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Патент USA US2407329

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Sept 1%, 194% -,
2,407,323
E. E. TURNER, JR
SENDING AND RECEIVING APPARATUS
‘
Filed June 25', 1955 V
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INVENTOR. -
DWIN‘ E. TURNER JR.
Sept my W4§~
I
E. E. TURNER, JR
2,4®7,328
SENDING’AND RECEIVING APPARATUS
Fi_1ed Juné 25., 1955 ‘
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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40
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INVENTOR.
' EDWIN ETURMER JR.
BY
:. M W Vi
'
A
OEY.
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407,328
UNITED STATES
TNT OFFICE
2,407,328
SENDING
RECEG APPARATUS
Edwin E. Turner, Jn, West Roxbury, Mass, as
signor, by mesne assignments, to Submarine
Signal Company, Boston, Mass, a corporation
of Delaware
Application June 23, 1933, Serial No. 677,179
15 Claims.
(Cl. 177-386)
1
The present invention relates to compressional
wave transmitting and receiving apparatus and
more particularly to compressional waves of high
er frequencies, which include waves of the order
of 10,000 cycles or more.
As a matter of fact the present invention relates
perhaps more particularly to the transmission and
2
brating unit in the most efficient manner, the ap
plicant has devised a tuned system in which the
center of gravity does not coincide with the geo
metrical center of the system itself. This may be
accomplished by the use of a longitudinal vibrat
ing rod which has a portion which is solid and
another portion acting as a tube. In such a unit
reception of waves which in the medium in which
the inventor preferably places the node in the
they are transmitted have a Wave length of ap
lighter unit near the point where the heavier
proximately less than one-half a foot. In water 10 unit begins, but this is not absolutely essential
this limit is placed around 10,000 cycles, whereas
since if a slightly different mode of vibrations is
in air, due to the lower velocity transmission in
the air itself, the frequency may be around 3,000
cycles.
In the present invention the applicant has dis
covered that it is possible more readily to produce
a plane wave by the use initially of a small ra
desired the node itself may be in the heavier unit, although for different purposes it is far more ef
ficient to have the nodal point in the lighter unit,
as ‘will appear from the discussion given below.
In the system of the present invention the vi
brating unit may be considered as a combination
diator coupled with a transformation means op
of a concentrated mass against which the resonant
erating directly with the medium in which the
or tuned system operates, the two elements being
ultimate propagation is desired. In the present 20 so combined that the larger amplitude of motion
invention the dimensions of the element coupling
in the tuned element is converted to a smaller
the compressional wave transmitting and receiv
amplitude of motion in the mass element with a
ing device with the propagating medium prefer
corresponding greater force however.
ably transforms the plane wave from a dimen
Besides the features above discussed, which will
sion of less than a wave length of the compres
be explained more fully below, it may also be
sional wave which is propagated to one of a
noted that in the-present invention the inventor
great number of wave lengths. This is accom
has mounted the longitudinally vibrating systems
plished by the use of an exponential horn in
at a node by a special means of mounting which
which the small end is substantially less than a
is superior not only for the transmission of vi
wave length of the sound to be produced, whereas 30 brating energy but also for the reception of vi
the large end is many times the wave length of
brational energy in eliminating noises other than
the sound in the propagating medium.
the compressional waves which it is desired to
The inventor has further discovered that
receive. It may be remarked that the present
sounds of higher frequencies are e?iciently pro
system is particularly designed and useful for the
duced by a magneto-strictive vibrating unit in 35 reception of high frequency compressional waves
Which one end of the unit is substantially free and
above a de?nitely special limit and that the re
executes the relatively large vibrations, Whereas
ceiver itself acts to cut out and eliminate all com
the other end of the unit operating in the sound
pressional waves below a certain frequency.
propagating medium produces smaller vibrations.
