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Патент USA US2407362

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_ Sept. 10', 1946'.
J. M. WILSON
'
_
.
2,407,361
' TEIIBERATURE MEASURIIG SYSTEM
Filed July 2a, 1943
mm
IN vsu ro/r
JOHN M. wuson.
‘Patented Sept. 10,;1946
2,407,361
.‘UNl'l'ED STATES PATENT'OF-FICE
TEMPERATURE MEASURING SYSTEM
John M. Wilson, Minneapolis, Minn., assignor to
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company,
Minneapolis, Minn, a corporation or Delaware
Application July 28, 1943, Serial No. 496,518'
11 Claims. (01. 177-311)
1
This invention relates to electrical signalling
2
Figure 4 is a plan view 01' a portion oi! a selector
and controlling circuits for indicating or con
switch utilized in the invention.
trolling at a remote central point conditions pre
vailing at a plurality of widely separated points,
and more speci?cally to electrical signalling and
control apparatus for remotely indicating the
Throughout the drawing, corresponding nu
merals indicate corresponding parts.
Referring to the drawing, Figure 1 illustrates
temperatures or other conditions prevailing at a
is provided a resistance or impedance bridge gen
erally‘designated l0 composed of a. plurality of
plurality of separate bearings of machinery, loco
'
the wiring diagram of the invention wherein there
motives and the like. The invention has especial
resistances or impedances II, l2, l3, l4, and ‘I5,
utility for centrally indicating when the tempera 10 and any one or a plurality of resistance or im
ture of any one of a plurality of bearings exceeds
pedance elements 3l—-38. These elements will
a maximum operating temperature, for example
. hereinafter be referred to as resistance elements,
when the wheel bearings 01 a locomotive reach or
but it is to be understood that they may if desired
exceed the permissible operating temperatures.
be other types of impedance elements in certain '
It has been found in respect to Diesel and other 15 modes of application of the invention.
locomotives that the rise in temperature beyond
Resistance element H is connected between
the permissible operating temperature is likely to
junction l1 and junction IS, the latter being
occur rapidly and that in order to prevent fail- '
grounded at 30. To junction I‘! there is connect
ure of the bearings and possible disastrous re
ed one terminal of resistance l2, which is pref- '
sults it is desirable to have a continuous check 20 erably made variable by means of tap IS, the tap
on the temperature of the bearings.
It is an object 01' the invention to provide a sig
nalling and control apparatus for remotely in
dicating at a central point the existence of an ab
normal condition at any one of a plurality of sep
arated points, it being a more particular object of
the invention to provide a signalling and control
apparatus for remotely indicating the tempera
. ture of bearings of operating machinery. Partic
ularly locomotives.
It is a further object of the invention to provide
a signalling and control system utilizing a. resist
ance bridge wherein one element of the bridge is a
l6 being connected by lead wire 22 to junction 23.
From junction I‘! there extends a power input
connection designated 24. Resistance element I3
is connected between junctions 23 and 25, the
25 latter junction being one of the bridge output
terminals, the other bridge output‘ terminal being
junction 58. Resistance element H is connected
between junction 25 and junction 26, and to the
latter there is connected a second power input
connection 21. One terminal of resistance [5 is
connected to junction 25 and, through a manually
operated switch 28, to junction 28.
'
Resistance elements ll, [2 plus l3 and I4 (or M
remotely located resistance element located at the
and IS in parallel) constitute three elements of a
position where an operating condition is to be in 35 resistance bridge, the fourth element being any
dicated and to utilize a change in the output volt
one of the plurality of resistors 3| to 38, which
age of said bridge for the operation of signalling
may be located at selected remote points. The
and control apparatus.
‘
remotely located resistors serve to indicate the
It is a further obj ect of the invention to provide
condition at the remote point, in accordance with r
an apparatus for successively and sequentially 40 the system of the present invention. In the illus
connecting: resistance elements in a resistance
trated embodiment of the invention provision is
bridge circuit and to utilize the bridge output for
preferably made for sequentially and successively
controlling the operation of signalling and con
connecting said resistances 3| to 38 into the bridge
trol apparatus.
circuit, although the resistances may be connected
Other objects of the invention will appear as 45 at random, if desired. It will be understood, of
the description proceeds and will be found in the
course, that there may be utilized a lesser or
appended claims.
greater number of resistances 3l-38 depending
The invention is illustrated with reference to
upon the number of remote points, the conditions
the drawing in which,
at which it is desired to be indicated by the ap
Figure 1 is a wiring diagram of the apparatus;
.
