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Патент USA US2407335

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vc;, WES'SEL A
2,407,334
'CASTING MACHINE
Filed April 16, 1942
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CASTING MACHINE
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Sept. l0, 1946.
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` 2,407,334
CASTING lMACHINE
vFiled April 16, 1942
I5»~ Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Sept. l0, 1946
_2,407,334 g
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,334
CASTING MACHINE
Carl Wessel, Chicago, Ill., assigner to Carl Wessel
and Lew W. Cleminson, both of Chicago, Ill., as
trustees
Application April is, 1942, serial No. 439,190
17 Claims.
(c1. 22-57)
'
2
The present invention relates to casting ma
ehines and is particularly concerned with appa
ratus for producing better castings more efñ
ciently and more economically than can be done
by the methods and apparatus of the prior art.
The present application is a continuation in
melting and casting of the metal under reduced
air, or controlled air conditions'as required by the
metal used.
Other objects and advantages of the invention
will be apparent from the following description
and the accompanying drawings, in which sim
ilar characters of reference indicate similar parts
part of my prior application, Serial No. 251,092,
throughout the several views.
ñled January 16, 1939, on Metal castings, meth
Referring to the drawings which accompany
ods and machines for casting the same, which is
sued as U. S. Patent No. 2,287,848, on June 30, 10 this speciñcation,
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic top plan View of a
1942, entitled Method of casting.
i
plurality of melting furnaces arranged Yfor dis
One of the objects of the present invention is
the provision of an improved apparatus for cast
charge into a centrally located ladle;
Fig. 2 is a similar View of a modiñed furnace
ing metal, utilizing refractory molds, and lilling
and ladle arrangement;
the mold by gravity of the liquid metal in suchv
Fig. 3 is a top plan sectional View, taken on
manner that the complete ñlling of the mold is
the plane of the line 3-3 of Fig. 4, showing the
effected and the shrinkage is avoided by the
structure of the ladle of Figs. 1 and 2;
continuous application c-f liquid metal under
Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional View, taken von the
pressure, due to gravity head, while the casting
is cooling from its most remote end toward the 20 plane of the line 4_4 of Fig. 3, looking in the
filling gate.
,
.
'
direction of the arrows, showing the structure of
kthe ladle and the closely associated part of the
Another object of the invention is the provi
sion cf an improved apparatus' for casting by
mold;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional View of a
means of which extremely thin sections may be
made and by means of which the freezing of a 25 modiñed form of connection between the ladle
part of the metal during the pouring process,
commonly referred to as blow-holes, may be elim
inated.
y
. and the mold, which may be utilized in Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary elevational front view
ofthe front part of the ladle and conveying
mechanism for supporting the molds in mold
Another object of the invention is the provision
Y
n
of an improved apparatus for casting which pro 30 ñlling position; i
Fig. 7 is a side elevational view in partial sec
duces anabsolutely solid casting and produces'a
high degree of uniformity of crystal structure of
the casting, and which is >also economical in its
tion, showing a modiñed form of a> tilting ladle
mold, and support for they same, which is adapted
operation.
to be used in small plants for accomplishing Very
’
Another object of the invention is the provision 35 desirable results accordingV to the present inven
of an improved apparatus for casting which
tion, with the mold in the position which it as
sumes before the mold-filling operation; `
avoids the contamination of the metal by ñlling
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, these are diagram
the mold without the liquid metal coming in con
matic arrangementsY of a plurality of furnaces,
tact with any air except that small amount which
is present in the mold.
40 shown in connection with a ladle of the type il
‘ lustrated in Figs. 3 and 4.y
»
Another object of the invention is the provision
According to my method- of >operation ina
of an improved apparatus forcasting kwhich is
adapted to avoid shrinkage by means of the con
' foundry ofsuitable size, the ladle 20 is provided
with an insulating lining 2l and is adapted to
tinuous application of metal in liquid form under
pressure Vhead due to gravity for a predetermined 45 receive within its chamber 'll a suitable supply
of molten metal for continuouscasting operation.
time, so that the congelation of the metalfmay
be accomplished while pressure is applied.
Q The ladle 2B is a fixed ladle, and by means of
itsinsulating lining 2l it maintains the metal at
Another object of the invention is the provision
a suitable high degree of temperature for casting
of improved apparatus for producing castings, by
operations, the metal being discharged from the
means of which shrinkage, flaws, and the forma
discharge aperture 23 at the lower part of the
tion of pipes and shrinking strains are eliminated,
ladle 2E.
and castings of uniform crystal structure may
be produced at a minimum cost.
The furnaces 23-26 may be arranged in a cir
Another object of the invention is the provi
cle about the upper part of the ladle 20, that is,
Lsion of an improved apparatus which permits the 55 on an upper floor, in such manner that each fur
:2,407,334
3
nace may have its discharge conduit 21 of equal
length to those of the other furnaces, and the
furnaces are to be periodically charged With a
batch o-f metal to be melted and successively dis
charged into the ladle 2U.
Dilferent numbers of melting furnaces may, of
course, be employed, the furnaces preferably
4
but by means of the use of Va suitable refractory
ining for the metal jacketed conduits 34-39 the
excessive loss of heat can be practically elimi
nated and practically the same discharge tem
perature secured for the batch from each fur
nace.
