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Sept. 10, 1946.
Sept w, 1946.
Filed July 22, 1939
‘ 2‚4Ü7‚329
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
SepË. 1Û, 1946.
‘Filed July 22, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
Evww E.TURNEF2 dî2.
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407‚329 ’
Edwin E. Turner, Jr.‚ West Roxbury, Mass.‚ as
signor, by mesne assignments, to Submarine
Sigma! Company, Boston, Mass., a corporation
of Delaware
Applicaticn July 22, 1939, Serial No. 285,910
2 Claims.
(Cl. 177-386)
The present invention relates to translating
striction oscillator for producing compressional
devices ‘for converting compressional wave energy
to electrioal energy and vice versa. More par
vice along the line IV—IV in Fig. 3; Fig. 5 rep-‚
wave energy; Fig. 4 is a section of the same de
resents diagrammatically a cross section of an
electrodynamic oscillator; Fig. 6 is a cross sec
tieularly, the present invention relates to such
devices as used for signaling u-nder water and
is particularly concerned with the transmission
and reception of compressional wave energy in
tion of the device of Fig. 5 taken along the line
VI—VI; Figs. 7 and 8 are schematìc diagrams
a beam.
showi-ng arrangements Íor eiectrically connect
ing the driving elements of the devices shown in
It has heretofore generally been understood
that if a vibratable piston be made large in its 10 Figs. 3 to 5; Fig. 9 is a vertical cross section of an
electromagnetic oscillator simìlar to that shown
dimensons in oomparison with the wave length
in Fig. 5 but modi?ed in accordance with a modi
of ‘the compressional waves at the signaling fre
?cation of the present invention; Fig. 19 is a
quency, a concentration of energy along the axis
vertical cross section of another modi?cation of
perpendicular to the radiating surface will be
such an electrodynamic oscillator; Fig 11 isa
obtained. I-Iowever, such a concentration of
schematic diagram of an arrangement fox‘ elec
energy in a main beam is accompanied by smaller
trically operating the devices of Figs. 3 to 5; Fig.
concentrations of energy in directíons at various
12 is a vertica1 section of a further modi?cation
angles with the axis of the main beam.
of an electrodynamic oscillator; Fig. 13 is a hori
When the relative acoustic energy intensities
in space in the free medium as produced by such 20 zontal section of the device of Fig. 12 taken
along the line XIII-XIII; Fig. 14 is a vertical
a device are plctted with respect to the several
section of a stil] further modi?cation of an elec
angular directions from the aXis perpendicular
trodynamic oscillator; and Fig. 15 is a horizontal
to the radiating surface as om polar coordinate
section of the device of Fig. 14 taken along the
graph paper, the main concentration of energy
line XV-—XV.
will appear as a large lobe representing the main
As shown in Fig. 1, the energy distribution
‘neem, and a plurality of auxiliary lobes or ears
produced in a free medium by a representative
representing the subsidíary energy concentra
extended, continuous, ?nite, plane radiating sur-_
tions in directions other than that of the main
face having a dimension greater than the wave
beam will also appear. These auxilìary lobes
length at the signaling‘ frequency vibratìng as
of the energy distribution pattern are often ob
a piston has a maximum energy concentration
jectionable particularly Íor signaling under water
along an axis y per’pendicular to the radiating
as in acoustic ranging for the determination of
surface. At small angles from the axis y the
the dístance and direction of remote objects.
energy decreases as indicated by the dotted line
Such subsidiary energy concentrations can be re
duced by not driving the plane radiating surfac'e
60. At some larger angle from the axis 1/ the
as a piston but by driving it at varying amplitudes
radiated energy will fal1 to zero and at a still
over its surface. A suitable amplitude distribu
greater angle agaìn build up to a lower but still
tion for this purpose will be shown below, but
signi?cant maximum va1ue; then again fall to
the present invention is primarily concerned with
zero as the angle is ‘further increased, and so on
arrangements for obtaining any desired vibra 40 throughout the hemìsphere facing the radiating
tional amplitude distribution of the radiating
piston. 'I‘hus, there will appear successîve lobes
of energy concentration at varìous angular dis
It should be noted that the characteristics re
tances from the axis y as indicated in Fig. 1 by
ferred to herein as applying to a compressional
the lobes e1, e2 and es. If the piston be circular,
wave producing device also apply when the same 45
it will be understood that these subsidiary lobes
device is used for receiving such waves.
are in the form of hollow cones, the graph in Fig.