In this respect therefore the present invention
The applicant has discovered that, although 40 is particularly applicable to use in submarine sig
large mechanical forces may be built up in a mag
naling in which there is always present a great
neto-strictive longitudinally vibrating system, un
deal of so-called water noise due to motion of the
less the elements are allowed considerable free
propellers, the movement of the ship through
dom of vibration the losses due to hysteresis and
the water and the operation of machinery on
other effects considerably reduce the e?iciency of 45 board the vessels transmitted through the water
the system. In order to operate most e?iciently
the applicant has found that a maximum vibra
through the outside shell. Many of these vibra
tions are below a frequency of 10,000 cycles and
in the present invention, therefore, these are
tion of the magneto-strictive element is neces
sary where the electrical forces are applied in
substantially eliminated.
order to produce a substantial back electro-mo 50
The present device will act both as a trans
tive force to prevent the abnormal absorption of
mitter and as a receiver and it may be installed
electrical energy through hysteresis and other
in the skin of a vessel exposed directly to the
means in the magnetostrictive vibrating unit.
outer water or there may be provided a covering
In overcoming these harmful effects, and in
over the outer opening to ensure a dead water
utilizing the longitudinal magnetostrictive vi
55 space within the exponential horn itself.
2,4013%
3
The present invention will be more fully de
scribed in connection with the drawings in which
Figure 1 shows in section an embodiment of the
invention. Figure 2 shows a modi?cation, Figure
3 shows a further modi?cation, Figure 4 an ele
4
chanical amplitudes where the compressional
wave energy is transferred to the water.
In Figure l the vibrating element 8 is supported
by the ring i? which may be sweated or welded
to the vibrating unit at the nodal point, as illus
trated in Figure 8. The vibrating element is en
vation of Figure 3. Figure 5 a further modi?ca
closed in a casing M which is made water-tight
tion of a detail of Figure 4, Figure 6 a further
to the flange E5 of the horn 3 by'means of the bolts
modi?cation of the structure shown in Figure 4,
iii and a watertight gasket 15’.
Figure 6A shows a plan view of the modi?cation
The ring l‘! is clamped rigidly at the end of
shown in Figure 6, Figure '7 a detail of construc 10
the
horn face by means of the bolts [8 and a
tion of Figure 6 and Figure 8 a diagrammatic
clamping ring H]. on either side of the clamp
illustration of the operating unit employed.
ing ring ii are provided acoustically insulating
In Figure l the unit may be mounted in the
skin of a vessel by means of a heavy ?ange 2 to
which the exponential horn 3 is riveted by means
of rivets 4, The exponential horn has an open
ing 5 which is several times the wave length of
the sound produced in the medium. The opening
5, as will be noted in Figure 2, may be closed by
a one-half wave length plate 6, clamped to the
horn by means of bolts 1, or a very thin dia
phragm may be used simply to prevent the rush
sheets of rubber, cork or the like 2| and 2|’ so
that no sound energy transmitted through the
walls of the horn impress mechanical vibrations
upon the vibrating element.
Surrounding the tube :3, within the casing I4,
is a coil as which may be used for impressing both
the alternating current and direct current upon
the tube it. Instead of this arrangement the
case is may be made permanently magnetic for
instance by making it from cobalt steel to furnish
the polarizing flux for the magnetostrictive unit.
of water at the surface of the horn. In the case
where the plate 6 is made one-half wave length
The alternating current is impressed for trans
thick it will be noted that the same phase is pro 25 mitting compressional waves. The coil 20 may be
duced on the external side of the plate as is im
used both for transmission and reception, and
pressed upon the internal side, In this case the
the direct current may be impressed upon the
plate itself will have no e?ect in providing an
coil to establish a desired magnetization of the
additional mass at the end of the horn as is the
magnetostrictive element. The magnetic circuit
case where a thinner plate is used. In the small 30 for the tube element it may be completed through
end of the horn there is positioned the sound pro
the core 22 extending from the back of the cas
ducing or receiving element 8 which extends part
way in the end of the horn and practically ?lls
ing into the tube I3, the ?ux circuit then being
completed through the casing l4 and the end of
the entire space at the end of the horn so that
the born
35
there is no sound released around the operating
The stunting box 23 may be provided for con
unit. A passage '5 may be provided at this end
ducting the leads to the inside of the casing for
of the horn with a valve lil whereby water may
operating the electrical elements within.