50 paratus'.
Figure 2 is a schematic view illustrating the
One end of each ‘of resistances 3 l—l8 is
method of installation in respect to locomotive
connected to a common ground wire '39, the latter
wheel bearings;
_
being conveniently grounded to the frame of the
Figure 3 is an elevational view illustrating the
machine or other suitable connection at 40.
mode of installation of a typical responsive ele 55
Where it is desired to utilize the invention ‘for
ment in the wheel bearing of a locomotive, and
indicating temperatures the resistances 31-38
2,407,361
3
may be constructed of a material having a high
coefficient of resistance so that as the ‘temperature
varies at the point of installation of any one of
the resistances 31-38, a corresponding variation
will occur in the ohmic or impedance value of
the resistance. It will of course be appreciated‘
that the resistance elements 3 |--38 may be made
responsive to any desired function such as pres
sure, humidity, gas analysis, or the like by utiliz
a
voltage and is communicated to the system by
means of supply lines I00 and I0 I. A main switch
.is provided at N12 for shutting down the system
whenever desired.
Lines I00 and I0| are con
nected through junctions I04 and I05 to the
motor ,IIO of a motor generator set generally
designated H2. The generator indicated at I|3
supplies alternating current at an appropriate
voltage to supply lines I I4 and H5, extending to
ing a suitable responsive element coupled to the 10 the primary winding I20 of an alternating cur
rent transformer generally designated I25.
resistance (or impedance) element.
The other ends of the resistances 3I-'-38 are 4
connected by lead wires 4I-48, respectively, to a
plurality of contacts 5I—-58 of a sequence switch
generally designated 60. The sequence switch
may be of any suitable design and is provided
with a movable contact (or cam) arrangement
The transformer I25 is provided with a second
ary winding I26 terminating in taps 24 and 21,
these being connected to the correspondingly
numbered lines of the resistance bridge by suit
able connections not shown in the drawing. It
will thus be observed that the transformer sec
6| for establishing fconnection successively and
sequentially with contacts 5|-—58. The movable
ondary I26 provides alternating current potential
circle of contacts 5I-—58 there is arranged a
through resistance II, junction I8, ground 20, to
ground 40 (of resistances 3I-38),, thence
across the bridge terminals junctions l1 and 26
contact 6| is connected through contact 65 20 and current‘ accordingly flows in the bridge
through two parallel circuits as follows:
(Figure 4) and thru lead wire 62 to junction 26
The ?rst of the parallel bridge circuits is from
of the bridge. Since junction I8, and each of the
transformer secondary-I26 via line 24 to junc
resistances 3I—-38, are grounded the successive
tion I1, and through bridge resistance I2, vari
engagement of movable contact 6| with each of
able tap I6, line 22, junction 23, resistance I3,
the stationary contacts 5l-58 will cause resist
junction 25,-and then through resistance I4 (or
ances 3I-—38 to be connected successively across
during testing, through resistance I4 in parallel
the terminals l6 and 26 of the bridge, thus com
with resistance I5 and switch 28), to‘ junction
pleting the bridge circuit.
, 26 and thence through line 21 to the transformer
A suitable and desirable form of sequence
switch is illustrated in Figure 4, wherein the con 30 secondary I26. The second of the parallel bridge
circuits is from the transformer secondary I26
tacts 5|-—58 are shown as arranged in a circle
through line 24 to junction I1 and thence
as a plurality of arcuate segments. Within the
a second circle of contacts 1|-18 for a purpose to
be explained, and there is positioned a central 35 through any one of the resistance elements 3|3B (and its corresponding line 4|-—48) to ‘the
solid, circular contact 65 which is fastened in
corresponding terminals 5I—58, thence through
place by suitable rivets or screws 66. The entire
the sequence switch elements 6| and continuous
arrangement may, if desired be madev by utilizing
a plastic insulating ‘base 61 into which there is ' contact 65 to line 62, then to junction 26, and
?rst molded the central contact 65 and two solid 40 through line 21 to the corresponding terminal 21
circular rings of ‘contact material, which are later
cut into segments so as to form the contacts
of the transformer secondary I26. Alternating
current thus flows through the resistance ele
ments of the bridge and an electrical potential
5I-58 iii-an outer circle and contacts 1|-—_18 in
difference is established between junction I8 and
the intermediate circle. At the center of the in
sulating block 61 there extends a shaft 80 upon 45 25 depending upon the relative sizes of the re
sistance elements constituting the bridge.
