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sept l0, 1946-
w. w. Mur-:HER Erm.
2,407,318
HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS
Filed June 1S, 1942
.i ,
H
`
37
6
l INVENTORS,
i
WALTER w. msm-:Rand
JOHN D_MALLE'H'i
Their
ATTORNEY.
2,407,318
Patented Sept. l0, 1946
UNITED ySTATES PATENT OFFICE
`
„07,318
HIGH-FREQUENCY APPARATUS
Walter W. Michel', Mineola, and John D. Mallett.
Garden City, N. Y., assignors to Sperry Gyro
scope Company, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., a corpo
ration of New York
Application June 18, 1942, Serial No. 447,524
21 Claims. (Cl. 17E-44)
l
` The present invention relates to the art in
cluding ultra high frequency energy translating
' apparatus.
In high frequency systems using frequencies
2
cular wave guide excited by electromagnetic waves
of the TM type. Such transformers are bilateral
in character; that is, energy may be conducted
either from a circular to the rectangular guide,
or vice versa.
oi' the order or 10’l or 101° or higher cycles per
Furthermore, highly eillcient low impedance
second it is advantageous to use electromagnetic
rotating Joints are provided for conducting high
wave guides for the conduction of high frequency
frequency energy from one member to a second
energy. As is well known, such wave guides may
member rotatable with respect thereto, without
have many types of cross-section. However, the
undesirable modulation oi' the energy passing
rectangular type of wave guide has been i’ound to
thereacross.
be highly advantageous because in its lowest mode
In this manner. the desirable characteristics
of excitation, corresponding to the transverse elec
of 'rE-excited rectangular guides may be used,
tric or TE mode, high frequency energy is con
where energy is to be conducted around corners,
ducted along the wave guide with nxed and den
nite orientation of the electric ileld vector, which 16 the wave converters of the present invention pro
viding simple and eflicient means for transform
is termed the polarization. Accordingly. the po
ing such energy to TM mode energy in a cir
larization is exactly determined and may be eas
cular guide for use with the rotating joints of the
`ily controlled, which is not the usual case with
invention, whereby increased utility and versa
either higher modes of excitation in rectangular
tility of such wave guide devices may be ob~
wave guides or with other shapes oi' wave guides.
tained.
In addition, the rectangular wave guide is easily
Accordingly, it is an object of the present in
adapted for the conduction of high frequency en
vention to provide improved rotating joints for
ergy around corners, since sharp angular bends
wave guides adapted for the emcient transmis
may be formed in rectangular wave guides using
proper designs which create little reflection o! 28 sion of high frequency radiant energy with low
losses and substantially no modulation due to
energy or mismatching in lmpedances, and which
relative rotation of the two members of the Joint.
do not distort the type of field produced within
It is a further object of the present invention
the wave guide.
to provide improved high frequency translating
However, in many applications of such wave
guides it is necessary to conduct energy from a 30 devices for conducting high frequency radiant
stationary member to a rotating member or vice
versa, thus requiring the use of suitable rotat
ing wave guide joints. For mechanical reasons
these `ioints must be made with the use of cir
‘energy from a round wave guide to a rectangular
wave guide, or vice versa, with higher eiliciency,
simplicity and compactness.
It is a further object o! the present invention
cular cross-section wave guides. Furthermore, if 35 to provide improved wave guide apparatus for
coupling circular-ly polarized waves with linearly
such joints are combined with bends in the cir
polarized waves.
cular wave guide, undesirable modulations of the
Other objects and advantages will become ap
intensity of the energy at the frequency of ro
parent from the speciñcation, taken in connec
tation or harmonics thereof may be produced, as
well as undesirable rotations of the directions of 40 tion with the accompanying drawing wherein the
invention is embodied in concrete form.
polarization with respect to the wave guide, ren
Referring to the drawing,
dering more diiiicult the problem of efdciently
Fig. 1 shows one form of rectangular-to-round
conducting energy down through the wave guide
energy transformer, ln cooperation with one form
and of controllably utilizing this energy. This
is especially true where energy in the transverse 45 of rotating joint.