be allowed to come through to relieve any air
The vibrations produced at the vibrating end
bubbles which may be at this end of the horn.
of the vibrating unit 8 directly impress into the
The passage 3 may be connected with the tube 40 water linear amplitudes which are transformed
H, which may be extended upward to the water
into plane wave amplitudes of much smaller
level, as indicated in Figure 1, so as to allow the
linear dimensions at the large end of the horn 5.
escape of air bubbles which may be at the upper
The end of the horn 5 is su?iciently large, com
end of the horn without relieving the pressure at
pared with the wave length of the sound to be
this point of the horn.
produced, to produce a directive effect and simi
The sound producing or receiving element 8, as
larly, for the reception of compressional waves,
illustrated more particularly in Figure 8, is com
posed of a solid section l2 and a tube section it.
The whole element preferably having a one~half
wave length resonance with the nodal point, as
illustrated, at the point El near the solid part H2
in the tube. It will be seen from Figure 8 that
the tube It is free to vibrate and it should be
noted that a greater part of the energy is always
present at the hollow tube end, thus producing at
this end a substantially large vibration while a
relatively smaller vibration is produced at the
radiating end of the part l2. From the principle
of the mechanics of the transformation of am
plitude, it will be noted that correspondingly the
radiating end of £2 has a much larger force than
is present in the element l3 where the power is
the horn is directive for frequencies above a cer
tain limit. This limit is 1(),000 cycles or more,
while the cut-off frequency for the sound waves
is about 3000 cycles.
In Figure 3 a modi?cation of the device shown
in Figure 1 is illustrated. Here a group of inde
pendent units til, 30, 35), etc., are mounted upon
a diaphragm or transmitting plate 3!. The units
3!} may be nested together in squares or other
regular ?gures which will nest to cover the entire
surface of the plate 3!. The units 3%] include on
their lower part, as shown in Figure 4, an ele
ment 32 having an exponential section shaped as
shown in Figure 4. Mounted at the end of the
exponential horns 32 are units
which are com
posed of weights 34 and longitudinal rods 35 sur
established by the interaction of the coil and
rounded by coils 20 suitably supported by sup
tube and correspondingly, therefore, suf?cient 65 ports 55 which may or may not be hollow. The
elements 34 and 35 form a vibrating unit to con
power is provided at the radiating end of I2 to
vert a large vibration at the end 35 into a smaller
operate it in an unimpeded manner in the water.
vibration in the mass 33. The unit 33 corresponds
While the unit illustrated in Figure 8 is shown
to the unit 8 in Figure l, but as has been re
as one-half wave length long it is obvious that
other wave length dimensions may be used, either 70 marked above comprises in part a concentrated
?xed mass in which very little elasticity is present
one-half or one-quarter multiples of the resonant
and a distributing mass 35 wherein the electrical
frequency. The chief characteristic of the pres
forces are converted into mechanical vibrations.
ent invention in this respect being the means of
In this arrangement the rod 35 and the mass 34
ransforming large mechanical amplitudes where
serve to transform the amplitude of motion from
the electrical forces are applied to smaller me
5
aeozeee
the generated source to the point where the vi-'
brations are impressed upon the exponential
horn. The rod 35 and the mass 3% form one-half
6
phase of alternating current applied to different
rows or units. The device shown in Figures 3
and 4 may be installed in the skin of a vessel, as
illustrated in Figure l, or it may be installed in
wave length system with the node near the mass
34. In this case the rod moves freely at one end 5 such a manner that it may be rotated about an
with a large amplitude and impresses a small
axis, as for instance on top of a submarine or in
amplitude by means of the mass 34 into the horn.