which there is mounted an ‘insulated arm BI
The resistance constituting the bridge circuits
carrying on its underside the resiliently mounted
are chosen of such values that normally a pre
bridge contact 6| illustrated in Figure 1. Thus
determined voltage relation is established be
as the shaft 80 rotates it carries with it arm Ill
tween junctions I8 and 25. When the magni
.and consequently causes the bridge contact 6|
tude of a particular resistance 3|—38 of the
successively to establish circuit between the cen
bridge circuit is increased, due to any causative
tral continuous contact 65 and the contacts 5|
factor, the proportionality of the bridge will be
and H or 52} and 12 etc. The shaft is caused to
disturbed such that the voltage across junctions
rotate continuously. The central contact ring 65
I8 and 25 is reduced, and as the value of re-‘
is connected to wire 62 and in effect serves as a '
sistance element 3I-—3Il increases still farther,
continuous connection to the bridge contact 6 I, as
the voltage across junctions I8 and 25 is further
illustrated in Figure 1.
reduced.
For the rotation of shaft 80 there is provided
The transformer I25 is‘ provided with another
a motor generally designated 90, having a rotor
BI and stationary windings 92 and 93. The rotor 60 secondary I21 terminating at taps 21 and I28,
the latter being connected through relay contact
is mounted on shaft 80, illustrated by dotted lines
220-A and line I29 to junction I30 on bus bar
in Figure 1. The shaft, as previously mentioned,
It“. The bus bar I3I serves as a common con
carries the arm BI, and the latter in turn carries
nection for a plurality of signal lamps I4I-—|48,
the resiliently mounted sequence switch 6|. A
there being one signal lamp for each resistance
suitable gearing may be interposed between the
3|-38. The opposite terminals of the signal
motor 90 and shaft 80 so as to permit either a
lamps are connected, respectively, to contacts
slow or rapid operation of the shaft 80 and arm
1I-—18 of the sequence switch 60. It will thus
8|, as desired. For indicating the temperature of
bearings of a locomotive or similar large piece of ‘ be observed that a circuit is established begin
machine'it is usually sufficient to cause complete 70 ning at tap 21 on transformer secondary wind
ing I 21, through a line (not illustrated) to the
rotation of shaft to and arm 8| every 1 or 2
minutes, thus providing, as hereinafter explained, . corresponding tap 21 of resistance bridge I 0,
thence through line 62, contacts 65 and 6| to
a complete check, every 1 or 2 minutes.
any one of the contacts “~18, of the sequence
The power supply for the system may be either
direct or alternating current of any available 75 switch, thence through any one of the signal
‘1 2,407,801
lamps Ill-I09, bus bar I3I, junction I39, line
gized. As a result, contact 2I8-A of relay 2I6 is
I29, relays contact 220-A (which is normally
open but closed under signalling conditions) and
.
normally open. The relay contact 2I6—A is in a
circuit extending from junction I 04 on power sup
line I29 to the opposite terminal of the trans
ply line I00 through branch I06. relay contact
former secondary winding I21. It will thus be] bl 2I6-—A, the coil 220 of a second relay and through
observed that'as the sequence switch 60 is ro-,
branch I01 to junction I05 of supply line IOI.
tated potential circuits are established to signal
Thus when relay 2I6 is energized, as occurs when‘
lamps Ill-443 and the lamps will be illumini _ resistances 3I—39 are abnormally high, contact
ated provided contact of relay 220--A happens
2I8-A closes and establishes a circuit through
10 the coil of relay winding 220.
to be closed.
‘
_ The transformer I25 is provided with another’
Relay 220 is provided with three contacts
secondary winding I32 having secondary ter
, 220-A, 220-B and 220—-C. Contact 220—A is in
mine] lead wires I33, I36, and I35, line I34 being ‘
the circuit of signal lamps Ill-I49 and illumi
grounded at I36. The portion of secondary I32 ‘ ‘ hates one or another of these lamps when'relay
between lead wires I30 and I35 serves as the in
220 is energized, and hence closes contact 220-A.
put to a recti?er tube I50 having a cathode I5I,
Contact 220-B is normally closed (when relay
heating ?lament I52, a control grid I53 and
plate I56, the control grid I53 and cathode I5I
’ being connected
together.