Figs. 2 to 5 show modifications of the device of
electric or 'I'E mode is transmitted through the
Fig. l including modified transformation devices
circular wave guide. Such modulation may be
and modiñed rotating joints.
minimized by use of TM or transverse magnetic
Fig. 6 shows a cross-sectional view of a portion
waves;
The present invention is directed toward im 50 of Fis. 5.
As described above, the desirability of round
proved devices for overcoming these problems.
wave guides energized by the TM type of wave
This is done in the present instance by the use
for use in rotating joints, and of rectangular wave
of suitable "wave transformers" or "wave con
guides energized by TE waves for use in corners
verters” which couple a rectangular wave guide
excited by TE electromagnetic waves with a cir- 55 and bends, necessitates the use of transformation
3
2,407,318
devices for converting from round to rectangular
wave guides and simultaneously from TM to TE
the snorting plug 8 is made adjustable as by
threading
it into the outer conductor of stub line
waves. and vice versa.
l. Any other type of adjustment may be pro
One type of such converter is shown in Fig.
vided. In addition, the antenna 6', equivalent in
l. Here the energy flowing along rectangular
function to antenna B, is made adjustable as by
wave guide I excites an antenna member B po
threading or sliding within a. bore I6 formed in
sitioned transversely of wave guide I; that is.
plug 8, to obtain maximum energy coupling be
along the direction ot the electric vector of the
tween rectangular wave guide I and circular wave
field within wave guide I. Electromagnetic waves
guide 2.
are thereby induced in antenna B. 'I'hese waves 10
It has been found that more efficient transfor
may be strengthened in intensity by suitably tun
mation ci' energy may be obtained by forming
ing the antenna 8, as by coupling thereto a stub
antennna 6’ oi' larger diameter, since then a
short-circuited transmission line ‘I whose short
greater surface area is presented for the transmis
circuiting plug 8 is positioned at a point to pro
sion of the currents along antenna 6', resulting
vide maximum amplitude o! induced voltage in 15 in
lower losses. Also, the frequency character
antenna l. Antenna 8 may also be electrically
istics of the system are thereby improved, mak
spaced from the end l of wave guide I by sub
ing the system eiiiciently responsive to a wider
stantially an odd multiple òf a quarter wave
range of frequencies. However, it is also desir
length of the operating frequency, measured in
able to maintain opening Il as small as possible.
side the wave guide, to improve the eihciency 20 to prevent excitation of round wave guide 2 by TE
oi' transformation. However, this is not entirely
waves, caused by the difference in potential which
necessary if the antenna i is properly designed.
necessarily exists across opening 9 by virtue of
Antenna 6 extends through a, suitable open
the fact that the potential in the rectangular
ing 8 in the wall of guide I and enters the circu
guide I must decrease to zero at the closed short
lar wave guide 2. being disposed axially and con 25 circuited end 5 of the section.
centrically thereof. The presence of the induced
Accordingly, antenna B' is formed with two en
electromagnetic waves on antenna B thereby gen
larged sections I1 and I8 joined by a smaller sec
erates corresponding waves in wave guide 2. By
tion I9 which passes through opening 9, section
virtue of the axial position of antenna 6, the
I8 again being approximately a half wave length
waves induced in circular wave guide 2 will be of 30 long electrically.
the required TM type, which will then be suitably
This modiñcation of energy converter is much
projected down the length of the wave guide 2.
more flexible in operation since both the tuning
The length of antenna 3 projecting into wave
of the antenna 6', as by means of plug 8. and the
guide 2 is preferably electrically equivalent to
coupling between the two wave guides 2 and l,
substantially a half wave length of the operating 35 as by adjustment within bore I6, may be inde
frequency.
It is to be understood th'at this device will also
operate in the inverse manner to convert a TM
wave in guide 2 to a TE wave in guide I.
Fig. 1 also shows a suitable rotating joint 3
for coupling a stationary circular wave guide 2 to
a rotating circular wave guide l. It will be clear
that wave guide l may be made stationary, and
wave guide 2 rotating, this being merely an in
version of the functions of two elements without 45
changing their inter-relationship.
Wave guide 4 is made of the same size and wall
thickness as wave guide 2 and is placed as closely
as possible to the end of wave guide 2 but not
in contact therewith. A flange Il is formed at
the end of wave guide l to which is connected
a concentric sleeve I2 ci suitable length termi
hating at a further flange I3 connected to sleeve
I2 but insulated from wave guide 2 by a. very
narrow gap Il.
