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Sept. 10, 1946.
2,407,321
w. J. MILLER
APPARATUS FOR’ PRODUCING POTTERY 'WARE
Filed Jan..>8, 1943
_
l6 Sheets-Sheet 1
'.WILLIAM
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INVENTOR.
MILLER
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BY,
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Sept. 10, 1946.
W. J. MILLER
‘ 2,407,321
APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING POTTERY WARE
Filed Jan.‘ 8,
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WILLIAM _J. MILLER
Sept. 10, 1946.
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APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING POTTERY WARE.
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Filed Jan. 8, 1943
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APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING; POTTERY WARE
Filed Jan.’ 8, ~1943
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V16 Sheets-Sheet 16
INVENTOR
552
WILLIAM J. MILLER
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407,321
STATE S
A UNITED
PATENT OFFlCE_
2,407,321
APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING POTTERY
WARE
William J. Miller, Swissvale, Pa., assignor to Miller
Pottery Engineering Company, Swissvale, Pa.,
a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application January 8, 1943, Serial No. 471,704
47 Claims.
1
(Cl. 25'—2.2)
2
'
This invention relates to apparatus for manu
facturing pottery ware. It has to do particu
larly with the manufacture of ware such as jig
J. Miller, Serial No. 413,734, ?led October 6, 1941.
That is to say, from the beginning of fabri
cating operations to the point when the ware
is removed from the dryer and therebeyond,
the materials will move in continuous fashion
whilst the various fabricating operations are
The mass production of pottery ware by auto
performed. This makes for increased produc
matic machine and processes has involved a
tion speeds and raises the capacity of the
certain amount of manual intervention, par
machinery. Furthermore, clay is supplied to the
ticularly in the treatment and preparation of‘
raw materials and in certain phases of clay, Ware 10 fabricating portion of the present mechanical
organization by a system and apparatus dis
and mold transportation, manipulation and
processing.
closed in application Serial No. 454,716, ?led
One of the objects of this invention is to place
August 13, 1942, to William J. Miller.
In the drawings:
the manufacture of pottery ware on as near a
Figs. 1, 2 and 3 taken together to match end
fully automatic basis as possible all the way from
gered dinnerware, for instance, plates, cups and
saucers, bowls and the like.
'
the raw material stage to that of dried product
ready for ?rst ?ring. By substantially elimi
nating the human element in this respect, it is
to end in their order lengthwise from left to
right constitue a diagrammatic view in plan of
the entire wareproduction system of the inven
possible to remove handicaps which have here
tion.
tofore interfered with the continuity, quality 20 Fig. 4 is a vertical section of a rotary type
and rate of production.
'
mold conditioning machine of the system, a simi
lar type of which is also employed to condition
Another and perhaps more important object of
this invention is to provide for making simul- ’
taneously several different kinds of ware, that is
to say, Ware having differences in shape, size,
decorative pattern or material and even compo
sition by means of a single, unitary mechanical
organization. This invention comprehends ma
chinery capable of performing many and differ
ent steps, and combinations of steps in the man 30
the ware during fabrication.
'
Fig. 4a is a detail showing a contact type
mold oiler for use with the machine of Fig. 4.
Fig. 5 is a plan section of the conditioning ma
chine as taken substantially on the section line
5—5 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a detail plan section taken on the sec
which afford new and improved ways and means
tion line 6-—-6 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 7 is a view partly in elevation and partly
in section of one of the rotary decorating ma
chines of the system employed to either decorate
of making pottery ware of this class.
the ware directly or through intermediation of
ufacture of pottery ware some of which are
conventional steps or operations and others of
The machinery of the present invention is so ' 35 the molds.
Fig. 8 is a plan section of the decorating ma
chine, as taken on the irregular section line 8-8
of Fig. '7.
same time and variations in the sequences and
procedural steps may be made at will and in
Fig. 8a is a detail plan section taken substan
some cases while the machinery is in operation. 40 tially on the section line 8a—8a of Fig. 7.