In the event the end furnaces 3S and 33 give
evidence of slightly greater cooling of the batch
as it discharges `down the elongated conduits 34,
if four furnaces >are employed, a batch might be
discharged into the ladle every fifteen minutes, 10 38 and 3l, 39, the end furnaces can be operated
Lat slightly higher temperatures, to effect equali
the capacity of each furnace being about 25€)
sation of the temperature of the batches dis
pounds per hour; while, if three furnaces were '
charged into ladle 2€?, which is similai- in con
employed., a batch would be discharged every
struction to the ladle or reservoir 2B, previously
twenty minutes. Under these conditions the _ca
pacity of the ladle might be approximately 12pt) it , described.
Referring to Figs. 3--6, these are detailed illus
pounds or two cubic feet, and the inner measure
trations of the structure of the reservoir or ladle
ments' of the ladle might be, for example, ten
for melted metal and the arrangements for ñll
inches inner diameter by thirty inches high.
Vling molds from this reservoir.
The temperature of the metal discharged yfrom
In Figs. 3 and 4 the ladle, which is indicated
the furnaces might be approximately 2200 den
in its entirety by the numeral 253, may have its
-«grecs-F., and 'the temperature of the metal in the
interior insulation 2l formed in a plurality of
ladle might `be slightly lower, but need Inot vary
being of the rotating 'tilting type. For' example,
more than about 200 degrees F., as the heat of
the -metal in the ladle would be continuously re
plenished by the periodic discharge into the
ladle of hotter metal from the furnaces.
Each furnace is preferably provided with a ro
tating discharge spout 21, and the ladle or reser
voir 2G is preferably provided with a ïsuitable
cover, which is removable, so that the metal is -.
fenclos'ed from the time it is melted in the fur
nace and during its V'discharge into the ladle and
during its discharge from the ladle into the mold,
as will be further described.
A cleaning of the metal >is effected in the fur
layers, the layers comprising, respectively, the
inner refractory do, the iirebrick d l, and the rock
wool'or asbestos'ñber insulation 42.
The ladle 2@ is preferably supported upon a
suitable concrete foundation 43 and may »have
its external metal jacket ¿i4 built up of a -multi
plicity of metal sections '4E-5l. These metal
sections are in the for-m of endless metal bands
of cylindrical shape, each successive section be
ing supported upon the one below it so «that the
ladle -can be built to any desired height.
rI’he metal jacket sections 45--51 are given‘ad
vditional support and heldin alignment with each
other by "a vplurality of vertically extending I
beams 52-55 (Fig. 3)., which are preferably
equally spaced about the periphery of the metal
level position, the scraping being effected through
jacket 4d, extend axially thereof, and are located
a `discharge opening,
y
The melting may ythen 'be accomplished under 40 in contact with the external cylindrical surface
nace before the pouring operation by scraping
' out the dross a-ndslag, with the furnace almost in
of the jacket sections ¿l5-5 l.
At each joint 'between the jacket sections there
is a metal band
i, and yeach metal band may
be Yof similar construction to those -shown in Fig.
Y of the »day’s casting. At the end of the day’s run, i" 3. ri‘he metal bands '5S-@l are bent to substan
tially partially cylindrical form, and are long
the reduced head, from one-half to zero in the
»enough >to encompass that portion of the periph
"ladle, would be utilized for the casting of 'rela
ery Iwhich is located between the flanges of a pair
tively small molds, which would not require as
Vof I beams 52;-‘555 Any number `of I beams
'much
total capacity
«gravity head
per day
as the
for an
larger`
eight
castings,hour dayThe
of
mentioned
may be employed,
above I `but
consider
Sin
'furnace
four I beams
-o'f thesufû
'l ‘reduced air land controlled conditions.
In the example of a furnace and ladle propor
tion cited, the head of pressure might vary from
ful-l head in the ladle to half head during most
casting would be approximately 7,000 pounds.
' cient, 'and `the metal bands Si, ‘for example, con
It is to be understood that the `sizes which have
tact the external surfaces of the sections 5@ and
been given for the >parts lof the ladle and the
5l of the jacket @d throughout the major portion
capacities of the ladle given above are ‘merely
of
their length, and are bent outward vatei or pro
exemplary, and 4the 4present apparatus maybe ‘ï
vided wfith'an offset 52 ‘at each end so as to engage
constructed in large or small sizes, depending
outside the inner flange E3 of the I beams.
upon the results desired.
The bands 5t to 6i are also provided with an
Referring to Fig. 1, each of the melting fur
attachment flange Ed extending radially at each
naces VEll is, of course, providedV with a suitable
end and adapted to engage 'the web E5 of the I
heating device, such as a gas or oil burner, and
beam 513 or
and the attachment vflanges 65 are
may be provided with a motor for rotating, and
provided
with
apertures
for receiving the screw
veach furnace of course comprises an internal
-bolts 5%, which pass through 'the attachment
hre-brick insulation supported by a metal jacket
flanges -Gil `and through the web Ee, and secure
as shown.
In Fig. 1 the discharge spouts, which are also> 'i two of the attachment flanges of the bands Eil-_Sl
to each web.
> provided with a metal jacket and a `ñrebrick lin
The bands 55E-5i are slightly ‘shorter in length
ing'or refractory lining, may all be of the same
_ than the spaces between the webs of the respec
length, thereby assuring equal temperature for
the discharged metal from each of the furnaces. I
Ytive I beams 54, 55 so that there is a tolerance
_to be taken up -by means of the bolts 66, which
In Fig. 2 the .furnaces 3ft-'33 each discharge
into the discharge conduits 34-31, and the two
vco-nduits 3d, 35 and 36, 37 are joined to conduits
38, 39 respectively. In this case the lengths of
draw'the bands tightly about the Ymetal sections
45-5! the jacket ¿lâ and assure the securement of
these bands against vertical movement due to the
frictional engagement between the bands and the
, the conduits for all of the furnaces are not equal,
metal sections.