The length of sleeve I2 and its inner diameter
are so chosen, with respect to the operating fre
quency and the outer diameter of wave guide 2,
as to present a very low impedance when Viewed
pendently adjusted.
Fig. 2 also shows another type of rotating joint.
Here fiange II’ is shown formed on stationary
wave guide 2, although it is clear that it could
be formed on rotating wave guide «I in the same
manner shown in Fig. 1. Sleeve I2' is formed
similar to sleeve I2 of Fig. 1, but flange I3', in
stead of simply having its free end closely spaced
from Wave guide 2, as in Fig. l, now has its
free end turned under to form a further sleeve
2I coaxial with wave guide 4 but not in contact
therewith.
Wave guide 4 and sleeve 2| form a low im
pedance concentric transmission line section
which serves to reflect or transform the value of
the impedance existing at one end 22 thereof to
a different value as seen at the other end, herein
designated as 2li. The value of the impedance
at end 22, in general, corresponds to the radia
tion Limpedance which, in turn, may be influenced
by diverse factors, the effect of which is not
readily ascertainable. It is desired, however,
that the impedance at joint 3 be of a. very low
value and substantially independent of any non
from the joint 3. whereby joint 3 offers very little
ascertainable, unknown. or variable impedance
attenuation tc the waves being transmitted along 60 values such as may, from time to time, exist at
wave guides 2 and l, and a minimum amount of
end 22. This desideratum is accomplished by
energy is radiated from gap Il. Effectively
the means herein provided as will presently ap
flange I3 forms a short circuit for the concentric
transmission line formed by wave guide 2 and
sleeve I2. Hence preferably sleeve I2 should be
electrically one-halt wavelength long, whereby its
impedance in parallel with the impedance of gap
I l will appear as a low impedance at joint 3.
pear.
The impedance value existing at end 22, when
transformed by means of the transmission line
section I, 2i, is effectively in series with the im
pedance value presented at the open end of the
short-circuited concentric transmission line sec
It will be clear that flange II, sleeve I2 and 70 tion formed by sleeve 2I and sleeve I2’. If, as
flange I3 may be formed on wave guide 2 instead
herein, the length of section 2|, I2' is selected to
of wave guide 4 as shown, if desired.
be of electrical length substantially equal to one
Fig. 2 shows an improved form of rectangular
quarter wave length, the impedance seen at its
to-round or round-to-rectangular wave guide
opening 20 is of a very high, theoretically infinite,
converting device. In this case, the position of 75 value. 'I‘hus it will be seen that the total im
9,407,318
5
pedance at end 20, comprising the series connec
tion of this theoretically inhalte impedance and
the unknown transformed impedance, will be very
high. The further section of transmission line
comprising wave guide I and sleeve l2’ is also
pedance. This process is repeated as many times
as is desired or is necessary, until at Joint 3 there
is obtained a very low impedance which assures
efñcient transmission and small energy loss of
the TM energy across rotating Joint 3. This
device also provides a broad frequency response
adjusted or selected so that the impedance exist
for the joint. which is quite desirable, the fre
ing at end 20 will be reflected at joint 3 as a very
quency response becoming more improved with
low impedance, that is, effectively this transmis
increase in the number of stages used.
sion line section is also a quarter wave section.
Fig. 4 shows a rotating joint similar in prin
It will be clear, however, because of the shape of l0
ciple to that of Fig. 3. Here a plurality of sleeves
this transmission line section that the physical
28, 28’. 2B" are attached to one of the relatively
length will be less than one-quarter wavelength.
movable wave guides, such as 2, by respective
In this way the transformed or reflected im
rings 29, 29', 29". A sleeve $0 is connected to
pedance at joint 3 will have a very low value
upon which the unknown impedance of end 22 15 the other wave guide l and cooperates with
sleeves 28, 2B’ and 28", and wave guide 2 in a
will have substantially no effect. It is thus as
manner similar to that of Fig. 3. Thus, the un
sured that the rotating joint lwill present a
known impedance at end 3| is transformed by line
very low impedance to the transmission of high
30, 28 to end 32 where it is connected in series
frequency energy therethrough, which impedance
with the high impedance of short-circulted quar
will be substantially independent of any un
ter wave line 28, 2. The resulting high series
known factors existing outside the wave guide.