The invention will best be understood by the
1 indicating merely the energy distribution in
following description taken with reference to the
accompanying drawings in which Fig. 1 is a polar
A more desirable energy distribution pattern
diagram of representative compressìonal wave 50
can be obtained by effectively varying the ampli
energy distributions; Fig. 2 is a graph showing
tude over the radiating surface from the edges
a suitable radiating surface amplitude distribu
to the center so that the greatest amplitude will
tion for the production of one of the energy dis
occur at the center. If, for example, the vibra
tributions shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 shows dia
gramniatically a cross section of a magneto 55 tional amplitude be varîed as shown in Fig. 2,‘
the energy distribution represented by the solid
curve in Fig. 1 can be obtained.
In Fig. 2 the linear amplitude of the radiating
surface is indicated by the ordinates which rep
resent the ratio Ar/AO representing the ratio of
the amplitude at any radial coordinate measured
Wound en or embedded in the outside surfaces
of the concentric poles are alternating current
windings 8 to which energy is supplied at the sig
naling frequency. The rings 5 are proportioned
to have a height such that together with their
i’espective portions of the element 4, they will
each form a half wave length vibrating system
from the center of the radiating surface to the
at the signaling frequency. The entire system
amplitude at the center, so that the maximum
amplitude is indicated as unity. Radial dis
will, therefore, be set into vibration when the
tances from the center of the radiating surface 10 coils 8 are energized and conversely will generate
are indicated by the abscíssae which speci?cally
an electromotive force in the coils 8 when the
represent the ratio r/a, where 1‘ is the radial
system is vibrated by compressional waves. An
distance from the center at any poi-nt and a‚ is
electrodynamic oscillato-r of this type is described
the total radius of the radiating surface. The
in greater detail in my copending application
particular amplitude distribution curve shown in 15 Serial No. 24,078, ?led May 29, 1935.
this ?g‘ure follows the equation:
When all the coils of the magnetostriction
oscillator shown in Figs. 3 and 4 or all the driving
coils of the electrodynarnic oscillator shown in
Figs. 5 and 6 are excited with alternating current
20 of the same amplitude and phase, the respective
The amplitude distribution shown in Fig. 2 pro
radiating surfaces will vibrate with a uniform
duces an energy distribution in the medium as
amplitude over the entire surface and thereby
shown by the solid curve in Fig. 1. The main
will produce an energy distribution in the medium
lobe E0 has somewhat greater width than the
as indicated by the dotted curve in Fig. 1. Con
main lobe en produced by uniform amplitude of 25 versely if all the coils are connected to actuate an
the vibrating surface but the auxiliary lobes E1,
indicating device in a uniform manner, the device
E2 and E3 are very much reduced in intensity.
as a receiver will have a sensitivity in the various
T0 produce such a desired energy distribution
directions as indicated by the same dotted curve
or any other desired energy distrbution it is neces
in Fig. 1.
sary to cause the radiating surface to vibrate with 30
T0 produce a different energy or sensitivity
varying amplitudes over its surface when energy
distribution I vary the ampere-turns of alternat
is being‘ transmitted and conversely to cause the
ing current excitation of the coils associated with
surface to produce electrical response which varies
the driving elements over the area of the radiating
in a similar marmer when receiving. Two ar»
element, or I provide diiïerent loadings of the
rangements for accomplishing this with devices
driving elements, that is I vary the mass ratio
of the type shown in Figs. 3 to 6 are shown in
between the mass of the driving elements and
Figs. 7 and 8.
their respective associated proportions of mass of
Figs. 3 and 4 show a magnetostriction oscillator
the radiating element.
having a radiating element ! adapted by its outcr
The variation in ampere-turns can be accom—
surface to contact a signaling medium. 'I'his is 40 plished in two ways, namely by varying the turns
driven by a plurality of tubes or rods 2 of magneto
in the several coils and exciting all of them with
strictive material ?rmly ?xed to the element i
the same current or by giving all the coils the
at one end and free to vibrate at the other end.
