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` Sept. lo, 1.946. l vc;, WES'SEL A 2,407,334 'CASTING MACHINE Filed April 16, 1942 s sheets-sheet 1- ’§95 ß ,///// JZ; a . . Q6m _l ¿9 2 _WM l, www. Sept. 10, 1946. 2,407,334! c; wEssEL CASTING MACHINE Filed April 1e, 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 l 1w faz ’f :im Q7» zj, « «\\\ \\\“ QW@ ¿èwy . r / . a, . /42 5w Sept. l0, 1946. _ c. wEssEL ` 2,407,334 CASTING lMACHINE vFiled April 16, 1942 I5»~ Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented Sept. l0, 1946 _2,407,334 g UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,407,334 CASTING MACHINE Carl Wessel, Chicago, Ill., assigner to Carl Wessel and Lew W. Cleminson, both of Chicago, Ill., as trustees Application April is, 1942, serial No. 439,190 17 Claims. (c1. 22-57) ' 2 The present invention relates to casting ma ehines and is particularly concerned with appa ratus for producing better castings more efñ ciently and more economically than can be done by the methods and apparatus of the prior art. The present application is a continuation in melting and casting of the metal under reduced air, or controlled air conditions'as required by the metal used. Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, in which sim ilar characters of reference indicate similar parts part of my prior application, Serial No. 251,092, throughout the several views. ñled January 16, 1939, on Metal castings, meth Referring to the drawings which accompany ods and machines for casting the same, which is sued as U. S. Patent No. 2,287,848, on June 30, 10 this speciñcation, Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic top plan View of a 1942, entitled Method of casting. i plurality of melting furnaces arranged Yfor dis One of the objects of the present invention is the provision of an improved apparatus for cast charge into a centrally located ladle; Fig. 2 is a similar View of a modiñed furnace ing metal, utilizing refractory molds, and lilling and ladle arrangement; the mold by gravity of the liquid metal in suchv Fig. 3 is a top plan sectional View, taken on manner that the complete ñlling of the mold is the plane of the line 3-3 of Fig. 4, showing the effected and the shrinkage is avoided by the structure of the ladle of Figs. 1 and 2; continuous application c-f liquid metal under Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional View, taken von the pressure, due to gravity head, while the casting is cooling from its most remote end toward the 20 plane of the line 4_4 of Fig. 3, looking in the filling gate. , . ' direction of the arrows, showing the structure of kthe ladle and the closely associated part of the Another object of the invention is the provi sion cf an improved apparatus' for casting by mold; Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional View of a means of which extremely thin sections may be made and by means of which the freezing of a 25 modiñed form of connection between the ladle part of the metal during the pouring process, commonly referred to as blow-holes, may be elim inated. y . and the mold, which may be utilized in Fig. 4; Fig. 6 is a fragmentary elevational front view ofthe front part of the ladle and conveying mechanism for supporting the molds in mold Another object of the invention is the provision Y n of an improved apparatus for casting which pro 30 ñlling position; i Fig. 7 is a side elevational view in partial sec duces anabsolutely solid casting and produces'a high degree of uniformity of crystal structure of the casting, and which is >also economical in its tion, showing a modiñed form of a> tilting ladle mold, and support for they same, which is adapted operation. to be used in small plants for accomplishing Very ’ Another object of the invention is the provision 35 desirable results accordingV to the present inven of an improved apparatus for casting which tion, with the mold in the position which it as sumes before the mold-filling operation; ` avoids the contamination of the metal by ñlling Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, these are diagram the mold without the liquid metal coming in con matic arrangementsY of a plurality of furnaces, tact with any air except that small amount which is present in the mold. 40 shown in connection with a ladle of the type il ‘ lustrated in Figs. 3 and 4.y » Another object of the invention is the provision According to my method- of >operation ina of an improved apparatus forcasting kwhich is adapted to avoid shrinkage by means of the con ' foundry ofsuitable size, the ladle 20 is provided with an insulating lining 2l and is adapted to tinuous application of metal in liquid form under pressure Vhead due to gravity for a predetermined 45 receive within its chamber 'll a suitable supply of molten metal for continuouscasting operation. time, so that the congelation of the metalfmay be accomplished while pressure is applied. Q The ladle 2B is a fixed ladle, and by means of itsinsulating lining 2l it maintains the metal at Another object of the invention is the provision a suitable high degree of temperature for casting of improved apparatus for producing castings, by operations, the metal being discharged from the means of which shrinkage, flaws, and the forma discharge aperture 23 at the lower part of the tion of pipes and shrinking strains are eliminated, ladle 2E. and castings of uniform crystal structure may be produced at a minimum cost. The furnaces 23-26 may be arranged in a cir Another object of the invention is the provi cle about the upper part of the ladle 20, that is, Lsion of an improved apparatus which permits the 55 on an upper floor, in such manner that each fur :2,407,334 3 nace may have its discharge conduit 21 of equal length to those of the other furnaces, and the furnaces are to be periodically charged With a batch o-f metal to be melted and successively dis charged into the ladle 2U. Dilferent numbers of melting furnaces may, of course, be employed, the furnaces preferably 4 but by means of the use of Va suitable refractory ining for the metal jacketed conduits 34-39 the excessive loss of heat can be practically elimi nated and practically the same discharge tem perature secured for the batch from each fur nace. In the event the end