impedance is transformed to a low impedance at
Hence, efficient transmission of high frequency
end 3|' by quarter-wave line 36, 2, where it is
energy across the joint is produced.
again transformed to a high impedance at end
Fig. 3 shows a further modification of energy
converter and rotating joint. Here antenna B" 25 32' by quarter-wave line 30, 28'. At 32’ this
high transformed impedance is connected in
is made doubly adjustable as in Fig. 2, but instead
series with the high impedance of short-circuited
of having enlarged rounded portions, it has been
quarter-wave line 28', 2, and the resultant is
found satisfactory to use cylindrical portions
again transformed by quarter-wave line 30, 2 to
i1" and IB” having beveled or chamfered ends
such as 24, 25, and 26, 21. This yields the fur 30 a low impedance at end 3|". This process may
be repeated as many times as desired, deriving a
ther advantage of ease of construction while re
still lower impedance at each stage, until a suit
taining all the electromagnetic advantages of
able low impedance is obtained for joint 3. It
the device of Fig. 2.
will be clear that the present device need not be
With the construction of Fig. 3 it has been
restricted to three stages, as shown, but may use
found that the length of section i8" of antenna
8” may be made substantially non-critical by
any desirable number.
proper choice of the diameter of section I8"
relative to the inner diameter of guide 2, and
by proper choice of the chamfer angle. Thus,
It is to be noted that the use of more stages,
of antenna diameter to inner diameter of wave
device for suppressing TE waves in the round
guide 2. For this purpose, use is made of the
property that TE waves may be propagated in
both in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, and also in Fig. 5 to
be described, improves the frequency character
as is well-known, a wave guide may be con 40 istics of the joint, and permits its emcient use
with more widely varying frequencies as the num
sidered to have a characteristic impedance, which
ber of stages is increased.
is defined as the ratio of the electric to magnetic
Fig. 4 also shows another form of wave trans
energies in the wave guide. By matching the
former for converting TE waves in a rectangular
characteristic impedance of the concentric line
formed by section IB" and wave guide 2 to the 45 wave guide into TM waves in a round guide. In
the present instance no antenna member is used,
characteristic impedance of wave guide 2 (or
and the production of only TM waves for the
4), and by making the bevel angle of beveled
round guide is assured by the use of a filter-type
section 24 in the neighborhood of 50° for a ratio
guide 2 in the neighborhood of 0.42, it has been
found that eñicient excitation of wave guide 2
from antenna 6" may be effected, without re
gard to the length of section IB".
Fig. 3 also shows a further rotating joint which,
in eiïect, exemplifies an extension of the prin
ciples of the device of Fig. 2. Thus, the type of
impedance matching disclosed in Fig. 2. which
4assures a low impedance at joint 3, is repeated
smaller round guides than those in which TM
waves may be propagated; that‘is. the 'I'E mode
is the lowest mode for round wave guides.
Thus, referring to Fig. 4, the rectangular wave
guide i is terminated by an adjustable plunger
5' which assures a high wave intensity at the
center of the round wave guide 2. Opposite the
round wave guide 2 is placed the stub line 1'
in number, although it will be clear that any 60 for providing high intensity for the axial TM
wave transmission along wave guide 2. Slid
desirable number of such stages could be used.
ably mounted within stud sleeve 'l' is a thick
In the ñrst stage. the impedance existing at end
sleeve 3l whose inner diameter is chosen to have
22" due, for example, to radiation of energy and
a value at which 'I'M waves cannot occur; that
the effect of surrounding objects, is transformed
is. the diameter is so chosen that TM waves can
by low impedance concentric line 2|", l to end
not excite this section of wave guide. Hence
2li", where it is placed in series with the very
in several stages, shown in this case as three
high impedance of short-circuited quarter-wave
concentric line section 2|", I 2’. The resulting
high impedance is transformed by quarter-wave
all TM wave energy will be reflected from the
face 3B of sleeve 3l, which is thereupon adjusted
to the position for which high intensity TM
line I2', 4 to end 22', where it appears as a very 70 energy will be propagated along guide 2.