same number of turns but different current excita—
These tubes may be arranged over the inner sur
tion or by a, combination of varying number of
face of the element I in any convenient manner
turns and diiîerent current values. The two
but preferably are fairly uniformly spaced and
Íundamental arrangements are shown in Figs.
they may be arranged in concentric circles as
7 and 8.
shown in Fig. 4. Per clearness only a relatively
In Fig. 7 the elements 9, 10, 11 and 12 indicate
small number of tubes is shown although in
respectively the alternating current coils 8 for
practice it is not uncommon to use many hundredg ‘
the four rings of the electrodynamic oscillator
DÍ tubes. Each of the tubes together with its pro
oortion of the element I forms a half wave length
of Figs. 5 and 6 or the four circular groups of coils
vibrating system with the node preferably located
slightly above the inner surface of the element l.
Elach tube is surrounded by an electromagnetic
:oil 3 to which electrical energy of the proper fre
:1uency is supplied for magnetostrictively setting
the tubes and thereby the radiating surface into
2 of the magnetostriction oscillator shown in
Figs. 3 and 4 with the individual coils of each
circular group connected together in series. The
grouping of the coils need not necessarily be cir
cular, for this depends entirely upon the ampli
tude distribution and the beam ‘pattern which it
is desired to obtain.
With the magnetostrictíon oscillator the indi
vibration or conversely for »generating electrical
energy when the radiating surface and the tubes 60 vidual coils in each group are given the same
a‘re vibrated by compressional wave energy. An
number of turns but the coils for the different
ascillator of this type is described in more detail
groups are given different numbers of turns, the
.n my copending application Serial No. 677,179,
group at the center having the largest number
ìled June 23, 1933.
of turns. Similarly with the electrodynamic oscil
Another form of oscillator is shown in Figs. 65 later the coil for the innermost ring is given the
3 and 6. An element 4 having a radiating sur
greatest number of turns, the other coils being~
îace in contact with the signaling medium has a
given successively smaller numbers of turns. In
valurality of concentric rings 5 of electrically
both cases the variation in the number of turns
zonductive material mounted on its inner surface.
from the center toward the edge of the device is
î’our such rings are shown in the dravvings al 70 made to conform as nearly ‘as possible to‘ the
desired amplitude distribution, for exarnple, in
ìhough more may be used if desired. A magnetic
ìeld is produced across each of the rings 5 by
accordance with Equation 1 given above. The
neans of an electromagnet E5 having a plurality
elements 9, lil, H and I2 constituted as just cle
)f concentric poles extending between the rings
scribed are connected in series and then across a
and excited by direct current polarizing coils E.
suitable source of alternating current b’;; means
of the leads l3 and I4, condensers I5 and [6 inter
posed when necessary to prevent direct current
from passing into the alternating current line and
sociated with a much larger mass than is the
innermost ring. A11 the rings, however, are tuned
to the same frequency and the length of the sev
eral rings consequently varies. Therefore, the
rnass ratio varies between the successive rings
whereby uniform excîtation of the driving coils
will produce a varying amplitude distribution of
coils as the alternating current. Since the coils
the radiating surface. Thus any desired ampli
in the varicus groups have different number of
tude distribution can be obtainecl simply by mak
turns, the application of the direct current po
tential across all the groups connected in series 10 ing the surface 32 of a different shape to con—
form with the particular distribution desired.
would n0t provide the same ampere-turns of po
The mass ratio between the various driving
larizing ?ux for all the magnetostrictive elements.
elements of the radiating surface can also be var
To provide for this, a potentiometer I 1 is con
ied by the arrangement shown in Fig. 10. In
nected across a source of direct potential and the
for power factor correction.