furnaces 3S and 33 give evidence of slightly greater cooling of the batch as it discharges `down the elongated conduits 34, if four furnaces >are employed, a batch might be discharged into the ladle every fifteen minutes, 10 38 and 3l, 39, the end furnaces can be operated Lat slightly higher temperatures, to effect equali the capacity of each furnace being about 25€) sation of the temperature of the batches dis pounds per hour; while, if three furnaces were ' charged into ladle 2€?, which is similai- in con employed., a batch would be discharged every struction to the ladle or reservoir 2B, previously twenty minutes. Under these conditions the _ca pacity of the ladle might be approximately 12pt) it , described. Referring to Figs. 3--6, these are detailed illus pounds or two cubic feet, and the inner measure trations of the structure of the reservoir or ladle ments' of the ladle might be, for example, ten for melted metal and the arrangements for ñll inches inner diameter by thirty inches high. Vling molds from this reservoir. The temperature of the metal discharged yfrom In Figs. 3 and 4 the ladle, which is indicated the furnaces might be approximately 2200 den in its entirety by the numeral 253, may have its -«grecs-F., and 'the temperature of the metal in the interior insulation 2l formed in a plurality of ladle might `be slightly lower, but need Inot vary being of the rotating 'tilting type. For' example, more than about 200 degrees F., as the heat of the -metal in the ladle would be continuously re plenished by the periodic discharge into the ladle of hotter metal from the furnaces. Each furnace is preferably provided with a ro tating discharge spout 21, and the ladle or reser voir 2G is preferably provided with a ïsuitable cover, which is removable, so that the metal is -. fenclos'ed from the time it is melted in the fur nace and during its V'discharge into the ladle and during its discharge from the ladle into the mold, as will be further described. A cleaning of the metal >is effected in the fur layers, the layers comprising, respectively, the inner refractory do, the iirebrick d l, and the rock wool'or asbestos'ñber insulation 42. The ladle 2@ is preferably supported upon a suitable concrete foundation 43 and may »have its external metal jacket ¿i4 built up of a -multi plicity of metal sections '4E-5l. These metal sections are in the for-m of endless metal bands of cylindrical shape, each successive section be ing supported upon the one below it so «that the ladle -can be built to any desired height. rI’he metal jacket sections 45--51 are given‘ad vditional support and heldin alignment with each other by "a vplurality of vertically extending I beams 52-55 (Fig. 3)., which are preferably equally spaced about the periphery of the metal level position, the scraping being effected through jacket 4d, extend axially thereof, and are located a `discharge opening, y The melting may ythen 'be accomplished under 40 in contact with the external cylindrical surface nace before the pouring operation by scraping ' out the dross a-ndslag, with the furnace almost in of the jacket sections ¿l5-5 l. At each joint 'between the jacket sections there is a metal band i, and yeach metal band may be Yof similar construction to those -shown in Fig. Y of the »day’s casting. At the end of the day’s run, i" 3. ri‘he metal bands '5S-@l are bent to substan tially partially cylindrical form, and are long the reduced head, from one-half to zero in the »enough >to encompass that portion of the periph "ladle, would be utilized for the casting of 'rela ery Iwhich is located between the flanges of a pair tively small molds, which would not require as Vof I beams 52;-‘555 Any number `of I beams 'much total capacity «gravity head per day as the for an larger` eight castings,hour dayThe of mentioned may be employed, above I `but consider Sin 'furnace four I beams -o'f thesufû 'l ‘reduced air land controlled conditions. In the example of a furnace and ladle propor tion cited, the head of pressure might vary from ful-l head in the ladle to half head during most casting would be approximately 7,000 pounds. ' cient, 'and `the metal bands Si, ‘for example, con It is to be understood that the `sizes which have tact the external surfaces of the sections 5@ and been given for the >parts lof the ladle and the 5l of the jacket @d throughout the major portion capacities of the ladle given above are ‘merely of their length, and are bent outward vatei or pro exemplary, and 4the 4present apparatus maybe ‘ï vided wfith'an offset 52 ‘at each end so as to engage constructed in large or small sizes, depending outside the inner flange E3 of the I beams. upon the results desired. The bands 5t to 6i are also provided with an Referring to Fig. 1, each of the melting fur attachment flange Ed extending radially at each naces VEll is, of course, providedV with a suitable end and adapted to engage 'the web E5 of the I heating device, such as a gas or oil burner, and beam 513 or and the attachment vflanges 65 are may be provided with a motor for rotating, and provided with apertures for receiving the screw veach furnace of course comprises an internal -bolts 5%, which pass through 'the attachment hre-brick insulation supported by a metal jacket flanges -Gil `and through the web Ee, and secure as shown. In Fig. 1 the discharge spouts, which are also> 'i two of the attachment flanges of the bands Eil-_Sl to each web. > provided with a metal jacket and a `ñrebrick lin The bands 55E-5i are slightly ‘shorter in length ing'or refractory lining, may all be of the same _ than the spaces between the webs of the respec length, thereby assuring equal temperature for the discharged metal from each of the furnaces. I Ytive I beams 54, 55 so that there is a tolerance _to be taken up -by means of the bolts 66, which In Fig. 2 the .furnaces 3ft-'33 each discharge into the discharge conduits 34-31, and the two vco-nduits 3d, 35 and 36, 37 are joined to conduits 38, 39 respectively. In this case the lengths of draw'the bands tightly about the Ymetal sections 45-5! the jacket ¿lâ and assure the securement of these bands against vertical movement due to the frictional engagement between the bands and the , the conduits for all of the furnaces are not equal, metal sections. 