a device which may be extended below the bot
The energy impressed into the horn obeys the
tom of a vessel.
usual laws of propagation of vibrational energy
The units 32 differ from the horns of Figure 1
in a horn, and the horn S2 is not considered in 10 in that they are solid structures and maintain
this respect a mass, although its relation to the
substantially maximum amplitudes at both ends.
mass .313 may have some effect in modifying the
In this respect the units may be short as com
effective proportion of this mass in the system.
pared with the wave length or if they are longer
In the discussion in the present application
than a wave length phase conditions are such
the word “elasticity” is used in somewhat a non 15 that maximum amplitudes are maintained
technical sense as referring to the vibration and
whether the phases are the same or 180° apart;
non-vibration of the elements going to make up
that is to say, if the element 32 is long as com
the system. In this respect if the element has
pared to the wave length, the only criterion to’
substantially no difference in amplitude of mo
observe is that of maintaining the amplitudes in
tion between two points in the direction of the 20 the same relation that they should have if the
propagation of the compressional wave energy,
horn were short. Under such conditions there
it is considered non-elastic whereas if the differ
may, of course, be other nodes in the propagating
ence is large, it is understood as having a great
horn itself.
elasticity. In this sense of the word the term is
One of the features of this horn is that it con
somewhat non-technical. An illustration of this 25 veys the impedance at the radiating end to the
may be understood from Figure 8 in which the
mass l2 has relatively little vibration while the
tube l3, subjected to the vibration impressed by
the coil 29, is relatively large. In this case the
small end without change and without loss at .
the resonant frequency.
The total forces at the ends of the horn are
the same but the force per unit area at the small
force in the tube i3 is all concentrated in the 30 end of the horn is greater than at the large end.
shell, whereas at the end of the tube I3 adjacent
The horn therefore reduces the force per unit
to the end portion l2 this vibration is spread over
area at the water end and enables maximum
a uniform mass.
output into the water.
In connection with the use of the words “dis
In Figure 5 is shown a modi?cation of the ele
tributed mass” and “concentrated mass” it is 35 ment shown in Figure 4. Here the exponential
intended that these terms should be construed
horn 36‘ is directly connected to a tube 31. The
together, with reference in particular to the wave
nodal point in the tube 37 being near the small
length propagated in the material. A concen
end of the horn 35 so as to convert, as illustrated
trated mass is to be considered a mass of rela
by 0, vibrations of large amplitudes in the tube
tively substantial weight in which the vibrational
3'! to vibrations of smaller amplitudes and larger
energy at the point of input and the vibrational
forces at the small end of the horn 36, thereby
energy at the point of output have substantially
coupling the tube to the horn in such a way as
the same phase; that is to say, with reference to
to match the operating characteristics of the
Figure 6 the mass associated with each tube is
coupled elements.
considered large and, further, has substantially
In Figures 6 and PI the system is a half wave
length system in the direction as marked at the
the tube joins the mass as it has on the other
side of the ?gure. Here each tube lit) may be
side where the vibrations are impressed into the
sweated or force ?tted into a plate 4! which may
propagating medium.