Fig. 9. is a detail plan section taken on the
Thus, insofar as production diversi?cation is con
section line 9—9 of Fig. '7.
cerned, it may be varied from one which is
highly diversi?ed to one wherein substantially
Fig. 10 is a detail elevation of one of the
decorating organizations of the machine of
little or no diversi?cation occurs. Thus, I pro
vide in a single unitary installation the means 45 Fig. 7.
of meeting the daily requirements of the aver
Fig. 11 is an enlarged detail view of a muti
age pottery Whether it be for large or small
lated gear and rack assembly seen in Fig. 7.
amounts of pottery of given shape or design and
Fig. 12 is an enlarged detail plan section taken
it is well known that these requirements may
substantially on the section line 12-12 of Fig.
constructed and arranged that different se
quences of operations may be performed at the
vary widely, particularly if the pottery merchan
dizes a large number of shapes and designs.
it), with certain parts in changed position.
Fig. 12a is an enlarged detail plan section taken
on the section line l2a-—l2‘a of Fig. '7, illustrat
as illustrated in the patent to Miller No. 2,046,525,
ing one of the pump units employed.
I propose to make the present system continuous,
Fig. 13 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional
somewhat as shown in the application to William 55 view Of a number of associated ware decorating
Instead of the intermittent fabricating system
2,407,321
parts seen in Fig. '7 with said parts brought closer
together than seen in said ?gure.
Figs. 14, 15, 15a, 15b and 150 are views illus
for machines in association with an appendaging
machine.
Fig. 35 is a front elevation of one of the ware
transferring units of the said transfer machine.
trating modi?ed forms of the parts seen in Fig.
Fig. 35a is an enlarged detail of the gear and
13 for producing various decorative patterns or 5
rack assembly seen in Fig. 35.
formations on the ware directly or indirectly
Fig. 35b is a detail plan section taken on the
through the molds.
»
section line 35b-—-35b of Fig. 35 with parts in
Fig. 16 is a fragmentary sectional view of a
changed position.
piece of ware decorated by the parts seen in Fig.
Fig. 350 is an enlarged detail section taken on
10
13.
the section line 35c—35c of Fig. 35.
Fig. 17 is a fragmentary sectional view of a
Fig. 36 is a general plan section taken sub
piece of ware decorated by the parts seen in Fig.
stantially on the section line 36-35 of Fig. 34.
14.
Fig. 36a is a sectional detail of cooperating
Fig. 17a is a fragmentary view of a piece of
ware decorated by the parts seen in Fig. 151).
15 ?atware pick-up and transfer chucks that may
be employed for the machine of Fig. 34.
Fig. 171) is a fragmentary view of a piece of
Fig. 37 is a detail plan section of an intermit
ware decorated by the parts seen in 1511.
tent motion gearing connection partly seen in
Fig.18 is a View partly in elevation and partly
Fig. 34, and as substantially taken on the section
in section of one of the rotary machines of the
system for feeding clay charges to the molds.
20 line 31-31 of Fig. 34.
Fig. 38 is a central vertical section of another
Fig. 19 is a plan section of the said feeder as
rotary transfer machine of the system.
taken substantially on the irregular section line
Fig. 38a is an enlarged sectional detail of one
Ill-l9 of Fig. 18.
of the transfer devices seen in Fig. 38.
Fig. 20 is a view in reduced scale showing the
Fig. 39 is a sectional plan view of the machine
said feeder in supplied association with a clay 25
of Fig. 38, as taken substantially on the irregu
desiccating device seen in vertical section.
lar section line 39--39 of said ?gure.
Fig. 20a is an enlarged View of certain parts
Fig. 40 is a detail vertical section taken on the
seen in Fig, 18 showing a preformed charge for
section line 40-—40 of Fig. 38.
I
hollow ware about to be initially fed to a hol
Fig, 41 is a detail plan section taken substan
low ware mold.
30
tially on the section line 41-4! of Fig. 38.