2,407,334 5 ’ `6 . tion 92 thereof isprovided with laterally project ing flanges 93 and vertically projecting flanges 94, forming internally directed guide grooves 95,» 96 The ladle also comprises an inner metal'shell 10 of similar construction to the metal shell 44, or the inner metal shell may comprise the simple rfor receiving a complementary partv carried by a annular bands-of metal, such as steel, mounted ' mold. ' one upon the other in such a way as to overlap the Y The guide grooves 95, 96 extend parallel to each joints between the ñrebricks. The Space between «other and in straightllines so that the flanges 91, the two shells 44 and 10 may be ñlledwith rock 98 carriedby the mold may be »slidably mounted Wool, high temperature asbestos fiber, such as in the grooves 95, 98. Each of the molds Idd-I 05 Amosite, glass wool, or quartz wool, for the pur may comprise a metal lining and an external pose of conserving the heat in the ladle. «metal jacket |06 formed of two similar halves |01 Inside the shell 10, the ladle 20 is provided with |08 fitting together. the layer 4I of ñrebrick, molded to fìt together to , vThe jacket halves |01, |08 are lined with an form a wall which is annular in plan, and the fire inner layer |09, I I0 of smooth high-temperature brick preferably have their joints overlapping the resistant and heat-insulating refractory, previ joints between the sections of the inner shell 10. ously mentioned, which is used to line the inner For example, if the ñrebrick are also one foot high, Vmost chamber 1I of the ladle, and the refractory then this also facilitates the building of various sections |09, IIO of the mold have the casting sizes of ladles or reservoirs which diiïer in height cavity III formed in them, and are separable by a foot. The innermost layer of insulation comprises the 20 at the samejoint II2 as the metal halves |01, |08 of the jacket Itâ. For the purpose of illus refractory lining 40, which consists of a refractory tration, the mold IGI is illustrated with a jacket composition that is smooth but not glazed, and comprising two separable sections which are which may be treated with flux or charcoal to pre clamped or bolted tog-ether in any suitable way, vent the metal from sticking to it. preferably by means of pivoted bolts and wing The composition may include metal dioxides, clay, and feldspar, and such refractory linings nuts so that the molds may be removed quickly at the proper- time. However, the molds may may be made absolutely smooth so that the metal be made of any number of sections suitable to in the reservoir can be kept clean. the nature of the shape of the casting so as to A de-oxidizer compound can be kept on top of the charge in the reservoir or ladle 20 for the 30 facilitate the removal of the mold from the cast purpose of preventing any air contamination. ing as soon as it has congealed, without break ing any part of the casting. _ An alternative mode of preventing air contami The proper number of sections for a jacket nation is to provide a gas burner whose name or refractory lining of a mold will be evident plays on the full free surface of the molten metal to'anyone skilled in the art of molding. , in sufficient amount t0 exclude oxygen, or to use . The present molds are adapted to be used over some other `non-inflammable inert gas used in the >and overagain, and are practically indestructible. They are also preheated before use, and are inflammable as magnesium. The refractory lining 40 is also in the form of` maintained in a heated condition by re-use, the peripheral sections, which, for example, may be a 40 number of molds being adapted to the continu foot high, and all of which ñt together smoothly ous operation of the machine by the use of a samel Way when the raw material is explosive or to form the cylindrical reservoir chamber 1I for receiving the molten metal.k This chamber is mold practically as soon as it has been removed from one congealed casting which is still at a hlighly heated condition. ` substantially cylindrical in «shape at its uppermost portion, such as, for example, the sections 12, 13, The refractory sections of the mold are form-ed with the semi-cylindrical grooves I I3, I I4, which 14, or 15; but at its bottom the chamber 1I tapers together form anl aperture or conduit that in in diameter and is curved laterally toward the discharge port 23. Thus the section 16 of the creases in size gradually as it extends- down wardly and laterally, and the aperture IIB of ladle chamber 1I tapers from the initial diameter to approximately half the diameter, and extends 50 this conduit IIS fits the discharge aperture 23 toward the left in Fig. 3, in a streamlined curve. of rthe'ladle. The refractory blocks 11 adjacent this section are, The metal jacket I 06 of each mold has a dl of course, suitably formed `for this purpose. agonally downward and laterally extending for The refractoryk blocks 18 of the lowermost sec. tion have formed in them, when assembled, a continuation 19 of the tapered throat 18, which Á,tapers still farther along smoothly> curved lines toward the reduced conduit 80 in the refractory mation which is adapted to be secured to the 55 guide fitting I I1, having the flanges 91, 98 previ ously mentioned. This guide fitting has a pair of outwardly extending flanges II8'and a pair of downwardly and upwardly extending flanges block 8| at the side wall of the ladle. I|9. and is provided with set screws |20 for se The metal jacket‘section 46is provided with an enlarged aperture 32,` for receiving the refrac tory block 83, which may be cylindrical in form, andwhich is provided with the discharge aper cwrement to the mold. 60 It will be noted that in Fig. 4 the mold IDI, which is for a relatively ñat casting, extends diagonally upwardly.v This is for the purpose of permitting the filling of the mold by the flow ture 23, forming a continuation of the conduit 80. 