be supported by a thin flange 5! of the type indi
The units 32 covering the entire plate 3| may 50 cated in Figure 2' and be bolted or held in any
be secured thereto in any suitable manner as by
suitable fashion to the skin 2 of the vessel, and
welding and may be operated in synchronism if,
separate coils 42 may surround the tube. The
desired, or they may also be operated with a
tube it, together with the plate 4!, form a half
phase difference to produce a directive beam other
wave length system, or a system having a mul
than normal to the plate 3|. That is to say, the 55 tiple of a half wave length, or such a system in
applied electrical currents may all be operated
which the nodal point is positioned somewhat
with the same current phase so that there is no
near to or in the plate 4| with respect to the tube
lag between the amplitude and phase of the elec
40. In Figure 6A there is shown a plan view of
trical forces operating on one. rod from that on
the arrangement shown in Figure 6. From this
another, or the electrical energy may be applied 60 ?gure it will be noted that the tubes 40 cover
to produce different current phases in various
substantially the entire plate. In this manner,
elements so that the vibrations produced will
therefore, when all of the tubes are energized in,
have different phases in one unit from that in
the same phase, the entire plate will be vibrated
the other. If all the elements are operated simul
with the same motion over its entire surface,
taneously in the same phase, the wave produced
thereby producing a beam of compressional waves
will progress perpendicularly to the radiating 65 when the size of the plate itself in its linear sur
surface. If, however, progressive phases are ap
face dimensions is many times the wave length
plied to different rows of units, the beam may
of the vibrations to be produced. In this manner,
be diverted from the direction of the normal at
similarly as in Figure 8, the desired large elec
an angle depending upon the phase difference 70 trical vibrations are converted into smaller but
established between different rows of units. The
more powerful vibrations for energizing the plate
phase differences in applied electrical energy may
4!. Similarly as in Figure 4 the plate 4! may be
be obtained in any well-known manner as, for
operated to move as a whole and preferably this
instance, by the use of a multi-phase generator
is the method of’ operation, since the plate M is
or ‘some retardation device to delay the time 75 substantially a rigid mass and should be oper
the same vibrational phase at the point where
2,407,328
7
8. In a device for transmitting and receiving
high frequency compressional waves, a horn hav
ing an opening large as compared with the length
In Figure 7 an enlargement is shown of a single
tube £50 in the plate ii, showing the sweating of
the tube 40 in the plate by means of which the
tube is held in place.
'
8
magnetostrictive element for operating the same.
ated in the same phase throughout its surface.
. of the wave to be transmitted and a plate mount
It may be noted that the device in Figure 2 is
particularly adaptable for use when the static
ed at the large end of the horn, said plate hav
ing a thickness of one-half wave length of the
pressure at the Vibrating unit is not suf?ciently
high to prevent cavitation. In this case arti?cial
9. A device for transmitting and receiving high
Wave transmitted in the material of the plate.
static pressure as by tube 50 may be placed upon 10 frequency compressional waves of approximately
10,000 cycles per second and higher in water in
the liquid in the horn in any of the usual ways
cluding a, magnetostrictive rod having one end
so that the liquid at the end of the vibrating unit
free and the other end for radiating to the prop
will be at a higher pressure than the medium
agating medium, said rod having throughout a
abutting the outside of the plate 8.
Having now described my invention, I claim: 15 uniformly distributed mass, meanshaving a con
centrated mass positioned at the radiating end
1. A device for transmitting and receiving com
of the rod, said concentrated mass and rod form
pressional waves comprising a casing, an expo
ing substantially a one-half Wave length system
nential horn mounted at one end of the casing,
a uniform rod having a solid end and a hollow
at the frequency the system is to operate with
section, means mounting said rod in the small
end of the horn, said means supporting said rod
at its nodal point and a coil surrounding the
hollow section of the rod, said hollow section
the node in the rod near the concentrated mass,
and a coil surrounding said rod for energizing
the same.
10. A device for transmitting and receiving
compressional waves including a solid metallic
being magnetostrictive.
2. A device for transmitting and receiving com
pressional waves comprising a casing, an expo
25 plate, a large number of magnetostrictive rods,
each having one end mounted in said plate and
the other ends free, the rods having a uniformly
distributed mass and forming with the plate a
half wave length system at the frequency the
system is to operate with the nodes in the rods
near the plate and coils surrounding said rods
. nential horn mounted at one end thereof, a rod
?lling substantially the entire end of the horn,
magnetostrictive means formed as a part of the
rod and a coil surrounding said means for apply
ing vibrational energy thereto.