Fig. 20b is an enlarged view of other parts of
Fig. 42 is a motion diagram illustrating move
Fig. 18 showing a preformed charge for ?at ware
ments of certain parts of the machine of Fig. 38.
about to be initially fed to a ?at ware mold.
Figs. 20c and 20d are views illustrating the
35
Production system in general
manner in which the charges seen in Figs. 20a.
and 201) are ?nally fed to their respective molds.
As illustrated diagrammatically in Figs. 1 to 3,
Fig. 21 is a central section of the upper part of
the system includes an endless flexible mold‘ con
veyor 5! comprising a series of centrally open
another rotary clay charge feeder of the system
and constituting a modi?ed form of the feeder
mold carriers or positioning rings 52 intercon
of Fig. 18.
40 nected in equally spaced relation by ?exible links
Fig. 22 is a fragmentary plan section of said
or cable sections 53. The conveyor is main
feeder taken substantially on the section line
tained in a substantially horizontal plane while
22-22 of Fig. 21.
travelling continuously in a tortuous path about
Fig. 23 is a View in reduced scale showing the
idler sprockets and rotary machines of the sys
feeder of Fig. 21 in supplied association with a 45 tem by having outboard supporting rollers 54 rid
continuous clay ?lter.
ing on rails 55 (see Figs. 4 and 5).
Fig. 24 is a vertical central section of another
The molds for forming four types of ware are
rotary clay charge feeder of the system.
carried in the rings 52 in duplicate successive sets
Fig. 25 is a fragmentary plan section of said
which, in the course of the conveyor, are brought
feeder taken substantially on the section line 25
50 into co-operative relation with a series of rotary
25 of Fig. 24.
machines 6!], til, 62, 63 and 64 designed to respec
Fig. 26 is a view in reduced scale showing the
feeder of Fig. 24 in supplied association with an
tively condition the molds, treat molds for a cer
tain method of ware decoration, treat molds for
ordinary type of pug mill.
,
another method of ware decoration, further con
Fig. 27 is a fragmentary elevation of a rotary 55 dition the treated molds and treat molds for en
press of the system.
gobing certain ware. These machines are selec
Fig. 27a is an enlarged fragmentary sectional
tively used.
The molds then continue to a series of rotary
detail of one of the dies of the press co-operat
machines 65, 65 and 67 designed to selectively
ing with a mold.
Fig. 28 is a fragmentary elevation of a rotary 60 feed clay charges of similar or of different com
position or conditioned clay bodies to the molds
jigger of the system.
and puddle and partially form the charges cor
Fig. 29 is a sectional elevation of a rotary pud
relatively
with respect to the ware forming sur
dling machine of the system.
faces of the molds prior to feeding. The charge
Fig. 30 is an enlarged detail section of one of
65 feeding machines may be supplied from an en
the hollow ware puddling heads seen in Fig. 29.
closed clay preparation organization “R” de
Fig. 31 is a detail vertical section taken sub
signed to simultaneously and continuously pre
stantially on the section line 3I—3| of Fig. 30.
pare the various clay bodies desired from the
Fig. 32 is a detail plan section of the puddling
various plastic and non-plastic materials re
head of Fig. 30, as taken on the section line 70 quired and selectively feed same to the ma
‘32-42.
Fig. 33 is
a bottom plan of the ?at ware pud
dling head seen in Fig. 29.
Fig. 34 is a view in sectional elevation show
chines.
_
After receiving the charges, the molds con
tinue to a series of rotary machines ‘H to 93,
inclusive, designed to selectively perform vari
ing one of the rotary hollow ware, or cup, trans- ' 75Vous forming, conditioning and decorating opera
2,407,321
5
optimum period to dry to leather- hardness cer
type, about the tables of which the conveyor
meshes to remain in co-operative relation with
each machine during a sufficient portion of its
rotation to perform the various operations on the
tain Ware to be appendaged, such as cups or the
molds or ware.
tions to produce the. ware as more fully hereine
after described.