'The refractory block> 83 may be housed in a cast 65 ing upward of the melted metal in the mold, metal fitting sa <Fig. 4), which is provided with without any. splashing or formation of drops. an inner curved surface 85, and peripherally ex It is contemplated that no special gates will tending flanges 85, 81 fit against a metal band 923 be required for the discharge of the air in the ' surroundingthe wall of the section 45, to which mold, as the air may leak out between the two the flanges 36, 81 are bolted by means of the 'screw halves of the refractory lining and metal jacket bolts 83, which have their threaded ends project of the mold, which are ñtted closely enough to ing outward from the shell 46. mold the casting with practically no fin, but still n The` fitting 84 may be built up in the form of a l» permit the escape of air. 1 plurality of metal sections 90, 9|, 92, bolted or The air compressed in the mold and forced out otherwise secured together, but the external por -75 through the cracks causes the metal to well up '2,407,334 S more slowly, thereby preventing hammer, shock, mold and by the time `required to carry out my and turbulence. It will be noted that the reservoir vor ladle 2i) process. When the shoulder |49 engages the pin |155, it causes the rack |3| to move to the left by an is formed with a downwardly vand laterally ex tending discharge conduit, which tapers gradu Ci amount equal to the length of a slot |33, which is sufficient to move one mold lill from the po» ally to its smallest section at the mouth |2| of the casting cavity. The molds may thus be slid ably supported by means of the guide .fixture 84, which is located not only in front of the furnace, but extends longitudinally from the fur nace in a straight line, so as to support >a multi plicity of molds, as shown in Fig. 6. In -some embodiments of the invention the ladle .may be provided with a plurality of discharge openings for yan equal number of molds. In some plants the molds may be shoved past the discharge aperture »23 of the ladle by hand. As soon as the aperture ||6 of the mold has passed the discharge aperture 23, the further dis -charge of melted metal is arrested by the fact that the flat surfaces on the face |22 of the re fractory of the mold cover up the discharge aperture 23. If desired, a suitable steel die may be pro sition which it occupies in Fig. 5, in registry with the discharge aperture 23, and to bring the vnext mold |92 into that same position. Thereafter the shoulder IEB slips olf and passes the pin |45, due to the rotation or the wheel IES, and the spring |3€l returns the rack ISI, during which movement all of 'the pawls i 3'5-1130 are adapted to slide past the molds which are immediately to the right of each pawl. The pawls are then in position to engage and actuate these molds when the rack has reached the position of Fig. 6 again. Thus the mech anism is adapted to eiiect the movement of the molds in a Ystep-by-step Ímanner and -to permit the molds to remain in casting position -for a pre determined length of time. Referring again to Fig. 4c, the ladle is Ypreferably provided with a fixed cover ‘member |663, which may comprise a metal jacket lfâ'l having an ex vided at this Íface |22 for shearing off any metal ternal cylindrical portion E62 and a fiat end por which may have congealed. tion |63. In the practice of my method, the metal, The jacket i6! may be bolted in place by means which may be congealed slightly, will still be of the bolts ltd and ñanges |65, lâ?. The `jacket capable of being sheared oiï at this time. `When the molds are shoved into place by 30 may have a centrally located aperture |61 with a downwardly extending frusto-conical flange hand, there will be suitable stops such as pins, placed in apertures in the fitting 84 for stopping Hi8. The jacket is lined with a flat block of re fractory |769 in the form of a ydisc having a cen the mold, with the apertures 23 and | i5 in regis try, and the rpulling of the stop pin or movement trally located frusto-conical bore |16 fitting against the iiange |63. ci the stop member out of its operative position ri‘his aperture Il@ serves as a iilling opening will permit the progress of the mold from the casting position to a position further on in` the for the reservoir or ladle 1|, and it in turn may guides of the guide iixture 84. be closed by a movable cover member l1 i, which In other embodiments of the invention a suit has a metal jacket |12 and a refractory lining able driving mechanism may be provided, such 40 |13 retained by means of a frusto-conical flange as, for example, the frame members |30 (Fig. 6) lill, The movable cover l1! ñts in the >bore |61 which support a driving rack |3| that is slidably and produces an effective closure, due to the en" mounted by means of the pins |32 in slots |33 gagement of the metal flanges |63 and |14. below the molds. The movable cover Ell may be provided with This rack may be spring-urged toward the a centrally located air aperture |15, communicat right by means of a tension spring |34 engaging ing with a counterbore |15 for receiving a conical a pin on the rack, and having its opposite end se valve member |11. The valve member ||1 has cured to» a frame member The rack is provided a stem |13 guided in an aperture in the jacket Awith a plurality of pawls 'IE5-|49. Each pawl |12 and urged to closed position by a spring |19. läd-«Mil is pivotally mounted upon a pin 14| and 50 The stem il@ has a transverse pin I8@ engaging engages a stop member |42, toward which it is in a slot in the end of 'a lever I3 |. pulled by means of a spring |43. The rack bar |35 also has a driving pin ille suitably located to be engaged by the shoulder |49 carried by a rotating drive wheel |59 mounted 'on shaft l5 i. rI‘he operation cf this step-'by-step mechanism is as follows: Shaft l5! may rotate at a constant speed, which is determined by the length of time rI‘he lever ibi is pivoted on the bracket |32 ‘and provided at its opposite end with a ’pull rod |83 slidably mounted in a guide ñxture |34 and pro vided with a ball counter-'balance |85. By means of a pull on the rod |63 the operator may regu late the admission of air to the chamber l1| of ladle 253, and thus control, at least in some meas ure, the discharge of metal from its lower end. required for the making of one casting. This 60 Thus the pull rod |33 would be pulled when ever the mold was in front of the discharge aper time will be suiiicient, as Vhereinafter more fully described, to permit not only the filling of the ture of the ladle, and the actuation of the rod may be gradual, in order to permit