Патент USA US2407329код для вставки
Sept 1%, 194% -, 2,407,323 E. E. TURNER, JR SENDING AND RECEIVING APPARATUS ‘ Filed June 25', 1955 V 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 ZZ12; .0916 am2mw w H5 . 3OJ, Fm. 2 _ Fm. INVENTOR. - DWIN‘ E. TURNER JR. Sept my W4§~ I E. E. TURNER, JR 2,4®7,328 SENDING’AND RECEIVING APPARATUS Fi_1ed Juné 25., 1955 ‘ 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 x ' I" 40 .1 2 INVENTOR. ' EDWIN ETURMER JR. BY :. M W Vi ' A OEY. Patented Sept. 10, 1946 2,407,328 UNITED STATES TNT OFFICE 2,407,328 SENDING RECEG APPARATUS Edwin E. Turner, Jn, West Roxbury, Mass, as signor, by mesne assignments, to Submarine Signal Company, Boston, Mass, a corporation of Delaware Application June 23, 1933, Serial No. 677,179 15 Claims. (Cl. 177-386) 1 The present invention relates to compressional wave transmitting and receiving apparatus and more particularly to compressional waves of high er frequencies, which include waves of the order of 10,000 cycles or more. As a matter of fact the present invention relates perhaps more particularly to the transmission and 2 brating unit in the most efficient manner, the ap plicant has devised a tuned system in which the center of gravity does not coincide with the geo metrical center of the system itself. This may be accomplished by the use of a longitudinal vibrat ing rod which has a portion which is solid and another portion acting as a tube. In such a unit reception of waves which in the medium in which the inventor preferably places the node in the they are transmitted have a Wave length of ap lighter unit near the point where the heavier proximately less than one-half a foot. In water 10 unit begins, but this is not absolutely essential this limit is placed around 10,000 cycles, whereas since if a slightly different mode of vibrations is in air, due to the lower velocity transmission in the air itself, the frequency may be around 3,000 cycles. In the present invention the applicant has dis covered that it is possible more readily to produce a plane wave by the use initially of a small ra desired the node itself may be in the heavier unit, although for different purposes it is far more ef ficient to have the nodal point in the lighter unit, as ‘will appear from the discussion given below. In the system of the present invention the vi brating unit may be considered as a combination diator coupled with a transformation means op of a concentrated mass against which the resonant erating directly with the medium in which the or tuned system operates, the two elements being ultimate propagation is desired. In the present 20 so combined that the larger amplitude of motion invention the dimensions of the element coupling in the tuned element is converted to a smaller the compressional wave transmitting and receiv amplitude of motion in the mass element with a ing device with the propagating medium prefer corresponding greater force however. ably transforms the plane wave from a dimen Besides the features above discussed, which will sion of less than a wave length of the compres be explained more fully below, it may also be sional wave which is propagated to one of a noted that in the-present invention the inventor great number of wave lengths. This is accom has mounted the longitudinally vibrating systems plished by the use of an exponential horn in at a node by a special means of mounting which which the small end is substantially less than a is superior not only for the transmission of vi wave length of the sound to be produced, whereas 30 brating energy but also for the reception of vi the large end is many times the wave length of brational energy in eliminating noises other than the sound in the propagating medium. the compressional waves which it is desired to The inventor has further discovered that receive. It may be remarked that the present sounds of higher frequencies are e?iciently pro system is particularly designed and useful for the duced by a magneto-strictive vibrating unit in 35 reception of high frequency compressional waves Which one end of the unit is substantially free and above a de?nitely special limit and that the re executes the relatively large vibrations, Whereas ceiver itself acts to cut out and eliminate all com the other end of the unit operating in the sound pressional waves below a certain frequency. propagating medium produces smaller vibrations. In this respect therefore the present invention The applicant has discovered that, although 40 is particularly applicable to use in submarine sig large mechanical forces may be built up in a mag naling in which there is always present a great neto-strictive longitudinally vibrating system, un deal of so-called water noise due to motion of the less the elements are allowed considerable free propellers, the movement of the ship through dom of vibration the losses due to hysteresis and the water and the operation of machinery on other effects considerably reduce the e?iciency of 45 board the vessels transmitted through the water the system. In order to operate most e?iciently the applicant has found that a maximum vibra through the outside shell. Many of these vibra tions are below a frequency of 10,000 cycles and in the present invention, therefore, these are tion of the magneto-strictive element is neces sary where the electrical forces are applied in substantially eliminated. order to produce a substantial back electro-mo 50 The present device will act both as a trans tive force to prevent the abnormal absorption of mitter and as a receiver and it may be installed electrical energy through hysteresis and other in the skin of a vessel exposed directly to the means in the magnetostrictive vibrating unit. outer water or there may be provided a covering In overcoming these harmful effects, and in over the outer opening to ensure a dead water utilizing the longitudinal magnetostrictive vi 55 space within the exponential horn itself. 