.
i
r The molds then pass through a drier 95 for an
like, which are then conveyed out of the drier
at a take-off station E to a rotary machine 96
which transfers same from an upright position
in the molds to an inverted position in co—opera
tive relation with an appendaging machine 91,
the transfer machine also being designed to fet
tle and smooth the ware prior to being trans
ferred.
‘
As seen in Figs. 2 and 3, a power unit I09, such
as a combination motor and adjustable speed
‘ reducer is employed to constantly drive the ma
chines and ‘mold. conveyor , in synchronism,
through a power shaft I09a and suitable gearing
I09b co-operatin'g between same and the rotary
machines ‘I3, 8! and 93 which thus serve as driv
ing connections for the conveyor at spaced in
tervals therealong and whereby the conveyor in
The molds are ‘then returned into the drier and
are conveyed past take-off stations F and G' lo 15 turn serves as a driven connection for the rotary
machines with which it meshes between said in
cated along the conveyor course and are brought
tervals. It is also contemplated that the con
at predetermined points into co»operative rela
veyor and any number or all of the said rotary
tion, respectively with rotary machines 198 and
machines and idlers de?ning; its course may be
99 designed to transfer other types of ware, each
requiring a. different drying period, to suitable 20 independently or collectively driven in timed re
conveying apparatus I60 and Hill arranged to
lation.
I Conditioning machine
convey the ware to suitable locations for further
treatment. These machines are also designed to
Conditioning of the mold and clay surfaces
fettle, smooth and reverse or reposition the were
incident to transferring same, if desired.
25 may‘require the application thereto under pres
sure, or otherwise, of heated air, certain gases,
Upon leaving the drier, the molds are ad
oil, or other fluid conditioning media to clean
vanced to a rotary machine I02 employed to lay
or otherwise improve the efficiency thereof.
to the molds or reform thereon partly dried ware
that may have become slightly distorted during
Accordingly, the conditioning machine 60 (see
drying and being especially of use as located, in
Figs. 4, 5 and 6) comprises a base III! of a ped
estal III supporting the lower end of a central
hollow stationary shaft H2 on which rotates a
an installation or an adaptation of the system
wherein no type of ware is completely dried in
the dryer. However, if the system is adjusted so
that the ware leaving the dryer is too dry for
the reforming operation, said machine N32 or
turret or table H3. The table is constantly ro
tated in a counter-clockwise direction by the mold
number of same may be disposed along the con
veyor course adjacent one or each of the take-off
about the periphery thereof and grooves II5
therebetween to receive the mold carriers and
cable sections of the conveyor as it meshes there
or transfer stations E, G, and F.
From the reforming machine I02, the molds
continue to another rotary transfer machine I03
co-operating with a conveying system “13a to
transfer the various types of ware that may re
main on the conveyor to any one or a number
of selected locations forlfurther treatment, the
machine being designed to fettle and smooth the
ware and reverse the position thereof if desired.
Upon leaving the transfer machine I03, the
empty molds are advanced to a rotary machine
I04 co-operating with a conveying system IIMa
to remove any one or all the molds of each set
conveyor 5|, by having four pockets II 4 spaced
with to an optimum degree therearound.
As the bowl, cup, saucer and plate molds IIS,
H7, H8 and H9, placed in predetermined order
in successive carriers of the conveyor, are car
ried about the table, each is elevated to a prede
termined extent and rotated by a chuck I 29 under
the path of a'laterally oscillating nozzle I2I
which is adjusted to jet or spray the desired
amount of conditioning medium over a prede
termined portion or all of the Ware forming mold
surface.
The mold chucks I20 are mounted on the top
> 50
ends of vertical piston rods I22 of piston and
cylinder type fluid pressure motors I23 secured
to. a table I24 arranged under and connected
duction of a different type or types of Ware, or
With the table I I3. Each piston rod has a vacuum
when damaged or worn molds require replace
ment for repair.