2,407,334
5
’
`6
.
tion 92 thereof isprovided with laterally project
ing flanges 93 and vertically projecting flanges 94,
forming internally directed guide grooves 95,» 96
The ladle also comprises an inner metal'shell
10 of similar construction to the metal shell 44,
or the inner metal shell may comprise the simple
rfor receiving a complementary partv carried by a
annular bands-of metal, such as steel, mounted
' mold.
'
one upon the other in such a way as to overlap the
Y The guide grooves 95, 96 extend parallel to each
joints between the ñrebricks. The Space between
«other and in straightllines so that the flanges 91,
the two shells 44 and 10 may be ñlledwith rock
98 carriedby the mold may be »slidably mounted
Wool, high temperature asbestos fiber, such as
in the grooves 95, 98. Each of the molds Idd-I 05
Amosite, glass wool, or quartz wool, for the pur
may comprise a metal lining and an external
pose of conserving the heat in the ladle.
«metal jacket |06 formed of two similar halves |01
Inside the shell 10, the ladle 20 is provided with
|08 fitting together.
the layer 4I of ñrebrick, molded to fìt together to
, vThe jacket halves |01, |08 are lined with an
form a wall which is annular in plan, and the fire
inner layer |09, I I0 of smooth high-temperature
brick preferably have their joints overlapping the
resistant and heat-insulating refractory, previ
joints between the sections of the inner shell 10.
ously mentioned, which is used to line the inner
For example, if the ñrebrick are also one foot high,
Vmost chamber 1I of the ladle, and the refractory
then this also facilitates the building of various
sections |09, IIO of the mold have the casting
sizes of ladles or reservoirs which diiïer in height
cavity III formed in them, and are separable
by a foot.
The innermost layer of insulation comprises the 20 at the samejoint II2 as the metal halves |01,
|08 of the jacket Itâ. For the purpose of illus
refractory lining 40, which consists of a refractory
tration, the mold IGI is illustrated with a jacket
composition that is smooth but not glazed, and
comprising two separable sections which are
which may be treated with flux or charcoal to pre
clamped or bolted tog-ether in any suitable way,
vent the metal from sticking to it.
preferably by means of pivoted bolts and wing
The composition may include metal dioxides,
clay, and feldspar, and such refractory linings
nuts so that the molds may be removed quickly
at the proper- time. However, the molds may
may be made absolutely smooth so that the metal
be made of any number of sections suitable to
in the reservoir can be kept clean.
the nature of the shape of the casting so as to
A de-oxidizer compound can be kept on top of
the charge in the reservoir or ladle 20 for the 30 facilitate the removal of the mold from the cast
purpose of preventing any air contamination.
ing as soon as it has congealed, without break
ing any part of the casting.
_
An alternative mode of preventing air contami
The proper number of sections for a jacket
nation is to provide a gas burner whose name
or refractory lining of a mold will be evident
plays on the full free surface of the molten metal
to'anyone skilled in the art of molding.
,
in sufficient amount t0 exclude oxygen, or to use .
The present molds are adapted to be used over
some other `non-inflammable inert gas used in the
>and overagain, and are practically indestructible.
They are also preheated before use, and are
inflammable as magnesium.
The refractory lining 40 is also in the form of`
maintained in a heated condition by re-use, the
peripheral sections, which, for example, may be a 40 number of molds being adapted to the continu
foot high, and all of which ñt together smoothly
ous operation of the machine by the use of a
samel Way when the raw material is explosive or
to form the cylindrical reservoir chamber 1I for
receiving the molten metal.k This chamber is
mold practically as soon as it has been removed
from one congealed casting which is still at a
hlighly heated condition. `
substantially cylindrical in «shape at its uppermost
portion, such as, for example, the sections 12, 13,
The refractory sections of the mold are form-ed
with the semi-cylindrical grooves I I3, I I4, which
14, or 15; but at its bottom the chamber 1I tapers
together form anl aperture or conduit that in
in diameter and is curved laterally toward the
discharge port 23. Thus the section 16 of the
creases in size gradually as it extends- down
wardly and laterally, and the aperture IIB of
ladle chamber 1I tapers from the initial diameter
to approximately half the diameter, and extends 50 this conduit IIS fits the discharge aperture 23
toward the left in Fig. 3, in a streamlined curve.
of rthe'ladle.
The refractory blocks 11 adjacent this section are,
The metal jacket I 06 of each mold has a dl
of course, suitably formed `for this purpose.
agonally downward and laterally extending for
The refractoryk blocks 18 of the lowermost sec.
tion have formed in them, when assembled, a
continuation 19 of the tapered throat 18, which
Á,tapers still farther along smoothly> curved lines
toward the reduced conduit 80 in the refractory
mation which is adapted to be secured to the
55 guide fitting I I1, having the flanges 91, 98 previ
ously mentioned. This guide fitting has a pair
of outwardly extending flanges II8'and a pair
of downwardly and upwardly extending flanges
block 8| at the side wall of the ladle.
I|9. and is provided with set screws |20 for se
The metal jacket‘section 46is provided with
an enlarged aperture 32,` for receiving the refrac
tory block 83, which may be cylindrical in form,
andwhich is provided with the discharge aper
cwrement to the mold.