2,4013% 3 The present invention will be more fully de scribed in connection with the drawings in which Figure 1 shows in section an embodiment of the invention. Figure 2 shows a modi?cation, Figure 3 shows a further modi?cation, Figure 4 an ele 4 chanical amplitudes where the compressional wave energy is transferred to the water. In Figure l the vibrating element 8 is supported by the ring i? which may be sweated or welded to the vibrating unit at the nodal point, as illus trated in Figure 8. The vibrating element is en vation of Figure 3. Figure 5 a further modi?ca closed in a casing M which is made water-tight tion of a detail of Figure 4, Figure 6 a further to the flange E5 of the horn 3 by'means of the bolts modi?cation of the structure shown in Figure 4, iii and a watertight gasket 15’. Figure 6A shows a plan view of the modi?cation The ring l‘! is clamped rigidly at the end of shown in Figure 6, Figure '7 a detail of construc 10 the horn face by means of the bolts [8 and a tion of Figure 6 and Figure 8 a diagrammatic clamping ring H]. on either side of the clamp illustration of the operating unit employed. ing ring ii are provided acoustically insulating In Figure l the unit may be mounted in the skin of a vessel by means of a heavy ?ange 2 to which the exponential horn 3 is riveted by means of rivets 4, The exponential horn has an open ing 5 which is several times the wave length of the sound produced in the medium. The opening 5, as will be noted in Figure 2, may be closed by a one-half wave length plate 6, clamped to the horn by means of bolts 1, or a very thin dia phragm may be used simply to prevent the rush sheets of rubber, cork or the like 2| and 2|’ so that no sound energy transmitted through the walls of the horn impress mechanical vibrations upon the vibrating element. Surrounding the tube :3, within the casing I4, is a coil as which may be used for impressing both the alternating current and direct current upon the tube it. Instead of this arrangement the case is may be made permanently magnetic for instance by making it from cobalt steel to furnish the polarizing flux for the magnetostrictive unit. of water at the surface of the horn. In the case where the plate 6 is made one-half wave length The alternating current is impressed for trans thick it will be noted that the same phase is pro 25 mitting compressional waves. The coil 20 may be duced on the external side of the plate as is im used both for transmission and reception, and pressed upon the internal side, In this case the the direct current may be impressed upon the plate itself will have no e?ect in providing an coil to establish a desired magnetization of the additional mass at the end of the horn as is the magnetostrictive element. The magnetic circuit case where a thinner plate is used. In the small 30 for the tube element it may be completed through end of the horn there is positioned the sound pro the core 22 extending from the back of the cas ducing or receiving element 8 which extends part way in the end of the horn and practically ?lls ing into the tube I3, the ?ux circuit then being completed through the casing l4 and the end of the entire space at the end of the horn so that the born 35 there is no sound released around the operating The stunting box 23 may be provided for con unit. A passage '5 may be provided at this end ducting the leads to the inside of the casing for of the horn with a valve lil whereby water may operating the electrical elements within. be allowed to come through to relieve any air The vibrations produced at the vibrating end bubbles which may be at this end of the horn. of the vibrating unit 8 directly impress into the The passage 3 may be connected with the tube 40 water linear amplitudes which are transformed H, which may be extended upward to the water into plane wave amplitudes of much smaller level, as indicated in Figure 1, so as to allow the linear dimensions at the large end of the horn 5. escape of air bubbles which may be at the upper The end of the horn 5 is su?iciently large, com end of the horn without relieving the pressure at pared with the wave length of the sound to be this point of the horn. produced, to produce a directive effect and simi The sound producing or receiving element 8, as larly, for the reception of compressional waves, illustrated more particularly in Figure 8, is com posed of a solid section l2 and a tube section it. The whole element preferably having a one~half wave length resonance with the nodal point, as illustrated, at the point El near the solid part H2 in the tube. It will be seen from Figure 8 that the tube It is free to vibrate and it should be noted that a greater part of the energy is always present at the hollow tube end, thus producing at this end a substantially large vibration while a relatively smaller vibration is produced at the radiating end of the part l2. From the principle of the mechanics of the transformation of am plitude, it will be noted that correspondingly the radiating end of £2 has a much larger force than is present in the element l3 where the power is the horn is directive for frequencies above a cer tain limit. This limit is 1(),000 cycles or more, while the cut-off frequency for the sound waves is about 3000 cycles. In Figure 3 a modi?cation of the device shown in Figure 1 is illustrated. Here a group of inde pendent units til, 30, 35), etc., are mounted upon a diaphragm or transmitting plate 3!. The units 3!