the filling of mold with melted metal, but the continued ap plication of melted metal under gravity head to the mold without any splashing, or to reduce the the mold while the Acasting con'gea‘ls from its out 65 impact which results when the molten metal ermost point inward ‘toward the supply of metal flowing into the mold reaches the end of the in the reservoir. mold. l‘During this ’congelation the shrinkage of the Referring to Fig. 5, this is a lmodiiication in casting is taken up by the sup-ply of additional which the conduit | i5 is provided with a butter metal from the molten end of the casting, and 70 fly valve 210 for controlling the now of the metal the last part of the casting to freeze should into the mold. be that adjacent the mouth |25 0f the mold. This valve may be so construct-ed that its actu Thus the actuating shoulder |49 performs aro ating shaft may be’ withdrawn, and that portion tation in a predetermined time, which'is'deter of the conduit H5 surrounding it maybe sepa .mined by the characteristics of the 'casting cir rated when the mold is separated, so that the 2,407,334 9 10 . 'metal in the conduit H5 may be removed from the conduit with the valve 210, and a new valve substituted when the mold is again used. « My method of castingis briefly described a traction. The entire mold will be filled, and the casting will correspond more closely to the shape of the mold than with the methods of the prior art. follows: When a ladle of the type described is used, the Yladle is constantly supplied with new batchesof molten metal, from which all dross or scum have been removed in the furnace, and this metal is supplied to the ladle without ex posure to the air, so far as possible. After the casting has solidified in the mold down to the ñlling opening of the mold, the fur ther ilow of metal into the mold is cut off _by sliding the mold Sidewise so that the stream of metal is sheared off. If it has solidified. down to the point of shearing, it can still be sheared A de-oxidizer compound" may be kept on top off, due to its relative softness at such Aa high temperature, and the discharge aperture of the of the charge, to prevent air contamination. The ladle is closed bya flat surface on the end of the molten metal is kept in the ladle, which is lined mold. f ‘ " with smooth refractory, suitably treated with flux The next mold continues to close this discharge or charcoal, to prevent the metal from sticking 15 opening by a, similar flat surface until its filling to it, and suitably insulated, so that the metal opening comes in registry with ythe discharge may be maintained at a high temperature, with opening of the ladle, after which the ñlling'of a minimum fluctuation `of temperature between the mold is again resumed. ' Y batches. The mold, which has been filled and removed When ordinary castings are to be made, the 20 from its ladle, has its parts separated, and the mold is made of a similar smooth refractory ca casting is removed at a proper time, which is de-> pable of retaining the heat, and providing heat termined by the character of -‘ the casting.l This insulation for the casting, and the mold is pre enables the use of the mold over again While it heated either by a preheating operation or by being used over and over again, immediately after 25 is still in a heated condition, and the casting may contract as it cools, without producing any a previous casting Operation. The mold and the ladle have their entry and l strains on the mold or breaking thel mold. The casting may contract more freely than if it were discharge openings and conduit for the metal left in the mold. v smoothly tapered along stream lines so that there Castings may thus be made to closer tolerances, will be no splashing and the least amount of 30 and the present method makes sure the elimina agitation of the metal. tion of flaws because of the constant application The mold may be lined with metal inside the of liquid metal under pressure to the molten side refractory to reduce breakage of molds and irn of the casting, as the casting solidiñes. There is prove castings, and when casting with certain no chance of getting drops of metal in the mold, metals I use metalmolds where it is economical. as the metal wells up into the mold, due to the The mold is tilted upward from its filling open tilt of the mold with respect to its filling opening.` ing so that metalw running into the mold cannot Such drops frequently happen in the casting drop down to the end of the mold and splash. ` methods of the prior art on account of splashing After the mold opening is placed in registry with the discharge opening of the ladle, the molten 40 or agitation, and such drops solidify on the way down into the mold, in the devices of the metal is permitted to well up into the mold, its prior art. This cannot happen according to my level constantly rising, until it completely fills the mold. method. - Y « » The mold may, in the case of relatively large castings, be provided with apertures for the is suance'ofthe air, but in most cases the air'will leak out between the halves of the mold, and th'e One of the most important features of the method is the freezing of the metal last at the mouth of the mold and at the beginning of the freezing at the point farthest away from the mouth of the mold. In some castings gates may be provided at the most remote point of the mold.r A rim around the casting may usually be avoided because such heavy pressures are no1; employed moldsin such case will not need risers. in my method as in die casting. ' Duringthis time the metal is still molten and maintained heated because of the insulating character of the refractory mold or the preheat ing of the mold. ' Y» Y ' metals. Y 'I‘he thickness of the refractory in the mold and in the ladle are proportionate to the bulk of the metal in the casting or the bulk of . The castings, after removal from the mold, are The method may be practised with all types of preferably subjected to the uniform foundry tem perature of approximately 65 degrees F.; and kept out of draft. They could also be quenched in water, if desired, but are preferably cooled uni the metal in the ladle,A respectively. formly by being subjected to a moderate and After the mold has been filled, it