60
It will be noted that in Fig. 4 the mold IDI,
which is for a relatively ñat casting, extends
diagonally upwardly.v This is for the purpose
of permitting the filling of the mold by the flow
ture 23, forming a continuation of the conduit 80.
'The refractory block> 83 may be housed in a cast 65 ing upward of the melted metal in the mold,
metal fitting sa <Fig. 4), which is provided with
without any. splashing or formation of drops.
an inner curved surface 85, and peripherally ex
It is contemplated that no special gates will
tending flanges 85, 81 fit against a metal band 923
be required for the discharge of the air in the '
surroundingthe wall of the section 45, to which
mold, as the air may leak out between the two
the flanges 36, 81 are bolted by means of the 'screw
halves of the refractory lining and metal jacket
bolts 83, which have their threaded ends project
of the mold, which are ñtted closely enough to
ing outward from the shell 46.
mold the casting with practically no fin, but still
n The` fitting 84 may be built up in the form of a
l» permit the escape of air.
1
plurality of metal sections 90, 9|, 92, bolted or
The air compressed in the mold and forced out
otherwise secured together, but the external por -75 through the cracks causes the metal to well up
'2,407,334
S
more slowly, thereby preventing hammer, shock,
mold and by the time `required to carry out my
and turbulence.
It will be noted that the reservoir vor ladle 2i)
process.
When the shoulder |49 engages the pin |155,
it causes the rack |3| to move to the left by an
is formed with a downwardly vand laterally ex
tending discharge conduit, which tapers gradu Ci amount equal to the length of a slot |33, which
is sufficient to move one mold lill from the po»
ally to its smallest section at the mouth |2| of
the casting cavity. The molds may thus be slid
ably supported by means of the guide .fixture
84, which is located not only in front of the
furnace, but extends longitudinally from the fur
nace in a straight line, so as to support >a multi
plicity of molds, as shown in Fig. 6. In -some
embodiments of the invention the ladle .may be
provided with a plurality of discharge openings
for yan equal number of molds.
In some plants the molds may be shoved past
the discharge aperture »23 of the ladle by hand.
As soon as the aperture ||6 of the mold has
passed the discharge aperture 23, the further dis
-charge of melted metal is arrested by the fact
that the flat surfaces on the face |22 of the re
fractory of the mold cover up the discharge
aperture 23.
If desired, a suitable steel die may be pro
sition which it occupies in Fig. 5, in registry with
the discharge aperture 23, and to bring the vnext
mold |92 into that same position. Thereafter
the shoulder IEB slips olf and passes the pin |45,
due to the rotation or the wheel IES, and the
spring |3€l returns the rack ISI, during which
movement all of 'the pawls i 3'5-1130 are adapted
to slide past the molds which are immediately to
the right of each pawl.
The pawls are then in position to engage and
actuate these molds when the rack has reached
the position of Fig. 6 again. Thus the mech
anism is adapted to eiiect the movement of the
molds in a Ystep-by-step Ímanner and -to permit
the molds to remain in casting position -for a pre
determined length of time.
Referring again to Fig. 4c, the ladle is Ypreferably
provided with a fixed cover ‘member |663, which
may comprise a metal jacket lfâ'l having an ex
vided at this Íface |22 for shearing off any metal
ternal cylindrical portion E62 and a fiat end por
which may have congealed.
tion |63.
In the practice of my method, the metal,
The jacket i6! may be bolted in place by means
which may be congealed slightly, will still be
of the bolts ltd and ñanges |65, lâ?. The `jacket
capable of being sheared oiï at this time.
`When the molds are shoved into place by 30 may have a centrally located aperture |61 with
a downwardly extending frusto-conical flange
hand, there will be suitable stops such as pins,
placed in apertures in the fitting 84 for stopping
Hi8. The jacket is lined with a flat block of re
fractory |769 in the form of a ydisc having a cen
the mold, with the apertures 23 and | i5 in regis
try, and the rpulling of the stop pin or movement
trally located frusto-conical bore |16 fitting
against the iiange |63.
ci the stop member out of its operative position
ri‘his aperture Il@ serves as a iilling opening
will permit the progress of the mold from the
casting position to a position further on in` the
for the reservoir or ladle 1|, and it in turn may
guides of the guide iixture 84.
be closed by a movable cover member l1 i, which
In other embodiments of the invention a suit
has a metal jacket |12 and a refractory lining
able driving mechanism may be provided, such 40 |13 retained by means of a frusto-conical flange
as, for example, the frame members |30 (Fig. 6)
lill, The movable cover l1! ñts in the >bore |61
which support a driving rack |3| that is slidably
and produces an effective closure, due to the en"
mounted by means of the pins |32 in slots |33
gagement of the metal flanges |63 and |14.
below the molds.
The movable cover Ell may be provided with
This rack may be spring-urged toward the
a centrally located air aperture |15, communicat
right by means of a tension spring |34 engaging
ing with a counterbore |15 for receiving a conical
a pin on the rack, and having its opposite end se
valve member |11. The valve member ||1 has
cured to» a frame member The rack is provided
a stem |13 guided in an aperture in the jacket
Awith a plurality of pawls 'IE5-|49. Each pawl
|12 and urged to closed position by a spring |19.
läd-«Mil is pivotally mounted upon a pin 14| and 50 The stem il@ has a transverse pin I8@ engaging
engages a stop member |42, toward which it is
in a slot in the end of 'a lever I3 |.
pulled by means of a spring |43.