} may be nested together in squares or other regular ?gures which will nest to cover the entire surface of the plate 3!. The units 3%] include on their lower part, as shown in Figure 4, an ele ment 32 having an exponential section shaped as shown in Figure 4. Mounted at the end of the exponential horns 32 are units which are com posed of weights 34 and longitudinal rods 35 sur established by the interaction of the coil and rounded by coils 20 suitably supported by sup tube and correspondingly, therefore, suf?cient 65 ports 55 which may or may not be hollow. The elements 34 and 35 form a vibrating unit to con power is provided at the radiating end of I2 to vert a large vibration at the end 35 into a smaller operate it in an unimpeded manner in the water. vibration in the mass 33. The unit 33 corresponds While the unit illustrated in Figure 8 is shown to the unit 8 in Figure l, but as has been re as one-half wave length long it is obvious that other wave length dimensions may be used, either 70 marked above comprises in part a concentrated ?xed mass in which very little elasticity is present one-half or one-quarter multiples of the resonant and a distributing mass 35 wherein the electrical frequency. The chief characteristic of the pres forces are converted into mechanical vibrations. ent invention in this respect being the means of In this arrangement the rod 35 and the mass 34 ransforming large mechanical amplitudes where serve to transform the amplitude of motion from the electrical forces are applied to smaller me 5 aeozeee the generated source to the point where the vi-' brations are impressed upon the exponential horn. The rod 35 and the mass 3% form one-half 6 phase of alternating current applied to different rows or units. The device shown in Figures 3 and 4 may be installed in the skin of a vessel, as illustrated in Figure l, or it may be installed in wave length system with the node near the mass 34. In this case the rod moves freely at one end 5 such a manner that it may be rotated about an with a large amplitude and impresses a small axis, as for instance on top of a submarine or in amplitude by means of the mass 34 into the horn. a device which may be extended below the bot The energy impressed into the horn obeys the tom of a vessel. usual laws of propagation of vibrational energy The units 32 differ from the horns of Figure 1 in a horn, and the horn S2 is not considered in 10 in that they are solid structures and maintain this respect a mass, although its relation to the substantially maximum amplitudes at both ends. mass .313 may have some effect in modifying the In this respect the units may be short as com effective proportion of this mass in the system. pared with the wave length or if they are longer In the discussion in the present application than a wave length phase conditions are such the word “elasticity” is used in somewhat a non 15 that maximum amplitudes are maintained technical sense as referring to the vibration and whether the phases are the same or 180° apart; non-vibration of the elements going to make up that is to say, if the element 32 is long as com the system. In this respect if the element has pared to the wave length, the only criterion to’ substantially no difference in amplitude of mo observe is that of maintaining the amplitudes in tion between two points in the direction of the 20 the same relation that they should have if the propagation of the compressional wave energy, horn were short. Under such conditions there it is considered non-elastic whereas if the differ may, of course, be other nodes in the propagating ence is large, it is understood as having a great horn itself. elasticity. In this sense of the word the term is One of the features of this horn is that it con somewhat non-technical. An illustration of this 25 veys the impedance at the radiating end to the may be understood from Figure 8 in which the mass l2 has relatively little vibration while the tube l3, subjected to the vibration impressed by the coil 29, is relatively large. In this case the small end without change and without loss at . the resonant frequency. The total forces at the ends of the horn are the same but the force per unit area at the small force in the tube i3 is all concentrated in the 30 end of the horn is greater than at the large end. shell, whereas at the end of the tube I3 adjacent The horn therefore reduces the force per unit to the end portion l2 this vibration is spread over area at the water end and enables maximum a uniform mass. output into the water. In connection with the use of the words “dis In Figure 5 is shown a modi?cation of the ele tributed mass” and “concentrated mass” it is 35 ment shown in Figure 4. Here the exponential intended that these terms should be construed horn 36‘ is directly connected to a tube 31. The together, with reference in particular to the wave nodal point in the tube 37 being near the small length propagated in the material. A concen end of the horn 35 so as to convert, as illustrated trated mass is to be considered a mass of rela by 0, vibrations of large amplitudes in the tube tively substantial weight in which the vibrational 3'! to vibrations of smaller amplitudes and larger energy at the point of input and the vibrational forces at the