'
55 duct I25 opening into the chuck and connected
With a vacuum line I26 in the shaft I I2 through
The next machine I05 along the course of the \
a distributor I2? and hose I28 to vacuumize the
conveyor is also of the rotary type designed’to
chuck cavity at the proper time to securethe
co-operate with a conveying system "15a for
mold to the chuck while rotating same. For ro
transferring molds for a certain type or types
of ware from one or more storage locations and 60 tating each chuck, its piston rod extends through
and is in sliding key connection with the hollow
placing same in the emptied mold carriers in any
shaft I29 of an electric motor I30 energized at the
desired order.
proper time from any suitable source of current
The molds then continue to a rotary condi
through a combination distributor and switch
tioning machine I06 designed to remove any for
I3I on the central shaft I I2. Each fluid motor is
eign matter from the molds, and then continue
energized at the proper time from a ?uid pres
to another conditioning machine I01 employed to
sure line I 32 through a distributor £33 and a four
apply to all the molds, or only those which have
Way valve I34 operated by adjustable arms I-35
just been placed on the conveyor, a conditioning
on the central shaft I I2 and connected with both
medium, such as oil. The molds then pass
ends of the motor cylinder by valved conduits
through a conditioning zone I98 comprising a
I36 to regulate the speed of travel and extent of
tunnel within which 'the air is suitably'heated
up-dwell of the chuck.
or otherwise conditioned to dry or otherwise put
the molds in a proper condition as they return to
Each nozzle IZI is mounted for vertical ad
complete another cycle of operation.
justment, to accommodate various heights of
Generally, the machines are of the rotary table 75 molds and approach to. molding surfaces, upon a
and transfer same to a suitable location for stor
age when changing the system over to the pro
2,407,321
depending hollow stem I38 at the end of a hori
zontally disposed hollow arm structure I39 hav
ing an upright trunnion I46 supported in a bear
ing I4! of a spider I42 mounted on uprights of
ing medium to the mold to be" transferred to the
the table 113.
mined time after jiggering or before or after it has
been ?red. Then again, the medium may be a
ware as it is formed thereon. Another method is
to apply the decorating medium directly to the
ware either immediately or during a predeter
The arm structures are oscillated
during each cycle of rotation of the table by a
dye or enamel or the like, or it maybe colored
clay applied to the Ware to form inlayed or in
cam I 44 on the shaft I I2 co-operating with rollers
I45 on arm extensions I46 of the arms and a
spring I41 for maintaining the arms in contact
with the cam.
crusted or embossed ornamental formations, or it
Each arm structure comprises 10 may be impressed into the green ware with or
without a coloring medium application.
Therefore, the machine 6| to which the molds
are advanced after leaving the mold conditioning
inner and outer pipe-like sections I39a and I382!
held in telescoped connection by a set screw I390
whereby the structure may be lengthwise adjust
machine, has been designed for use in carrying out ,
able to position the nozzle so that it will spray a
predetermined portion of the mold across or away 15 these various decorating methods, but is illus
trated in Figs. '1 to 14 as being adapted to apply,
from the axis thereof as it oscillates thereover.
for instance, inlayed or relief ornamental clay
The mold oiler of Fig. 4A is attached to the
formations on a piece of ware I69, as seen in
conditioning machine by stem 166d. Hills is a
Figs. 16 and 17.
casting having a porous cushion insert I66h which
To this ‘end, the machine includes a base I16
is fed through holes I66g with oil from an overe 20
of a pedestal I11 supporting the lower end of a
head cavity I66)‘. Oil is fed into the cavity from
central hollow shaft I12 on which rotates a turret
a tank I 66a through hose I661), a valve I660 being
I13 having equally spaced thereabout pockets I14
provided to regulate the ?ow. When the mold
and sheave formations I15 therebetween to re
is pushed against the porous cushion, the oil
is squeezed out or the cushion and applied evenly 25 spectively receive the carriers and cable sections
of the conveyor as it meshes to an optimum de
to the surface of the mold. Being resilient, the
gree therearound.