In the magnetostriction oscillator direct polar
izìng current is usually passed through the same
this case the radiating element 3!l has its inner
several groups of coils are provided with suc
surface divided by narrow circular slots into a
cessively larger direct potentials to make the po
plurality of rings 3%, 37, 38 and 39, each driven
larizing ampere-turns in each group the same.
by one or more electrodynamic elements 5 which
This is accomplished by means of the common
may be the same as these shown in Fig. 5 and in
lead [8 and the potentiomet-er sliding contacts l@‚
20, 2! and 22. In each of these leads chokes 23 20 horizontal section would appear as in Fig. 6. The
outermost portion 35 of the radiating member is
are provided to avoid alternating current from
made the thickest. The other elements 31, 35
passing through the potentiometer. For the sup—
and 39 progressively decrease in thickness, the
p1y of polarizing current in this manner, the
thinnest element-being at thecenter. The mass
switches 5ll must, of course, be closed.
associated withthe several driving elements 5 is
For the electrodynamic oscillator or for the
therefore varied in a manner similar to that of
magnetostriction oscillator in the case where sep
arate polarizing coils ‘are provided‚ the polarizing
coils may, of course, simply all be given the same
number of turns and suitalc-le groups supplied in
series or in parallel from a single direct current
source whereby the polarizing flux in all the ele
ments will be the same.
Any desired variation of ampere-turns can also
Fig. 9, whereby with uniform excitation of the
rings the radiating surface will vibrate at vary
ing amplitude, the greatest amplitude being at the
center. In this case, also, it will be understood
that magnetostrictive driving elements can be
substituted for the
electrodynamic elements
A further arrangement for obtaining a desi_red
be obtained by the modi?cation shown in Fig. 8.
amplitude distribution over the radiating surface
In this case the elements 9, lil, H and !2 con
by variation of the mass ratios of the several
stituted as described with reference te Fig. 7 are
driving elements is shown in Figs. 12 and 13. In
all given the same number of turns. Alternating
this case the electromagnetic driving rings, of
potential of the proper Írequency is supplied to
which four are shown, nuznbered 55, 56, 51 and
the primary 2‘?! of a transformer 25 having a
tapped secondary 25. The elements 9 to I2 are 40 58, are made of successively dìrninishing thick
ness, the thickest ring loeing placed near the cen
connected in series. one end of the combination
ter. As in the other modi?catìons the rings are
being connected to one terminal of the secondary
all tuned to the same frequency having regard
26 and the junctions between the elements 9 to
to the respective prop0rtions of mass of the radi
I2 being connected to the several taps as by the
ating element 59 which is associated with each.
leads 21, 28, ‘2e and 3il. The taps on the sec
Each ring, therefore, together With its proportion
ondary 26 are adjusted so that the various ele
of the element 59 forms a one-half wave length
ments 9 to l2 will be supplied with voltages vary
system at the signaling frequency. Since the ring
ing in accordance vvith the desired amplitude dis
tribution, for example, that according to Equa
tion 1 above. Since all the elements 9 to [2 in
this case have the same number of turns, they
may be supplied with polarizing current from a
single source of direct current through choke coils
3! by closing the swìtches 5í. The condensers
63 prevent direct current from passing through
the transformer winding 26. Since the elements
9 to l2 are all connected in series, they will all
receive the same polarizing ?ux.
Another arrangement for preducing desired
amplitude variations over the radiating surface
consists in varying the mass ratios of the several
driving elements. Fig. 9 shows electrodynamic
driving elements but it will be understood that
magnetostrictive elements may similarly be used
at the center is thickel‘ than the other rings, the
ratio of its mass with respect to the portion of
the mass of element 59 associated with it is smaller
than the corresponding mass ratio for the other
rings. The central portion of the radiating ele
ment 59 will therefore be driven at a greater am
plitude, and the amplitude will gradually decrease
toward the edges Îor successively decreasing ring
thicknesses as shown. It will be evident from
what has been said With reference to the other
modi?cations that the variations in the thickness
of the successive rings can be made to bring
about any desired amplitude distribution over the
radiating surface.