small end of the horn 36, thereby energy at the point of output have substantially coupling the tube to the horn in such a way as the same phase; that is to say, with reference to to match the operating characteristics of the Figure 6 the mass associated with each tube is coupled elements. considered large and, further, has substantially In Figures 6 and PI the system is a half wave length system in the direction as marked at the the tube joins the mass as it has on the other side of the ?gure. Here each tube lit) may be side where the vibrations are impressed into the sweated or force ?tted into a plate 4! which may propagating medium. be supported by a thin flange 5! of the type indi The units 32 covering the entire plate 3| may 50 cated in Figure 2' and be bolted or held in any be secured thereto in any suitable manner as by suitable fashion to the skin 2 of the vessel, and welding and may be operated in synchronism if, separate coils 42 may surround the tube. The desired, or they may also be operated with a tube it, together with the plate 4!, form a half phase difference to produce a directive beam other wave length system, or a system having a mul than normal to the plate 3|. That is to say, the 55 tiple of a half wave length, or such a system in applied electrical currents may all be operated which the nodal point is positioned somewhat with the same current phase so that there is no near to or in the plate 4| with respect to the tube lag between the amplitude and phase of the elec 40. In Figure 6A there is shown a plan view of trical forces operating on one. rod from that on the arrangement shown in Figure 6. From this another, or the electrical energy may be applied 60 ?gure it will be noted that the tubes 40 cover to produce different current phases in various substantially the entire plate. In this manner, elements so that the vibrations produced will therefore, when all of the tubes are energized in, have different phases in one unit from that in the same phase, the entire plate will be vibrated the other. If all the elements are operated simul with the same motion over its entire surface, taneously in the same phase, the wave produced thereby producing a beam of compressional waves will progress perpendicularly to the radiating 65 when the size of the plate itself in its linear sur surface. If, however, progressive phases are ap face dimensions is many times the wave length plied to different rows of units, the beam may of the vibrations to be produced. In this manner, be diverted from the direction of the normal at similarly as in Figure 8, the desired large elec an angle depending upon the phase difference 70 trical vibrations are converted into smaller but established between different rows of units. The more powerful vibrations for energizing the plate phase differences in applied electrical energy may 4!. Similarly as in Figure 4 the plate 4! may be be obtained in any well-known manner as, for operated to move as a whole and preferably this instance, by the use of a multi-phase generator is the method of’ operation, since the plate M is or ‘some retardation device to delay the time 75 substantially a rigid mass and should be oper the same vibrational phase at the point where 2,407,328 7 8. In a device for transmitting and receiving high frequency compressional waves, a horn hav ing an opening large as compared with the length In Figure 7 an enlargement is shown of a single tube £50 in the plate ii, showing the sweating of the tube 40 in the plate by means of which the tube is held in place. ' 8 magnetostrictive element for operating the same. ated in the same phase throughout its surface. . of the wave to be transmitted and a plate mount It may be noted that the device in Figure 2 is particularly adaptable for use when the static ed at the large end of the horn, said plate hav ing a thickness of one-half wave length of the pressure at the Vibrating unit is not suf?ciently high to prevent cavitation. In this case arti?cial 9. A device for transmitting and receiving high Wave transmitted in the material of the plate. static pressure as by tube 50 may be placed upon 10 frequency compressional waves of approximately 10,000 cycles per second and higher in water in the liquid in the horn in any of the usual ways cluding a, magnetostrictive rod having one end so that the liquid at the end of the vibrating unit free and the other end for radiating to the prop will be at a higher pressure than the medium agating medium, said rod having throughout a abutting the outside of the plate 8. Having now described my invention, I claim: 15 uniformly distributed mass, meanshaving a con centrated mass positioned at the radiating end 1. A device for transmitting and receiving com of the rod, said concentrated mass and rod form pressional waves comprising a casing, an expo ing substantially a one-half Wave length system nential horn mounted at one end of the casing, a uniform rod having a solid end and a hollow at the frequency the system is to operate with section, means mounting said rod in the small end of the horn, said means supporting said rod at its nodal point and a coil surrounding the hollow section of the rod, said hollow section the node in the rod near the concentrated mass, and a coil surrounding said rod for energizing the same. 10. A device for transmitting and receiving compressional waves including a solid metallic being magnetostrictive. 