The rack bar |35 also has a driving pin ille
suitably located to be engaged by the shoulder
|49 carried by a rotating drive wheel |59 mounted
'on shaft l5 i.
rI‘he operation cf this step-'by-step mechanism
is as follows: Shaft l5! may rotate at a constant
speed, which is determined by the length of time
rI‘he lever ibi is pivoted on the bracket |32 ‘and
provided at its opposite end with a ’pull rod |83
slidably mounted in a guide ñxture |34 and pro
vided with a ball counter-'balance |85. By means
of a pull on the rod |63 the operator may regu
late the admission of air to the chamber l1| of
ladle 253, and thus control, at least in some meas
ure, the discharge of metal from its lower end.
required for the making of one casting. This 60
Thus the pull rod |33 would be pulled when
ever the mold was in front of the discharge aper
time will be suiiicient, as Vhereinafter more fully
described, to permit not only the filling of the
ture of the ladle, and the actuation of the rod
may be gradual, in order to permit the filling of
mold with melted metal, but the continued ap
plication of melted metal under gravity head to
the mold without any splashing, or to reduce the
the mold while the Acasting con'gea‘ls from its out 65 impact which results when the molten metal
ermost point inward ‘toward the supply of metal
flowing into the mold reaches the end of the
in the reservoir.
mold.
l‘During this ’congelation the shrinkage of the
Referring to Fig. 5, this is a lmodiiication in
casting is taken up by the sup-ply of additional
which the conduit | i5 is provided with a butter
metal from the molten end of the casting, and 70 fly valve 210 for controlling the now of the metal
the last part of the casting to freeze should
into the mold.
be that adjacent the mouth |25 0f the mold.
This valve may be so construct-ed that its actu
Thus the actuating shoulder |49 performs aro
ating shaft may be’ withdrawn, and that portion
tation in a predetermined time, which'is'deter
of the conduit H5 surrounding it maybe sepa
.mined by the characteristics of the 'casting cir
rated when the mold is separated, so that the
2,407,334
9
10
.
'metal in the conduit H5 may be removed from
the conduit with the valve 210, and a new valve
substituted when the mold is again used.
«
My method of castingis briefly described a
traction. The entire mold will be filled, and the
casting will correspond more closely to the shape
of the mold than with the methods of the prior
art.
follows: When a ladle of the type described is
used, the Yladle is constantly supplied with new
batchesof molten metal, from which all dross
or scum have been removed in the furnace, and
this metal is supplied to the ladle without ex
posure to the air, so far as possible.
After the casting has solidified in the mold
down to the ñlling opening of the mold, the fur
ther ilow of metal into the mold is cut off _by
sliding the mold Sidewise so that the stream of
metal is sheared off. If it has solidified. down
to the point of shearing, it can still be sheared
A de-oxidizer compound" may be kept on top
off, due to its relative softness at such Aa high
temperature, and the discharge aperture of the
of the charge, to prevent air contamination. The
ladle is closed bya flat surface on the end of the
molten metal is kept in the ladle, which is lined
mold.
f
‘
"
with smooth refractory, suitably treated with flux
The next mold continues to close this discharge
or charcoal, to prevent the metal from sticking 15
opening by a, similar flat surface until its filling
to it, and suitably insulated, so that the metal
opening comes in registry with ythe discharge
may be maintained at a high temperature, with
opening of the ladle, after which the ñlling'of
a minimum fluctuation `of temperature between
the mold is again resumed.
'
Y
batches.
The mold, which has been filled and removed
When ordinary castings are to be made, the 20
from its ladle, has its parts separated, and the
mold is made of a similar smooth refractory ca
casting is removed at a proper time, which is de->
pable of retaining the heat, and providing heat
termined by the character of -‘ the casting.l This
insulation for the casting, and the mold is pre
enables the use of the mold over again While it
heated either by a preheating operation or by
being used over and over again, immediately after 25 is still in a heated condition, and the casting may
contract as it cools, without producing any
a previous casting Operation.
The mold and the ladle have their entry and l strains on the mold or breaking thel mold. The
casting may contract more freely than if it were
discharge openings and conduit for the metal
left in the mold.
v
smoothly tapered along stream lines so that there
Castings may thus be made to closer tolerances,
will be no splashing and the least amount of 30
and the present method makes sure the elimina
agitation of the metal.
tion of flaws because of the constant application
The mold may be lined with metal inside the
of liquid metal under pressure to the molten side
refractory to reduce breakage of molds and irn
of the casting, as the casting solidiñes. There is
prove castings, and when casting with certain
no chance of getting drops of metal in the mold,
metals I use metalmolds where it is economical.
as the metal wells up into the mold, due to the
The mold is tilted upward from its filling open
tilt of the mold with respect to its filling opening.`
ing so that metalw running into the mold cannot
Such drops frequently happen in the casting
drop down to the end of the mold and splash. `
methods of the prior art on account of splashing
After the mold opening is placed in registry with
the discharge opening of the ladle, the molten 40 or agitation, and such drops solidify on the
way down into the mold, in the devices of the
metal is permitted to well up into the mold, its
prior art. This cannot happen according to my
level constantly rising, until it completely fills the
mold.
method.
-
Y
«
»
The mold may, in the case of relatively large
castings, be provided with apertures for the is
suance'ofthe air, but in most cases the air'will
leak out between the halves of the mold, and th'e
One of the most important features of the
method is the freezing of the metal last at the
mouth of the mold and at the beginning of the
freezing at the point farthest away from the
mouth of the mold. In some castings gates may
be provided at the most remote point of the mold.r
A rim around the casting may usually be avoided
because such heavy pressures are no1; employed
moldsin such case will not need risers.
in my method as in die casting.