is then main uniform cooling temperature so that they will tained in the same position, with the metal of the ladle pressing into the mold, due to the head of 60 contract in proportion, everywhere in the casting. While I have illustrated a preferred embodi the metal in the ladle, until the metal has solidi ment of my invention, many modifications may fied in the mold. be made without departing from the spirit of the During this operation the pouring end of the invention, and I do not wish to be limited to the mold is the hottest, and the end farthest from the precise details of construction set forth, but de ladle isy the coolest. There'is a heat gradient ex sire to avail myself of all changes vWithin the scope tending Yfrom the ladle outward to the extreme of the appended claims. end of the mold. As the metal solidiñes, it begins to solidify at the eiìtreme end of the mold,»away Having thus described my invention, what I from the ladle, and gradually solidiñes downward claim -as new and desire to secureby Letters Pat toward the ñlling opening of the mold. During 70 ent of the United States is: ' ' Í this operation'any shrinkageis taken up by the 1. In an apparatus for casting, aladle for cast supply of additional melted metal, due to th‘e ing operations, comprising an external metal head of the'met’al in the-ladle. ' There will be no flaws or pipes, nor will the cast ing be subjected to strains due to unequal con shell,v ,an internal metal shell, an insulating filling of >mineral fibers between said shells, a lining of 75 ñrebrick inside said second metal shell, and a 2,407,334 12 ilr means on said container whereby a plurality of lining of smooth refractory inside said ñrebrick, said lining of smooth refractory deñning» a ladle chamber, said ladle chamber tapering and ex. tending laterally toward a discharge opening at a lower part of said chamber for the supply-of said molds may be successively brought into reg istry and moved out of registry with the discharge opening of said container, and conveyor means for supporting said molds and facilitating their metal 'to molds. movement on said guide means whereby the con 2. In an apparatus for casting, a ladle for cast ing operations, comprising an external metal shell, an internal metal shell, an insulating fill ing of mineral fibers between said shells, a lin ing` of firebrick inside said second metal shell, and a lining of smooth refractory inside said hre brick, saidA lining of smooth refractory deiining a ladle chamber, said ladle chamber tapering and f extendingl laterally toward a discharge opening ata lower part oi said chamber for the supply of metal to molds, said` ladle having surroimding said discharge opening a metal ñtting for the securement of a mold with its filling opening in registry with the discharge opening of said ladle. 20 3» In an apparatus for casting, a ladle for cast ing'y operations, comprising an external metal shell, an. internal metal shell, an insulating iilling of mineral fibers between said shells, a lining oi ñrebrick inside said second metal shell, and a tainer may be maintained ñlled with a predeter mined high level of molten metal at a high tem perature, and the metal may be caused to well up into the mold cavity so that the casting may cool from its remote end downward toward its filling opening andv any shrinkage may be taken up by the supply oi additional metal under pressure from said container, the molds being successively applied to the discharge opening of said container to eiTect a continuous casting operation. 6. A casting apparatus comprising a ladle pro vided with a heat insulating lining for maintain ing a supply of melted metal at a high tempera ture, said ladle being enclosed tov protect its con tents against access to air, and said ladle having a streamlined discharge conduit adapted to be located below the free surface of the metal and under a relatively large head of meta-l at the time 25 of discharge of metal from said ladle, and a mold lining ofv smooth refractory inside said firebrick, having its filling opening of relatively large size said> lin-ing of smooth refractory defining a ladle chamber, said ladle chamber tapering and ex tending laterally toward a discharge opening at a lower part of' said chamber for the supply of metal to molds, said ladle having surrounding said discharge-,opening a metal fitting for the secure ment of a moldwith its ñlling opening in registry with the discharge opening of said ladle, said fit ting, being provided with; guides for sliding com 35 and forming a continuation of said streamlined discharge conduit, said mold extending upward from its iilling opening at the time of filling of the mold, and being of relatively small size with re spect to the capacity of said ladle, and means for controlling the flow of metal from said ladle to said mold to eiiect a smooth and continuous well ing up of melted‘metal in a solid stream with its free surface progressing upward from the filling plementary engagement with said molds whereby opening to the top of the mold, said ladle having the molds may be moved laterally into and out of registry with the' opening ofthe ladle. a sufficient capacity to provide a gravity head of metal on the metal in said mold while the cast ing in the mold is cooling from the remote part 4.- InY an apparatus for casting'.