2. A device for transmitting and receiving com pressional waves comprising a casing, an expo 25 plate, a large number of magnetostrictive rods, each having one end mounted in said plate and the other ends free, the rods having a uniformly distributed mass and forming with the plate a half wave length system at the frequency the system is to operate with the nodes in the rods near the plate and coils surrounding said rods . nential horn mounted at one end thereof, a rod ?lling substantially the entire end of the horn, magnetostrictive means formed as a part of the rod and a coil surrounding said means for apply ing vibrational energy thereto. 3. A device for transmitting and receiving com for energizing the same. pressional waves comprising a casing, an expo 11. A device for transmitting and receiving nential horn mounted at one end thereof, a resoi compressional waves including a solid metallic nant rod, means supporting said rod at its node 35 plate, a large number of magnetostrictive hollow and positioning the same at the small end of the horn, said rod being free at its other end and an rods, each having one end mounted in said plate and the other end free, the rods having a uni~ electrical coil surrounding the rod for applying formly distributed mass and forming with the vibrational energy thereto, the rod being at least plate a half wave length system at the frequency in part magnetostrictive. 40 the system is to operate with the nodes uniformly 4. A device for transmitting and receiving com positioned in the rods near the plate and coils pressional waves including a diaphragm, a plu surrounding said rods for energizing the same. rality of magnetostrictive vibratory units mount 12. A device for transmitting and receiving ed on said diaphragm, each unit having the form compressional waves including a solid metallic of a solid exponential horn, a mass attached to 4-5 plate, a large number of magnetostrictive hollow the end of the horn and a magnetostrictive unit rods, each having one end mounted in said plate mounted thereon. and the other end free, the rods having a uni 5. A device for transmitting and receiving com formly distributed mass and forming with the pressional waves including a diaphragm, a plu plate a half wave length system at the frequency rality of magnetostrictive vibration units mount the system is to operate with the nodes uniformly ed on said diaphragm, each unit having the form positioned in the rods near the plate and a, ICOil of a solid exponential horn, a mass attached to surrounding each of said rods for energizing the the end of the horn, a magnetostriotive longitu same. dinally vibrating rod coupled to said mass to pro 13. A device for transmitting and receiving vide a node in the rod near or in the mass and 55 compressional waves including a solid metallic electrical means for vibrating the rod. plate, means supporting said plate for allowing 6. A device for transmitting or receiving com substantially uniform free vibration normal pressional wave energy of high frequencies in thereto over its entire surface, a large number water comprising an acoustic horn having an end of magnetostrictive hollow rods, each having one opening large as compared to the wave length 60 end mounted in said plate and the other end free, of the wave transmitted in the medium. and the the rods having a uniformly distributed mass and other end smaller than the Wave length, a mag forming with the plate a half wave length sys netostrictive vibratory unit, means mounting tem at the frequency the system is to operate with said unit in the small end of the horn, said unit nodes uniformly positioned in the rods near the having a radiating element substantially ?lling 65 plate and coils surrounding said rods for energiz the area at the small end of the horn and means for energizing the same. '7. A device for transmitting or receiving com ing the same. 14. A device for transmitting and receiving compressional waves including a solid metallic pressional wave energy of high frequencies in water comprising a horn having a large end open ing to the water, a magnetostrictive element sub stantially ?lling the small end, means for mount ing said element at the small end of the horn, means acoustically insulating the element in its 70 plate, a large number of magnetostrictive rods, each having one end mounted in said plate and the other end free, the rods having a uniformly distributed mass and with the plate forming at least a half wave length system at the frequency mounting and an’ electrical coil coupled to the 75 the'system is to operate with the nodes in the 2,407,328 9 10 rods near the plate and coils surrounding said rods for energizing the same. 15. A device for transmitting and receiving a beam of high frequency compressional waves including a solid metallic plate of substantial thickness but less than one~quarter Wave length on one side of said plate substantially uniformly covering the entire surface of said plate, said rods being mounted perpendicular to said plate and being free at the end not mounted in the plate, a plurality of electrical coils surrounding of the compressional wave to be transmitted nor said rods for vibrating the same magneto strictively in response to variation in the mag mally therethrough and having length and netic ?ux induced therein by said vcoils, said plate breadth dimensions substantially large as com and rods forming one-half wave length system at pared to the Wave length to be transmitted, a 5' the frequency that the system is to operate with large number of substantially uniform, free mag the node in the rods near the plate. netostrictive rods, means for mounting said rods EDWIN E. TURNER, JR.