3. A device for transmitting and receiving com
for energizing the same.
pressional waves comprising a casing, an expo
11. A device for transmitting and receiving
nential horn mounted at one end thereof, a resoi
compressional waves including a solid metallic
nant rod, means supporting said rod at its node 35 plate, a large number of magnetostrictive hollow
and positioning the same at the small end of the
horn, said rod being free at its other end and an
rods, each having one end mounted in said plate
and the other end free, the rods having a uni~
electrical coil surrounding the rod for applying
formly distributed mass and forming with the
vibrational energy thereto, the rod being at least
plate a half wave length system at the frequency
in part magnetostrictive.
40 the system is to operate with the nodes uniformly
4. A device for transmitting and receiving com
positioned in the rods near the plate and coils
pressional waves including a diaphragm, a plu
surrounding said rods for energizing the same.
rality of magnetostrictive vibratory units mount
12. A device for transmitting and receiving
ed on said diaphragm, each unit having the form
compressional waves including a solid metallic
of a solid exponential horn, a mass attached to 4-5 plate, a large number of magnetostrictive hollow
the end of the horn and a magnetostrictive unit
rods, each having one end mounted in said plate
mounted thereon.
and the other end free, the rods having a uni
5. A device for transmitting and receiving com
formly distributed mass and forming with the
pressional waves including a diaphragm, a plu
plate a half wave length system at the frequency
rality of magnetostrictive vibration units mount
the system is to operate with the nodes uniformly
ed on said diaphragm, each unit having the form
positioned in the rods near the plate and a, ICOil
of a solid exponential horn, a mass attached to
surrounding each of said rods for energizing the
the end of the horn, a magnetostriotive longitu
same.
dinally vibrating rod coupled to said mass to pro
13. A device for transmitting and receiving
vide a node in the rod near or in the mass and 55 compressional waves including a solid metallic
electrical means for vibrating the rod.
plate, means supporting said plate for allowing
6. A device for transmitting or receiving com
substantially uniform free vibration normal
pressional wave energy of high frequencies in
thereto over its entire surface, a large number
water comprising an acoustic horn having an end
of magnetostrictive hollow rods, each having one
opening large as compared to the wave length 60 end mounted in said plate and the other end free,
of the wave transmitted in the medium. and the
the rods having a uniformly distributed mass and
other end smaller than the Wave length, a mag
forming with the plate a half wave length sys
netostrictive vibratory unit, means mounting
tem at the frequency the system is to operate with
said unit in the small end of the horn, said unit
nodes uniformly positioned in the rods near the
having a radiating element substantially ?lling 65
plate and coils surrounding said rods for energiz
the area at the small end of the horn and means
for energizing the same.
'7. A device for transmitting or receiving com
ing the same.
14. A device for transmitting and receiving
compressional waves including a solid metallic
pressional wave energy of high frequencies in
water comprising a horn having a large end open
ing to the water, a magnetostrictive element sub
stantially ?lling the small end, means for mount
ing said element at the small end of the horn,
means acoustically insulating the element in its
70
plate, a large number of magnetostrictive rods,
each having one end mounted in said plate and
the other end free, the rods having a uniformly
distributed mass and with the plate forming at
least a half wave length system at the frequency
mounting and an’ electrical coil coupled to the 75 the'system is to operate with the nodes in the
2,407,328
9
10
rods near the plate and coils surrounding said
rods for energizing the same.
15. A device for transmitting and receiving
a beam of high frequency compressional waves
including a solid metallic plate of substantial
thickness but less than one~quarter Wave length
on one side of said plate substantially uniformly
covering the entire surface of said plate, said
rods being mounted perpendicular to said plate
and being free at the end not mounted in the
plate, a plurality of electrical coils surrounding
of the compressional wave to be transmitted nor
said rods for vibrating the same magneto
strictively in response to variation in the mag
mally therethrough and having length and
netic ?ux induced therein by said vcoils, said plate
breadth dimensions substantially large as com
and rods forming one-half wave length system at
pared to the Wave length to be transmitted, a 5' the frequency that the system is to operate with
large number of substantially uniform, free mag
the node in the rods near the plate.
netostrictive rods, means for mounting said rods
EDWIN E. TURNER, JR.
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