the same as desired Within the range
of its movement about the nod axis, and means . resting the nod of said scanning member about
said second axis Without stopping its spin about
for simultaneously rendering the nodding means
15 said first axis and selective means for presetting
inactive and said arresting means active.
said arresting means to stop the oscillation of said
17. In a scanning apparatus, a scanning mem
scanning member at a chosen angle of nod.
ber having freedom of rotation about two angu
larly displaced axes, driving means for spinning
said member about a first axis, normally active
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