' Duringthis time the metal is still molten and
maintained heated because of the insulating
character of the refractory mold or the preheat
ing of the mold.
'
Y»
Y
'
metals.
Y
'I‘he thickness
of the refractory in the
mold and in the ladle are proportionate to the
bulk of the metal in the casting or the bulk of
.
The castings, after removal from the mold, are
The method may be practised with all types of
preferably subjected to the uniform foundry tem
perature of approximately 65 degrees F.; and
kept out of draft. They could also be quenched
in water, if desired, but are preferably cooled uni
the metal in the ladle,A respectively.
formly by being subjected to a moderate and
After the mold has been filled, it is then main
uniform cooling temperature so that they will
tained in the same position, with the metal of the
ladle pressing into the mold, due to the head of 60 contract in proportion, everywhere in the casting.
While I have illustrated a preferred embodi
the metal in the ladle, until the metal has solidi
ment of my invention, many modifications may
fied in the mold.
be made without departing from the spirit of the
During this operation the pouring end of the
invention, and I do not wish to be limited to the
mold is the hottest, and the end farthest from the
precise details of construction set forth, but de
ladle isy the coolest. There'is a heat gradient ex
sire to avail myself of all changes vWithin the scope
tending Yfrom the ladle outward to the extreme
of the appended claims.
end of the mold. As the metal solidiñes, it begins
to solidify at the eiìtreme end of the mold,»away
Having thus described my invention, what I
from the ladle, and gradually solidiñes downward
claim -as new and desire to secureby Letters Pat
toward the ñlling opening of the mold. During 70 ent of the United States is:
' '
Í
this operation'any shrinkageis taken up by the
1. In an apparatus for casting, aladle for cast
supply of additional melted metal, due to th‘e
ing operations, comprising an external metal
head of the'met’al in the-ladle.
'
There will be no flaws or pipes, nor will the cast
ing be subjected to strains due to unequal con
shell,v ,an internal metal shell, an insulating filling
of >mineral fibers between said shells, a lining of
75 ñrebrick inside said second metal shell, and a
2,407,334
12
ilr
means on said container whereby a plurality of
lining of smooth refractory inside said ñrebrick,
said lining of smooth refractory deñning» a ladle
chamber, said ladle chamber tapering and ex.
tending laterally toward a discharge opening at
a lower part of said chamber for the supply-of
said molds may be successively brought into reg
istry and moved out of registry with the discharge
opening of said container, and conveyor means for
supporting said molds and facilitating their
metal 'to molds.
movement on said guide means whereby the con
2. In an apparatus for casting, a ladle for cast
ing operations, comprising an external metal
shell, an internal metal shell, an insulating fill
ing of mineral fibers between said shells, a lin
ing` of firebrick inside said second metal shell, and
a lining of smooth refractory inside said hre
brick, saidA lining of smooth refractory deiining a
ladle chamber, said ladle chamber tapering and
f
extendingl laterally toward a discharge opening
ata lower part oi said chamber for the supply
of metal to molds, said` ladle having surroimding
said discharge opening a metal ñtting for the
securement of a mold with its filling opening in
registry with the discharge opening of said ladle. 20
3» In an apparatus for casting, a ladle for cast
ing'y operations, comprising an external metal
shell, an. internal metal shell, an insulating iilling
of mineral fibers between said shells, a lining oi
ñrebrick inside said second metal shell, and a
tainer may be maintained ñlled with a predeter
mined high level of molten metal at a high tem
perature, and the metal may be caused to well up
into the mold cavity so that the casting may cool
from its remote end downward toward its filling
opening andv any shrinkage may be taken up by
the supply oi additional metal under pressure
from said container, the molds being successively
applied to the discharge opening of said container
to eiTect a continuous casting operation.
6. A casting apparatus comprising a ladle pro
vided with a heat insulating lining for maintain
ing a supply of melted metal at a high tempera
ture, said ladle being enclosed tov protect its con
tents against access to air, and said ladle having
a streamlined discharge conduit adapted to be
located below the free surface of the metal and
under a relatively large head of meta-l at the time
25 of discharge of metal from said ladle, and a mold
lining ofv smooth refractory inside said firebrick,
having its filling opening of relatively large size
said> lin-ing of smooth refractory defining a ladle
chamber, said ladle chamber tapering and ex
tending laterally toward a discharge opening at
a lower part of' said chamber for the supply of
metal to molds, said ladle having surrounding said
discharge-,opening a metal fitting for the secure
ment of a moldwith its ñlling opening in registry
with the discharge opening of said ladle, said fit
ting, being provided with; guides for sliding com 35
and forming a continuation of said streamlined
discharge conduit, said mold extending upward
from its iilling opening at the time of filling of the
mold, and being of relatively small size with re
spect to the capacity of said ladle, and means for
controlling the flow of metal from said ladle to
said mold to eiiect a smooth and continuous well
ing up of melted‘metal in a solid stream with its
free surface progressing upward from the filling
plementary engagement with said molds whereby
opening to the top of the mold, said ladle having
the molds may be moved laterally into and out of
registry with the' opening ofthe ladle.