cushion conforms to the surface contour of the
After the mold carriers are positioned in the
mold. The tank may be disposed on the axis
pockets of the table, each mold is elevated from
of rotation of the conditioning machine to supply
several oilers or each oiler may have an individual 30 its carrier by a vertically reciprocable chuck Him
and brought into register with a decorating de
tank. Mold oiling is a necessary operation in the
vice l16, which then reciprocates into contact
manufacture of ware of this class. Oiling pro
with the mold surface and applies the orna
hibits excessive absorbtion of water by the mold
mental clay formations I68 thereon, (Fig. 13)
and retards hydraulysis. Furthermore, the ca
pacity of the mold to absorb water can be regu 35 the device remaining in contact with the mold
a sufficient period to insure proper application
lated by the amount of oil it absorbs before the
before it is raised to clear the mold and before
wet clay bat is applied. Therefore, it is important
the mold is lowered by the chuck into the carrier
that some control be exercised over the amount
and carried from the machine.
,
or quantity of oil applied to each mold which
As seen in Figs. 12 and 13 each decorating de
may vary depending on the type or kind of mold 40
vice, for hollow or flat ware, comprises a hollow
being serviced, The machine is provided with
head formed by a base portion I11 and a platen
automatic valves which may, if desired, be con
member I18 detachably secured to the base by
nected to pipe I661) to valve only a given quantity
bolts I180, and correlatively formed with respect
of oil into reservoir I66)‘ to thereby maintain a
substantially constant static head. By valving 45 to the ware forming surface of the mold it co
operates with. Mounted in openings in the
greater or less quantities of oil each cycle the
platen face, for replacement, are decorating in
flow may be varied by varying the static head.
serts I181) having molding recesses I19 from
The valving operation would, of course, be auto
which the colored clay ornaments are deposited
matic and performed while the oiling head re~
volved with the mold about the axis of the turn 50 on the surfaces of the mold when the platen con
tacts same (see Fig. 13). Thus when the ware
table.
has been formed on the mold, said ornamenta
Each nozzle may be supplied with the same or
tions are inlayed in the normally visible surface
a different conditioning medium, as required,
or side of the ware, especially ?at ware, such as
from four different sources of supply of various
media under pressure by way of mains I46, I49, 55 plates as seen in Fig. 16. The inserts of each
platen are made of permeable material and, as
I56 and I51. To this end, each main has valved
it contacts the mold surface, air under pressure
branches I52 leading, respectively, to headers I53
is forced therethrough to release the clay orna
of four conduits I54, each of which is connected
mentations from the recesses and apply them to
with a nozzle by way of a distributor I55, a ?exible
conduit I56, a swivel coupling I51 on the trunnion 60 the mold. Also, the surfaces of the molds may
be suitably treated by the machine 5| to cause
of each arm and a ‘passage’ I58 in the trunnion
communicating with the nozzle through the arm
sections I39a, I39b and stem I38.
.
the ornamentations to adhere thereto, at least
temporarily after application.
When each decorating device I16 is raised to
For salvaging the excess conditioning media,
and/or to dispose of the foreign matter, such as 65 its uppermost limit, its position is reversed dur
ing the intermediate portion of its stroke to
clay particles, dust, dirt, etc. removed from the
bring its platen into operative relation with a
molds during the conditioning operation, an ex
matrix device I86 which supplies charges of
haust hood I69 is mounted on each nozzle for
variously colored clays to the recesses of the
vertical adjustment and connected with an ex
haust pump I6I through a ?exible conduit I62, a 70 platen; For this purpose, on the table I13 is a
concentric supporting dru'm I8I having spaced
distributor I63 and a conduit I64.
thereabout four vertical guideways, each formed
Decorating machine
by guide bars I82 between which is guided for
vertical reciprocation, a crosshead I83. Each
Of the various methods to be employed in
decorating the ware, one is to apply. the decorat 75 crosshead has a pair of lateral arms I84 with
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