’
The cathode heater
?lament I52 is connected in series with the heat
er ?laments of other tubes, by circuits not com
pletely illustrated, all as hereinafter explained.
The rectifier tube I50 serves to supply a half
wave- recti?ed current to line I56 connected to
.coil 220 is deenergized) and establishes a circuit
to motor 90 as follows: A ?rst motor circuit at
junction ill on the feeder II5 of generator II3,
20 the circuit extending through normally closed
' relay contact 220-B, connection II9 to junction
I2 I, thence through winding 93, line I22, junction
I23, line, I31 to junction III on feeder I“, of
cathode I5I. Line I56 extends through junction _
I51 to‘ one terminal of a'?lter inductance I59.
Both terminals of the ?lter inductance I59 are
from feeder II5, through junction II1, line II8,
normally closed contact 220-43 of relay 220, line
H9, junction I2I, through line I38, junction I39,
connected through condensers to ground, there
being two condensers I60 and I6I connected as
indicated. The ?lter arrangement serves to
smooth out the direct current potential applied
line I30, through a phase-shifting condenser I49,
line I55, thence through winding 92 and line I22
to junction I23, and through line I31 to junction
III on feeder III. Accordingly, so long as relay
220 is de-energized, its contact .220—B remains
closed and windings 92 and 93 are energized.
When relay H6 is energized,- its contact 2I6—A is
closed, relay 220 becomes energized, opens contact
to line I65 extending through resistor‘ I66 to
junction I61 of line I10.
generator II3. A second parallel circuit extent-is
.
From junctions I9 and-25, which are the out
put terminals'of bridge I0, there extend lines
I62 and I63 connected to the terminals of po
tentiometer resistance I66 of relatively high
220-B and interrupts the circuits to motor 90
thus stopping the sequence switch. The con
ohmic value. From variable tap I88 on re
denser I99 serves to shift the phase of the cur
sistance I69 there extends a lead I69 connect
rent ?owing through winding 92 of motor 90 and
ing through capacitor IN to junction I12 and 40 accordingly there is provided the necessary ro
thence through'line I13 to the grid I83 of an
tating ?eld requisite to the operation of a squir
ampli?er tube, generally designated I80. The
rel-cage rotor I0’ of motor 90.
ampli?er tube I80 is provided with a cathode
I38I, indirectly heated by ?lament I92, and is
provided with‘ a plate I94 connected to line I10.
From cathode I8I there extends lead wire I95
I
>
All of the heating ?laments of the several tubes,
viz.,recti?er tube I50 and ampli?er tubes I90
45
and 2I0 are connected in a series circuit extend
ing from power supply line IOI through branch
' connecting, at junction I96, to resistor I81 and
I 01, thence through line I16 through pairs of
capacitance I90,‘both of these being grounded
terminals I15, I16, I11, in series, which are con
at I98. Grounded line I92 is connected to one
nected to the three ?laments of the three tubes,
terminal of a resistor I93, the opposite terminal 50 thence through a pilot light I 18 and voltage lim
of the resistor being connected to junction I12
iting resistor I 19 and lines I89 and I06 to terminal
of the grid connection I13.
'
I00 on power supply line I00. If desired aby
Junction I81 in the plate circuit I10 constitutes
pass resistor I18’ may be included in parallel
the output of the ampli?er tube I90 and is con
with pilot lamp I18 so that a standard ?lament
nected through capacitance I95 which is in turn
lamp may be used in the circuit and at the same
connected through line I96 to the grid 2 I3 of sec
time suf?cient current drawn to permit suitable
> 0nd stage ampli?er tube, generally designated 2 I 0.
heating of the ?laments of the tubes. It will be
From junction I91 on grid connection I96 there
understood that the terminals I15 are connected
extends a resistor I98 which is grounded by line
to the ‘?lament leads of recti?er tube I50, that the
I99. A capacitance 20I parallels resistor I99, be
pair of terminals I16 are connected to the ?la
ing connected to line I96 at junction 200, and
ment leads of ampli?er tube I80, and that the
grounded.v through line 202 to junction 203 on
terminals of ampli?er I11 are connected to the
ground line I99. The ampli?er tube 2I0 is pro
?lament leads of ampli?er tube 2I0. According
vided with a cathode 2II, indirectly heated by,
ly, whenever switch I02 is closed current will ?ow
?lament 212, and is also provided with a plate, 65 from line IOI through I 01, thence through the
2“ connected through line. 2| 5 to one terminal of
?laments I52 of rectifier tube I50, ?lament I 82
a relay coil 2 I6, the opposite terminal of the relay
of ampli?er tube I80, and ?lament 2I2 of ampli
being connected through line I33 to winding I32
?er tube 2I0 and thence through line I10 and
on the transformer ‘I25. A condenser 2I6' is
pilot light I18, resistor I 19, lines I89 and I06 to
connected in parallel with the relay coil 2I6.