a sufficient capacity to provide a gravity head of
metal on the metal in said mold while the cast
ing in the mold is cooling from the remote part
4.- InY an apparatus for casting'.- a ladle for cast
ing. operations, comprising an external metal 40 of the mold toward the filling opening to supply
additional metal under gravity head during the
shell,„an internal metalshell, an insulating filling
cooling, shrinkage, and congelation of the casting.
of‘mineralv iibers between said shells, a lining of
7. A casting apparatus comprising a ladle pro
ñrebrick inside said second metal shell, and a
vided with a heat insulating lining for maintain
lining; of smooth refractory inside said lirebrick,
said lining of' smooth refractorydeíining a ladle 45 ing'a supply of melted metal at a high tempera
ture, said ladle being enclosed to protect its con
chamber, said. ladle chamber tapering and extend
tents against access to air, and said ladle having a
ing; laterally> toward a discharge opening at a
streamlined discharge conduit adapted to belo
lower partîof said .chamber for the supply of metal
cated below the free surface oi the metal and un
to, molds‘„ said ladle being provided with a fixed
der a relatively large head of metal at the time of
refractory cover having a iilling aperture, and a
discharge of metal from said ladle, and a mold
movably mounted refractory cover for closing said
aperture.
having its iilling opening of relatively large size
51, rIïhe combination of a container for molten
and forming a continuation of said streamlined
metal, with a plurality»v of furnaces arranged to
discharge successively into said container, said
container comprising a ladle having a metal shell,
a layer of heat insulating material, an internal
metal shell', ñrebricks, and a smooth refractory
lining whereby the container is adapted to main
tain the molten metal ata relatively high tem
perature, said container having a chamber pro
discharge conduit, said mold extending upward
from its filling opening at he time of filling of the
mold, and being of relatively small size with re
spect to the capacity of said ladle, and means for
controlling the flow of metal from said ladle to
said mold to effect a smooth and continuous well
ing up of melted metal in a solid stream with its
ally extending tapered discharge opening, said
free surface progressing upward from the filling
opening at the top of the mold, said ladle having a
sufhcient capacity to provide a gravity head of
cover having means for regulating the admission
metal on the metal in said mold while the casting
of air in controlling the discharge of molten
metal,I guide means carried by said container ad
jacent said discharge opening, and a mold having
an external metal shell, a refractory lining, and
an internal molding shell, said internal shell being
of a higher melting point than the metal used for
casting, said-mold having a cavity disposed upper
most,> and a ñlling opening extending downwardly
and laterally into registry with the discharge
opening of said container, and said mold having
guide means for slidably engaging the guide
in the mold is cooling from the remote part of
the mold toward the filling opening to supply ad
ditional metal under gravity head during the
cooling, shrinkage, and congelation of the cast
ing„sa-id latter means comprising avalve in said
streamlined discharge conduit, and means for
periodically bringing additional molds into casting
position. directly from said ladle.
vided with a cover and a downwardly and later
8. The combination of an insulated container
for melted metal with a plurality of furnaces
arranged to discharge successively into said con
2,407,334
14
i 13
the bottom of the metal in the container, a guide
said housing members being mounted with each
successive'upper housing member supported on
the upper edge of the lower one, and said hous
ing members being of a predetermined width,
means fora plurality of slidably mounted molds,
said molds being carried by said guide means,
with a plurality of upwardly extending outer
frame members arranged in spaced relation
tainer, said container having a streamlined ta
pered discharge opening adapted to be located
below the free surface of the metal and adjacent
and having relatively large ñlling openings
about said housing members, with clamping
adapted to be brought into registry with said
bands extending between said outer frame mem
streamlined conduit, a plurality of molds car
bers and engaging the metal housing members
ried by said guide means, with their cavities ex
10 outside their joints to effect an alignment of the
housing members and to clamp them in place
by friction, and a lining of refractory material
tending upward from said ñlling opening, each
mold following the other and being adapted to
drive the previous mold from thev filling posi
tion when the succeeding mold comes into filling
position, the melted metal in said container well
ing upward under gravity head into said molds
successively in a solid uninterrupted stream until
the molds are successively filled and maintained
under gravity head while shrinkage and congela
tion takes place.
'
inside said shell,»said lining being formed with
a cavity for receiving a supply of molten metal.
l2. In a ladle for casting having a unit con
struction adapted to be constructed in various
sizes out of the same units, the combination of a
plurality of metal housing members of substan
tial width adapted to form an outer metal shell,
20 said housing members being mounted with each
successive upper housing member supported on
the upper edge of the lower one, and said hous-_
ing members being of a predetermined width,
with a plurality of upwardly extending outer
frame members arranged in spaced relation
about said housing members, with clamping
rality of melting furnaces arranged in proximity
bands extending between said outer frame mem
to said reservoir, said melting furnaces being ar
bers and engaging the metal housing members
ranged to discharge successively batches of su
outside their joints to effect an alignment of the
perheated casting material successively intok said
reservoir for the purpose of raising the tempera 30 housing members and to clamp them in place
by friction,.and a lining of refractory material
ture and replenishing the heat to maintain the
inside said shell, said lining being formed with a
temperature of the casting material and to ef
cavity for receiving a supply of molten metal,
fect a mixture of successive batches with the re
said lining being constructed of preformed blocks
mainder in said reservoirto increase the uni
formity of the supply of casting material, said 35 ofy unit height and predetermined thickness
9. In an apparatus for casting with a high de
gree of uniformity of the product, the combina
tion of a reservoir adapted to maintain the cast
ing material at a predetermined temperature
above the solidifying temperature, with a plu 25
reservoir having a capacity in excess of the ca
pacity of any furnace of the assembly, and a
mold applied to and directly engaging said reser
voir with the registry of a ñlling opening of said
mold and a discharge opening of said reservoir
at a point below the free surface of the metal
at the time of casting so that the casting ma
terial may be forced into the mold by the gravity
head of casting material in the reservoir.