It will also be evident that
the same arrangement can be applied where mag
netostrictive driving elements are employed. In
if desired. The electrodynamic elements 5 are 65 this case the tubes or rode near the center of
the diaphragm will be made thickest and succes‘
similar to those shown in Fig. 5 and in horizontal
sively thinner elements will be used at points out
section would appear as in Fig. 6. Likewise, the
from the center to conform to any desired radi
alternating current coils 8 and the polarizing coils
ating surface amplitude distribution‚
'! are similar to these shown in Fig. 5. The al
ternating current coils as well as the polarizing 70 A still further modi?cation Íor obtaining vary
ing mass ratios is shown in Figs. 14 and 15. In
coils are connectecl electrically to have uniform
this modi?cation the driving rings 5 are again
excitation and to produce uniform eleztrical re
all of uniform thickness but are spaced differ
sponse when vibrated. However, the inner sur
ent distances apart so that the several rings are
face 32 of the radiating element 33 is made dish
shaped. By this means the outermost ring is as 75 associated with more or less of the mass‘and.
surface area of the radiatîng eiement‚ here num
bered E9. Where a large amplitude at the center
of the radiating surface is desired, the driving
in Fig. 1. The auxiliary maxima will be seen to
be of much 1ower intensity in this case and the
largest one E1 lies in a direction different Írom
elements are spaced most c1oseiy at the center
that of any of the subsidiary maxima of the
as shown. Since all the driving elements are
dotted curve. Consequently energy transmitted
supplied with the same power, those at the center
in directions other than that. of the main bearn‚
being required to move the 1east radiating sur
after re?ection from a distant object or f1‘om dis
face area, wì1l drive the latter with the greatest
continuities in the medium, will not be received
with apprecíable intensity.
amplitude. In this maner any desired ampli
The arrangement shown in Fig. 11, therefore,
tude distribution aan readily be obtained. Where 10
provides a means for changing from one energy
magnetostrictive driving elements are employed,
distribution pattern to a diiîerent energy dis—
they, too, of course, will be spaced close together
tribution pattern between sending and receiving.
at these areas of the radiating member where the
greatest amplitude is desired.
It wi1l ‘ee evident that the arrangement shown
When using apparatus of the type just de 15 is ‘net limited to the use of the particular energy
d‘stributions shown in Fig. 1, but th‘at any other
scribed for echo I‘anging purposes it may be ad
vantageous for the purpose of reducing stray sig
different distributions may be employed if
desireei. It however, particulariy advantageous
iîï the subsidiary maxima during reception do
the initial impulse and to use a diiïerent energy 20 not cîoincide in direction with the subsidiary
maxima obtained during transmission and also
distribution pattern for receiVing the echo. This
When the subsidiary maxima during reseption are
is readily accomplished with the devices shown
as small as possibie in intensity. This arrange
in Figs. 3 and 5, particularly When al] the coi1s
ment is aîso of especial importance When it is
are given the same number of turns and the
desired to receive as litt1e energy as possible from
ampere-turns variation is obtained by varying
directìons outside of the main beam and yet to
the voltage applied to the several groups of coils.
transmit as much energy as possibie into water
Fig. 11 shows an e1ectric operating circuit for this
during sending. Since a piston radiating surface
purpose. Here the elements 9, lil, II and !2
has uniform amplitude all over its surface, its
representing the coi1s associated With the several
na1s and. reverberations to a minimum to use one
energy distribution pattern for transmission of
rings of an electrodynamic oscillator 01’ repre
senting successive groups of series connected c0i1s
of a magnetostriction oscillator are connected to’
cntire surface can be driven at the maximum
pessible amplitude, namely that at which cavita
tion cocurs, whereby ‘the greatest possible amount
of energy wil]. be radiated along the main axis
perpendîcuiar to ‘the radiating surface. When
soms ot'ner amplitude distribution is employed,
oniy the area oi maximum amplitude can be per
energized from a battery or other current source
mitted to reach the cavitation limit, while the re
42 through the upper contact 43 of a sending
mainder of the surface must vibrate at a 1ower
key 44. When the key is not depressed, contact
amplitude. This results in a decreased tota1 en
43 will be closed and relay coil 4l energized where
by re1ay contacts 54 wi1l a11 be closed. In this 40 ergy output, and at the same time decreases the
maximum energy radiated along the main axis.
condition which is for receiving the elements 9
to I?. are each connected to appropriate portions
The use of the arrangement shown in Fig. 11,
of the winding 26 to produce a resultant response
i1owevcr, makes it possible to radiate maximum
in the other winding 24 of the transformer in ac
total, ene1‘gy during transmission and yet have
cordance with any desired energy distribution g. 01 the bene?ts of a special distribution pattern dur—
the tapped winding 26 of a transformer 25 through
the contacts of a three-pole relay 40 having an
operating coil 4I. The latter is arranged to be
pattern preferably that de?ned by Equation 1.