- a ladle for cast ing. operations, comprising an external metal 40 of the mold toward the filling opening to supply additional metal under gravity head during the shell,„an internal metalshell, an insulating filling cooling, shrinkage, and congelation of the casting. of‘mineralv iibers between said shells, a lining of 7. A casting apparatus comprising a ladle pro ñrebrick inside said second metal shell, and a vided with a heat insulating lining for maintain lining; of smooth refractory inside said lirebrick, said lining of' smooth refractorydeíining a ladle 45 ing'a supply of melted metal at a high tempera ture, said ladle being enclosed to protect its con chamber, said. ladle chamber tapering and extend tents against access to air, and said ladle having a ing; laterally> toward a discharge opening at a streamlined discharge conduit adapted to belo lower partîof said .chamber for the supply of metal cated below the free surface oi the metal and un to, molds‘„ said ladle being provided with a fixed der a relatively large head of metal at the time of refractory cover having a iilling aperture, and a discharge of metal from said ladle, and a mold movably mounted refractory cover for closing said aperture. having its iilling opening of relatively large size 51, rIïhe combination of a container for molten and forming a continuation of said streamlined metal, with a plurality»v of furnaces arranged to discharge successively into said container, said container comprising a ladle having a metal shell, a layer of heat insulating material, an internal metal shell', ñrebricks, and a smooth refractory lining whereby the container is adapted to main tain the molten metal ata relatively high tem perature, said container having a chamber pro discharge conduit, said mold extending upward from its filling opening at he time of filling of the mold, and being of relatively small size with re spect to the capacity of said ladle, and means for controlling the flow of metal from said ladle to said mold to effect a smooth and continuous well ing up of melted metal in a solid stream with its ally extending tapered discharge opening, said free surface progressing upward from the filling opening at the top of the mold, said ladle having a sufhcient capacity to provide a gravity head of cover having means for regulating the admission metal on the metal in said mold while the casting of air in controlling the discharge of molten metal,I guide means carried by said container ad jacent said discharge opening, and a mold having an external metal shell, a refractory lining, and an internal molding shell, said internal shell being of a higher melting point than the metal used for casting, said-mold having a cavity disposed upper most,> and a ñlling opening extending downwardly and laterally into registry with the discharge opening of said container, and said mold having guide means for slidably engaging the guide in the mold is cooling from the remote part of the mold toward the filling opening to supply ad ditional metal under gravity head during the cooling, shrinkage, and congelation of the cast ing„sa-id latter means comprising avalve in said streamlined discharge conduit, and means for periodically bringing additional molds into casting position. directly from said ladle. vided with a cover and a downwardly and later 8. The combination of an insulated container for melted metal with a plurality of furnaces arranged to discharge successively into said con 2,407,334 14 i 13 the bottom of the metal in the container, a guide said housing members being mounted with each successive'upper housing member supported on the upper edge of the lower one, and said hous ing members being of a predetermined width, means fora plurality of slidably mounted molds, said molds being carried by said guide means, with a plurality of upwardly extending outer frame members arranged in spaced relation tainer, said container having a streamlined ta pered discharge opening adapted to be located below the free surface of the metal and adjacent and having relatively large ñlling openings about said housing members, with clamping adapted to be brought into registry with said bands extending between said outer frame mem streamlined conduit, a plurality of molds car bers and engaging the metal housing members ried by said guide means, with their cavities ex 10 outside their joints to effect an alignment of the housing members and to clamp them in place by friction, and a lining of refractory material tending upward from said ñlling opening, each mold following the other and being adapted to drive the previous mold from thev filling posi tion when the succeeding mold comes into filling position, the melted metal in said container well ing upward under gravity head into said molds successively in a solid uninterrupted stream until the molds are successively filled and maintained under gravity head while shrinkage and congela tion takes place. ' inside said shell,»said lining being formed with a cavity for receiving a supply of molten metal. l2. In a ladle for casting having a unit con struction adapted to be constructed in various sizes out of the same units, the combination of a plurality of metal housing members of substan tial width adapted to form an outer metal shell, 20 said housing members being mounted with each successive upper housing member supported on the upper edge of the lower one, and said hous-_ ing members being of a predetermined width, with a plurality of upwardly extending outer frame members arranged in spaced relation about said housing members, with clamping rality of melting furnaces arranged in proximity bands extending between said outer frame mem to said reservoir, said melting furnaces being ar bers and engaging the metal housing members ranged to discharge successively batches of su outside their joints to effect an alignment of the perheated casting material successively intok said reservoir for the purpose of raising the tempera 30 housing members and to clamp them in place by friction,.and a lining of refractory material ture and replenishing the heat to maintain the inside said shell, said lining being formed with a temperature of the casting material and to ef cavity for receiving a supply of molten metal, fect a mixture of successive batches with the re said lining being constructed of preformed blocks mainder in said reservoirto increase the uni formity of the supply of casting material, said 35 ofy unit height and predetermined thickness 9. In an apparatus for casting with a high de gree of uniformity of the product, the combina tion of a reservoir adapted to maintain the cast ing material at a predetermined temperature above the solidifying temperature, with a plu 25 reservoir having a capacity in excess of the ca pacity of any furnace of the assembly, and a mold applied to and directly engaging said reser voir with the registry of a ñlling opening of said mold and a discharge opening of said reservoir at a point below the free surface of the metal at the time of casting so that the casting ma terial may be forced into the mold by the gravity head of casting material in the reservoir. 