However, the TE energy still may exist within
low impedance. This low'r impedance is trans
sleeve 3|, and is therefore conducted down sleeve
formed by quarter-wave line 2|', 4 to appear as
24 until reflected by adjustable plug 35, slid
a high impedance at end 2li" in series with the
very high impedance of short-circuited quarter
wave line 2|', i2', to form a still higher im
ably mounted therein. Plug 35 is positioned to
a position at which the reflected energy substan
7
2,407,31s
tially neutralizes any TE energy at the propa
gating end of wave guide 2, and hence elîectively
in conjunction with rotating joints such as of the
type shown in Figs. 1 to 5.
suppresses any transmission of TE energy while
not affecting the transmission of TM energy, as
is desired.
It will be clear that this same wave trans
former may be used in reverse to convert a cir
cularly polarized wave into a TE wave in a rec
Fig. 5 shows a further modification of rotating
joint. Here in place of the sleeves 28, 28', 28"
and rings 29, 23', 23" there are used the solid
rings 33, 33’, 33" which cooperate with sleeve 23,
similar to that in Fig. 4. These rings 33, 33', 33"
are substantially one-quarter wave long, and are
severally spaced substantially one-quarter wave
length apart. The structure shown in Fig. 5 will
tangular wave guide. Preferably this is done in
the device of Fig, 5 after the energy is trans
ferred across the rotating joint in order that this
energy may be conveniently and usefully con
ducted to further portions of the circuit without
rotational modulation, as discussed above.
It will be noted that with such circularly p0
larized waves the diameter of a circular wave
be seen to be similar to the ñlter structure dis
guide such as 4 may be chosen smaller than the
closed in copending Hansen application Serial 15 corresponding value in the preceding figures since
No. 417,229, ñled October 31, 1941, to which ref
erence is made for an explanation of the theory
of operation. In eiïect, the external impedance
at end 3| is connected in cascade with a high
impedance comprising a filter arrangement 33,
33', 33" and 23, and the resulting high impedance
is effectively transformed into a very low series
impedance at joint 3.
Figs. 5 and 6 also show another type of wave
transformer. Thus rectangular wave guide I
joins the circular wave guide 4 at right angles.
At the junction of these wave guides, and posi
tioned obliquely with respect to each of them, is
a grid 31 of parallel conductive wires 3B.
The
orientation of the wires 38 of the grid 31 is pref
erably at a 45° angle to the direction of the elec
tric vector of the energy in wave guide i, which
normally for the lowest mode of ‘I'E energiza
tion will be across the shortest dimension thereof
as shown by vector 4|. A reñecting conducting
plate 39. is positioned parallel to and behind grid
31 separated therefrom by substantially one
eighth of the wave length of the electromagnetic
energy.
In operation, considering for the moment en
ergy being transformed from wave guide I to
wave guide 4 (although it itis be understood that
the device ls fully bilateral) energy flowing along
wave
by 4|
42 of
wires
the Wave. although circularly polarized, remains
essentially of the TE type, which is adapted to
excite a smaller diameter circular wave guide
than the TM mode wave used in the circular
20 wave guides of the preceding figures,
Although the circular wave guide joints of
Figs. 1 to 5 have been described with respect to
relatively rotatable wave guide sections, it will be
clear that they can be used equally well for rela
25 tively ?ixed wave guide portions which are not in
mutual contact.
Also, the rotating joints described above need
not be restricted to circular wave guides, but
may be used wherever high frequency energy is
30 to be conducted between relatively rotatable con
ductors, such as in concentric lines or single tu
bular lines.
In addition, the wave transformers described
above may be used to transfer energy between
35 rectangular wave guides and concentric lines, the
antenna member 6 then being an extension of the
concentric inner conductor of the line.