10. In an apparatus for casting with a high
degree of uniformity of the product, the combi
nation of a reservoir adapted to maintain the
casting material at a predetermined temperature
above the solidifying temperature, with a plu-_
rality of melting furnaces arranged in proximity
to said reservoir, said melting furnaces being ar
ranged to discharge successively batches of su
perheated casting material successively into said
reservoir for the purpose of raising the tempera
ture and replenishing the heat to maintain the
temperature of the casting material and to effect
rwhereby the height of the ladle may be varied by
using more or less of the housing members and
blocks.
13». In a ladle for casting having a unit con
40 struction adapted to be constructed in various
sizes out of the same Junits, the combination of
a plurality of metal housing members of sub
stantial width adapted to form an outer metal
shell, said housing members being mounted with
45 each successive upper housing member sup
ported on the upper edge of the lower one, and
said housing members being of a predetermined
width, with a plurality of upwardly extending
outer frame members arranged in spaced relation
50 about said housing members, with clamping
bands extending between said outer frame mem
bers and engaging the metal housing members
outside their joints to eiîect an alignment of the
housing members and to clamp them in place by
55 friction, and a lining of refractory material inside
said shell, said lining being formed with a cavity
for receiving a supply of molten metal, said lining
a mixture of successive batches with the remain
der in said reservoir to increase the uniformity of
being constructed lof preformed blocks of unit
the supply of _ casting material, said reservoir
height and predetermined thickness whereby the
having a capacity in excess of the capacity of any 60 height of the ladle may be varied by using more
furnace of the assembly, and a mold applied to
said reservoir at a point below the free surface of
the metal at the time of casting so that the cast
or less of the housing members and blocks, said
ladle having an inner shell of metal housing
members surrounding said` blocks, and a layer
of heat-resistive and heat-insulating material
ing material may be forced'into the mold by the
gravity head of casting material in the reservoir, 65 between the inner and outer shell.
Y
said mold having its major axis extending up
le. A cover construction for a ladle comprising
wardly from the ñlling opening in said mold so
a metal shell having a shape and plan substan
that the casting material wells upward into the
tially the same as the plan shape of the ladle,
mold without separating from the main body of
said shell having an outwardly extending at
material in the reservoir.
70 taching flange, and having an end plate, said
11. In a ladle for casting having a unit con
end plate being formed with an aperture adapted
struction adapted to be constructed in various
to communicate with the ladle, said aperture
sizes out of the same units, the combination of a
being bordered by an inwardly extending frusto
plurality of metal housing members of substan
conical flange, an integral block of refractory
tial width adapted to form an outermetal shell,
material housed between said latter flange, said
2,407,334v
15
end plate, andl the outer wall of said cover shell,
and ar second removable closure adapted to be
inserted in said aperture to engage said frusto
conical- ñange.
l5. A cover construction for a ladle comprising
a metal shell having a shape and plan substan
tially the same as the plan shape of the ladle,
said shell having an outwardly extending at
taching ñange, and having an end plate,- said
end plate being formed with an aperture adapted
to communicate with the ladle, said aperture
being bordered by an inwardly extending truste»
conical flange, an integral block of refractory
material housed `netween said latter ñange, said
end' plate, and the outer wall of said cover shell, 15
16
second removable closure adapted to be inserted
in said aperture to engage said frusto-conical
flange, said removable closure comprising a metal
shell having a top plate and a downwardly eX
tending truste-conical flange, and an integral
block of refractory material shaped to and held
by said latter irusto-conical flange, said latter
block having a through aperture, and manually
controllable valve means for controlling the flow
ofl air through said aperture.
i7. En an apparatus for casting, the combina
tion of a ladle having a metal shell and a heat
insulating lining formed with a reservoir cham~
ber for molten metal, said chamber having a
discharge opening for communicating with a
mold, a mold directly connected to said ladle,
and a second removable closure adapted to be
and comprising a metal member having a cavity
inserted in said aperture to engage said írusto
and having a iilling opening, said ñlling opening
conical flange, said removable closure comprising
being connected to said discharge opening of said
a metal shell having a top plate and a down
wardly extending frusto-conical dange, and an 20 ladle, and said mold extending upward at the
time of filling o1n said mold, said mold discharging
integral block of refractory material shaped to
the air in the empty cavity through leakage vents
and held by said latter frusta-conical flange.
between the parts of said mold, and said ladle
i6. A cover construction for a ladle comprising
being provided with a substantially air-tight
a metal shell having a shape and plan substan~
tially the same as the plan shape of the ladle, 25 closure, valve means for controlling the admis
sion of air to said ladle above the free surface
said-shell having an outwardly extending attach
of molten metal in said ladle, whereby the flow
ing liange, and having an end plate, said end plate
of molten metal upward into said mold is con
being formed with an aperture adapted to corn
trolled by said valve means due to the differ
niunicate with the ladle, said aperture being bor
ential in air pressure in said ladle and the air
dered by an inwardly extending irusto-conical
pressure on the metal of said mold.
flange, an integral blocl; of refractory material
housed between said latter fiange, said end plate,
and the cuter Wall of said cover shell, and a
CARL ÑVESSEL.
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