10. In an apparatus for casting with a high degree of uniformity of the product, the combi nation of a reservoir adapted to maintain the casting material at a predetermined temperature above the solidifying temperature, with a plu-_ rality of melting furnaces arranged in proximity to said reservoir, said melting furnaces being ar ranged to discharge successively batches of su perheated casting material successively into said reservoir for the purpose of raising the tempera ture and replenishing the heat to maintain the temperature of the casting material and to effect rwhereby the height of the ladle may be varied by using more or less of the housing members and blocks. 13». In a ladle for casting having a unit con 40 struction adapted to be constructed in various sizes out of the same Junits, the combination of a plurality of metal housing members of sub stantial width adapted to form an outer metal shell, said housing members being mounted with 45 each successive upper housing member sup ported on the upper edge of the lower one, and said housing members being of a predetermined width, with a plurality of upwardly extending outer frame members arranged in spaced relation 50 about said housing members, with clamping bands extending between said outer frame mem bers and engaging the metal housing members outside their joints to eiîect an alignment of the housing members and to clamp them in place by 55 friction, and a lining of refractory material inside said shell, said lining being formed with a cavity for receiving a supply of molten metal, said lining a mixture of successive batches with the remain der in said reservoir to increase the uniformity of being constructed lof preformed blocks of unit the supply of _ casting material, said reservoir height and predetermined thickness whereby the having a capacity in excess of the capacity of any 60 height of the ladle may be varied by using more furnace of the assembly, and a mold applied to said reservoir at a point below the free surface of the metal at the time of casting so that the cast or less of the housing members and blocks, said ladle having an inner shell of metal housing members surrounding said` blocks, and a layer of heat-resistive and heat-insulating material ing material may be forced'into the mold by the gravity head of casting material in the reservoir, 65 between the inner and outer shell. Y said mold having its major axis extending up le. A cover construction for a ladle comprising wardly from the ñlling opening in said mold so a metal shell having a shape and plan substan that the casting material wells upward into the tially the same as the plan shape of the ladle, mold without separating from the main body of said shell having an outwardly extending at material in the reservoir. 70 taching flange, and having an end plate, said 11. In a ladle for casting having a unit con end plate being formed with an aperture adapted struction adapted to be constructed in various to communicate with the ladle, said aperture sizes out of the same units, the combination of a being bordered by an inwardly extending frusto plurality of metal housing members of substan conical flange, an integral block of refractory tial width adapted to form an outermetal shell, material housed between said latter flange, said 2,407,334v 15 end plate, andl the outer wall of said cover shell, and ar second removable closure adapted to be inserted in said aperture to engage said frusto conical- ñange. l5. A cover construction for a ladle comprising a metal shell having a shape and plan substan tially the same as the plan shape of the ladle, said shell having an outwardly extending at taching ñange, and having an end plate,- said end plate being formed with an aperture adapted to communicate with the ladle, said aperture being bordered by an inwardly extending truste» conical flange, an integral block of refractory material housed `netween said latter ñange, said end' plate, and the outer wall of said cover shell, 15 16 second removable closure adapted to be inserted in said aperture to engage said frusto-conical flange, said removable closure comprising a metal shell having a top plate and a downwardly eX tending truste-conical flange, and an integral block of refractory material shaped to and held by said latter irusto-conical flange, said latter block having a through aperture, and manually controllable valve means for controlling the flow ofl air through said aperture. i7. En an apparatus for casting, the combina tion of a ladle having a metal shell and a heat insulating lining formed with a reservoir cham~ ber for molten metal, said chamber having a discharge opening for communicating with a mold, a mold directly connected to said ladle, and a second removable closure adapted to be and comprising a metal member having a cavity inserted in said aperture to engage said írusto and having a iilling opening, said ñlling opening conical flange, said removable closure comprising being connected to said discharge opening of said a metal shell having a top plate and a down wardly extending frusto-conical dange, and an 20 ladle, and said mold extending upward at the time of filling o1n said mold, said mold discharging integral block of refractory material shaped to the air in the empty cavity through leakage vents and held by said latter frusta-conical flange. between the parts of said mold, and said ladle i6. A cover construction for a ladle comprising being provided with a substantially air-tight a metal shell having a shape and plan substan~ tially the same as the plan shape of the ladle, 25 closure, valve means for controlling the admis sion of air to said ladle above the free surface said-shell having an outwardly extending attach of molten metal in said ladle, whereby the flow ing liange, and having an end plate, said end plate of molten metal upward into said mold is con being formed with an aperture adapted to corn trolled by said valve means due to the differ niunicate with the ladle, said aperture being bor ential in air pressure in said ladle and the air dered by an inwardly extending irusto-conical pressure on the metal of said mold. flange, an integral blocl; of refractory material housed between said latter fiange, said end plate, and the cuter Wall of said cover shell, and a CARL ÑVESSEL.