As many changes could be made in the above
construction and many apparently widely differ
40 ent embodiments of this invention could be
made without departing from the scope thereof, it
is intended that all matter contained in the above
description or shown in the accompanying draw
ings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not
guide l having an electric vector as shown
will impinge upon grid 31. The component 45 in a limiting sense.
the electric vector 4| parallel to the grid
What is claimed is:
33 will be reflected thereby, and projected
1. An energy coupling device between a rectan
axially into circular wave guide 4, the grid wires
gular wave guide and a circular wave guide, com
38 simply acting effectively as a plane mirror with
prising an antenna member positioned trans
respect to this component. With respect to the 50 versely of said rectangular guide and extending
component 63 of the electric vector 4| perpen
dicular to grid wires 38, substantially no reñec
tion will take place, and the energy will pass
coaxially of said circular wave guide, said an
tenna member having an enlarged portion with
in said rectangular wave guide and a further en
through the grid 31. Thereafter this energy will
larged portion within said circular wave guide,
be reiiected from reñecting plate 39 and, again 55 said enlarged portions being separated by a nar
passing through grid 31 with substantially no
row connecting portion.
hindrance. will be projected also into circular
2. An energy coupling device between a rec
wave gui de 4.
tangular wave guide and a circular wave guide,
It will be noted that the second component of
comprising a cylindrical rod antenna member
the energy projected into wave guide 4 corre 60 positioned transversely of said rectangular guide
sponding to vector 43 is delayed a. quarter wave
and extending coaxially of said circular Wave
guide and having an enlarged cylindrical portion
length or 90 electrical degrees with respect to the
within each of said wave guides, said enlarged
first component reflected from grid 31. In addi
portions being connected to said rod by beveled
tion, this second component has a polarization
portions having an angle of substantially 50°, the
(or electric vector) perpendicular to that of the
ratio of the outer diameter of said enlarged cy
iirst component. Accordingly. as is well known,
lindrical portion within circular wave guide to
the net result in wave guide 4 will be a circularly
the inner diameter of said circular wave guide
polarized wave, that is, one in which the plane of
being of the order of 0.4.
polarization or the electric vector will be contin
70
3. An energy coupling device between two hol
uously rotating at the operating frequency as the
low high frequency energy conductors having
energy is projected along the wave guide 4.
dissimilar modes of propagation of high fre
Since this circularly polarized energy is sub
quency energy therethrough, comprising an an
stantially independent of any rotation of wave
tenna member positioned transversely of one of
guide 4 about its axis, it may be usefully employed 75 said conductors and extending coaxially into the
2,467,318
other of said conductors, said antennarmember
having enlarged portions respectivelyV within
10
said antenna member having an enlarged por
tion within said rectangular wave guide and a
further enlarged portion within said circular
both of said conductors and separated by a nar
wave
guide, and further including means for
row connecting portion therebetween.
tuning said antenna member, said tuning means
4. An energy coupling device between two hol
comprising an outer conductor, and a movable
low conductors having dissimilar modes oi prop
snorting plug inserted within said outer con
agation. comprising an antenna member posi
ductor and having a bore slidably accommodat
tioned transversely of one of said conductors and
ing said antenna member. whereby said an
extending coaxially into the other of said con
ductors. said antenna member having an en 10 tenna member is adjustable coupled to said cir
cular wave guide.
larged portion within each of said conductors,
12. A coupling device comprising a plurality
said portions being separated by a narrow con
of wave guides having dissimilar modes of propa
necting portion therebetween.
gation, a common apertured wall connecting said
5. An energy coupling device between two
wave guides having dissimilar modes of propa 15 guides, and a metal antenna rod having spaced,
sation, comprising an antenna member posi
tioned transversely oir one of said wave guides
radially expanded portions disposed respectively
in each of said guides and on opposite sides of
said common wall.
and extending coaxially into the other of said
13. A plurality of contiguous hollow high fre
wave guides, said antenna member having an
enlarged portion within the drst of said wave 20 quency conductors having dissimilar modes of
propagation, a common apertured wall connect
guides and a further enlarged portion within the
ing said conductors, and a metal antenna rod
second of said wave guides, said enlarged por
having spaced, radially expanded portions dis
tions being separated by a narrow connecting
posed respectively in each of said conductors and
portion between both of said wave guides.
on opposite sides of said common wall.