Íi1g reception.
The winding 24 of the transformer 25 is at this
time connected through the contacts 48, 52 of a
double-pole, double-throw re1ay 47 to a receiving
ampli?er 53 which may be connected to any de
sired indicating device.
When the key 44 is depressed for sending a
Having now described my invention, I claim:
1. A submarine sígnaling device having a s’o1id
unitary radiating member having a continuous
radiating surface of surface dimensions many
tiines the Wave iength of the compressional waves
in the signaling medium at the signaling fre
c;uency, said surface adapted to be in contact with
signa], contact 43 is open, thereby deenergizing
re1ay coi1 4! and permitting contact 54 to open.
The eiements 9 to |2 are then connected in
series and together across the entire winding 26
of transformer 25.
Depressing the key 44 a1so
the signaling medium, said radiating n‘ember
having a reverse surî’ace opposed to 5 1d 1îrst
Î ce with a plurality of metallic eiastic iongi—
c1oses contact 45 energizing the re1ay 0011 46,
"d thereon
e radiating
whereby contacts 43 move to the right as shown
member, a plur„ ..„’‚;
in the drawings and connect with contacts 49. 60 COÍÎS operatively assoc'
The transformer winding 24 is thereby connected
ments i‘o‘r vibrating t
same, sa‘d eïeotric cur
to a suitabie source of alternating potential of
rentncarrjing coiis p-osuione-zi nearer the center
the sìgnaling frequency. Since the elements 5!
to 12 are now a11 connected in series, they wi11
be energized equally and, assuming that they
have the same numbers of turns, the energy dis
tribution pattern for the transmitted signal wì11
be that of a piston as is represented by the dot
ted curve in Fig. 1.
By this arrangement it will be noted that the
transmîtted signal has a strong main beam to
gether with subsidiary maxima at varìous angu
1ar directions to its axis. On receiving, however,
the sensitivity distributíon if made in accordance
with Equatìon 1 wi1l correspond to the solid curve 75
tî1e radiating member havìng
ampere-turns magnitude than the‘ coiis oper
atively associated with
metallic elements
nearer the perip’nery of the radiating’ member
wherehy ‘the ΑÎadiating areas naar ‘the center of
the radiatirig mem‘cer are‘ excited with ‘large
ampiitudes than ar
‘the een
of ‘the ra„_ ting mem‘ner Îor the pur—
oi red-ucing the intensity of the secondary
1obes of the beam pattern of the submarine sig«
naiing device.
2. A submarine signaling device having a solid
unitary radiating member having a continuous
radia‚ting surface of surfa‚ce dîmensions many
times the wave length of the compressìonal waves
in the sìgnaling medium at the sîgnaling fre
quency, said surface adapted to be in contact
with the signalíng medium, said radíatíng mem
ated in groups wíth respect to theìr dista‚nce from
the center of the ra‚dìating member, the groups
of coî1s nearer the center of the radiating mem
ber havî’ng a reverse surface opposed to saìd ?rst
surface with a‚ pluralìty of magnetostrictive longi
tudinally víbratable rode mounted thereon sub
stantîally extendìng over the entìre radiating
member, a pluralíty ‘of electrìc current-carrying
c0í1s surrounding saîd tubes for operatively en
ergizîng the same, saîd electríc current-carryîng
coi1s having connections whereby they ‘are oper
ber having greater ampere-turns magnîtude than
the coil groups progressively away from the center
whereby the radìatîng areas near the center of
the radiatìng members excìted with larger
amplìtudes than areas progressívely a‚way from
the center of the radíating member for the pur
pose of reducing the Ìntensîty of the secondary
lobes of the beam pattern of the submarine sig
nalìng device.
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