6. An energy coupling device as in claim 5,
14. A microwave device comprising a pair of
wherein one oi' said wave guides is excited in
hollow wave guides having dissimilar modes of
the TE mode and the other of said guides in the
propagation, said guides including a common wall
TM mode.
having an opening therethrough, an antenna
’7. An energy coupling device between a rec
tangular wave guide and a circular wave guide 30 member having portions oi dissimilar diameters
disposed within said guides, each of said dissimi
comprising an antenna member positioned
lar diameter portions being disposed within a re
transversely of said rectangular guide and ex
spective one of said Wave guides..
tending coaxially of said circular wave guide,
15. A coupling device comprising a plurality
said antenna member having an enlarged portion
of wave guides having dissimilar modes of propa
Within said rectangular wave guide and a further
gation, a. common apertured wall connecting said
enlarged portion within said circular wave guide.
guides, a metal antenna rod having spaced, ra
8. An energy coupling device for transferring
dially expanded portions disposed respectively in
high frequency energy between a rectangular
each of said guides and on opposite sides of said
TE-excited wave guide and a circular TNI-ex
cited wave guide, comprising an antenna member 40 common wall, and means adjustably supporting
said antenna rod within said guides.
positioned transversely of said rectangular guide
16. A microwave device comprising a plurality
and extending coaxially of said circular wave
of contiguous hollow wave guides having dis
guide, said antenna member having an enlarged
similar modes of propagation, said guides hav~
portion within said rectangular wave guide and
a further enlarged portion of a length oi' sub 45 ing an apertured common wall, a conductor an
tenna rod having spaced, radially expanded por
stantially one-half wavelength within said circu
tions and positioned transversely of one of said
lar wave guide.
wave guides and extending through said aper
9. An energy coupling device for transferring
high frequency energy between a rectangular
tured wall into another oi' said wave guides hav
TE-excited wave guide and a circular TM-ex 50 ing dissimilar propagation characteristics, said
radially expanded sections being situated respec
cited wave guide comprising an antenna member
positioned transversely of said rectangular guide
tively in each of said wave guides and on oppo
and extending coaxially of said circular wave
site sides of said common wall, and means for
guide, said antenna member comprising a cylin
adjusting said rod within said guides, compris
drical rod having an enlarged cylindrical portion 55 ing means supporting said rod within said wave
connected thereto by conical portions having an
guides, and means for adjusting said rod Within
apex angle of substantially 50° within each of
said supporting means so as to provide substan
said wave guides.
.
tial impedance match between said guides and
10. An energy coupling device between a rec
said conductor rod.
tangular wave guide and a circular wave guide 60
l'l. Yin energy coupling device between a iirst
comprising an antenna member positioned
wave guide and a circular wave guide having ldis
transversely of said rectangular guide and ex
similar modes of propagation, comprising a metal
tending coaxially of said circular wave guide, said
antenna rod positioned transversely of said ilrst
antenna member having an enlarged portion
guide and extending into .said circular wave
within said rectangular wave guide and a further 65 guide, said rod having enlarged sections formed
enlarged portion within said circular wave guide,
thereon and integral therewith and placed in
and further including means for tuning lsaid an
each of said wave guides, said sections having
tenna member, said antenna member being sild
bevelled end portions and having a diameter
ably accommodated and adjustable within said
relative to the inner diameter oi' said circular
tuning means.
70 guide providing a substantial impedance match
1l. An energy coupling device between a rec
between said circular guide and said iirst guide.
tangular wave guide and a circular wave guide
comprising an antenna member positioned
transversely of said rectangular guide and eil:-v
18. .A coupling device as defined in claim 12
wherein said radially expanded portions com
prise enlarged rounded members connected t0
tending coaxially of said circular wave guide, 75 said antenna rod.
11
2,407,316
i9. Apparatus for transferring u1tra~high-frequency energy between two wave guides, com
prising a ñrst conductor extending completely
across one of said wave guides and into the other
of said wave guides, a hollow tubular conductor
concentrically surrounding said iìrst conductor
between said wave guides and forming a concen
tric transmission line section therewith, a second
hollow conductor concentrically surrounding the
12
wave guide, said apparatus comprising a section
of circular wave guide formed of two relatively
rotatable portions fixed respectively to said con
ductors, whereby said two conductors may be
rotated relative to one another without interfer
ing with the iiow of ultra-high-frequency energy
therebetween, means for coupling said wave guide
to one of said conductors in a manner to excite
TM waves in said circular wave guide section, and
portion of said first conductor projecting on the 1o means for coupling said circular wave guide sec
other side of said nrst wave guide and forming a
tion to the other of said conductors to transfer
concentric transmission line section therewith.
said TM energy to said other conductor, one‘of
means for adjustably short-circuiting said first
said_coupling means comprising an adjustable
conductor and said second hollow conductor, and
section of concentric transmission line having the
means for adjusting the projection oi said ñrst 15 inner conductor thereof extending across said
conductor within said other wave guide, whereby
rectangular wave guide and coaxially within said
ultra-high-frequency energy may be transferred
circular wave guide section.
between said wave guides substantially without
21. The apparatus defined in claim 20, further
reflection or the creation of standing waves by
including means for adjusting the amount of pro
suitably adjusting said short-circuiting means 20 jection of said inner conductor within said cir
and the amount of said projection.
cular wave guide.
20. Apparatus for transferring ultra-high-fre
quency energy between two ultra-high-frequency
energy conductors of which one is a. rectangular
WALTER W. MIEHER.
JOHN D. MALLETT.
Certificate of Correction
Patent No. 2,407,318.
September l0, i946.
WALTER W. MIEHER ET AL.
It is hereby certified that errors appear in the printed specification of the above
numbered patent requirinîiäorrection as follows: Column l, line 40, for “directions”
read direction; column 2, e 4, for “from a” read from the; column 6, line 62, for
“stud” read stub; column 7
42, for “it it is" read 'it 'is to; column 10, line l0, for
“adjustable” read adjustabiy;line
and that the said Letters Patent should be read with
these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the
Patent Oüce.
Signed and sealed this 1st day of July, A. D. 1947.
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant üommím'oner of Patents.
11
2,407,316
i9. Apparatus for transferring u1tra~high-frequency energy between two wave guides, com
prising a ñrst conductor extending completely
across one of said wave guides and into the other
of said wave guides, a hollow tubular conductor
concentrically surrounding said iìrst conductor
between said wave guides and forming a concen
tric transmission line section therewith, a second
hollow conductor concentrically surrounding the
12
wave guide, said apparatus comprising a section
of circular wave guide formed of two relatively
rotatable portions fixed respectively to said con
ductors, whereby said two conductors may be
rotated relative to one another without interfer
ing with the iiow of ultra-high-frequency energy
therebetween, means for coupling said wave guide
to one of said conductors in a manner to excite
TM waves in said circular wave guide section, and
portion of said first conductor projecting on the 1o means for coupling said circular wave guide sec
other side of said nrst wave guide and forming a
tion to the other of said conductors to transfer
concentric transmission line section therewith.
said TM energy to said other conductor, one‘of
means for adjustably short-circuiting said first
said_coupling means comprising an adjustable
conductor and said second hollow conductor, and
section of concentric transmission line having the
means for adjusting the projection oi said ñrst 15 inner conductor thereof extending across said
conductor within said other wave guide, whereby
rectangular wave guide and coaxially within said
ultra-high-frequency energy may be transferred
circular wave guide section.
between said wave guides substantially without
21. The apparatus defined in claim 20, further
reflection or the creation of standing waves by
including means for adjusting the amount of pro
suitably adjusting said short-circuiting means 20 jection of said inner conductor within said cir
and the amount of said projection.
cular wave guide.
20. Apparatus for transferring ultra-high-fre
quency energy between two ultra-high-frequency
energy conductors of which one is a. rectangular
WALTER W. MIEHER.
JOHN D. MALLETT.
Certificate of Correction
Patent No. 2,407,318.
September l0, i946.
WALTER W. MIEHER ET AL.
It is hereby certified that errors appear in the printed specification of the above
numbered patent requirinîiäorrection as follows: Column l, line 40, for “directions”
read direction; column 2, e 4, for “from a” read from the; column 6, line 62, for
“stud” read stub; column 7
42, for “it it is" read 'it 'is to; column 10, line l0, for
“adjustable” read adjustabiy;line
and that the said Letters Patent should be read with
these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the
Patent Oüce.
Signed and sealed this 1st day of July, A. D. 1947.
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant üommím'oner of Patents.
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