70 line I00. Resistor I19 is likewise used in series
Relay 2I6 is provided with a single operated
with the ?laments, in order that standard volt
contact 2 I 6-—A which is closed when the relay 2 I 6
age ?laments may be used. Obviously, the use of
is energized. When resistances 3l—38 are of
special ?laments or tubes I50, I 80, 2I0 and in
normal value, tubes I80 and 2I0 are not conduc
lamp I18, would obviate-the need for resistances
‘ tive and relay 2I6 is therefore normally deener 75 I19’ and I19.
2,407,861
O
In parallel with contacts 220-B of relay 220
there is provided a manually operated switch 228
which is mechanically coupled to switch .28 in
motor-generator set designated II2. A circuit is
also established through the pilot light I18 and
through the heating ?laments of the rectifier and
circuit with resistance] 5 of the resistance bridge,
so that switches 28 and 228 are closed simulj
ampli?er tubes as heretofore described. The gen
taneously for testing‘ the system, as hereinafter
‘appropriate voltage to the primary I20 of the
erator H3 provides alternating current of an
transformer I25 and by means of secondary I28,
voltage is impressed across terminals I1 and 28
of the resistance bridge. The resistances are
' energized, this switch being in a circuit extending 10 proportioned so that when resistances 8I~—88
have a normal_temperature and hence normal
from junction I08 on supply line I00 through
explained.
'
-
8
Relay 220 is also provided with a contact
220-C which is closed when relay 220 is de
ohmic value, the voltage across potentiometer I80
will yield an appropriate voltage on grid I83 of
ampli?er tube I80, and under such condition the
Normally energized relay coil 223 holds switch
223-A open and switch 223-B closed. Switch 15 ampli?er tubes I80 and 2I0 are not conductive.
As a result relay 2I6 is not energized and contact
223--B may control the locomotive so as to stop it
2I6-A remains open.
upon opening of such switch while switch 223--A
Relay 220 is controlled by contact 2I8-—A of
may operate a signal upon closing of such switch.
relay 2H; and is accordingly tie-energized and
Referring to Figure 3 there is illustrated the
manner in which the individual resistance ele 20 maintains its contact 220—A open and contacts
220—0 and 220-B closed. Relay‘ coil 223 is
ments 3I—38 may conveniently be mounted on a
therefore energized, the locomotive may run and
typical bearing. In Figure 3 connection 4i‘ (Fig
the signal is not operating. As a result the alter
ure 1) extends through a suitable conduit to the
nating current supplied by generator H3 is ap
resistance‘ element (one of the elements ill-38)
which is preferably located in a metal container 25 plied from line II5 through contact 220-B of
the twowindi'ngs 82 and 93 of the motor I0, thus
49. The container has an extending end portion
causing the continuous operation of motor 90 and
50 and the entire resistance element in its hous
consequent. continuous operation of switch 80.
ing is inserted into the bearing block by means
During the existence of this condition the signal
of ,a suitable drilled and threaded or other me
chanical connection. The resistance (3I-—38) is 30 lamps I4 I—I 48 are not illuminated, because their
operating circuit is. interrupted by the open con
electrically insulated from the metal housing 50,
tact 220—A of relay 220.
except that one of its terminals is grounded to
The foregoingconditions continue until, due to
the housing so as to complete the circuit of the
increase of the temperature of one of the journals
resistance element. The resistance is in com
plete thermal contact with the bearing block 59, 35 the ohmic value of some one of resistances 3I—38
also increases. When this occurs, the voltage at
the temperature of which is desired to be indi
tap I68 changes. , Thus, for example, where the
cated and registered by the apparatus of the
resistances 3I—-38 are used to indicate bearing
' invention. .Figure 3 schematically illustrates a
temperatures, so long as the temperature of each
railroad locomotive wheel 82 mounted upon an
bearing, remains below a predetermined value the
axle 83 in the usual manner. The bearing block
voltage applied to grid I83 is such as to prevent
or “brass” 59 is positioned upon the axle in ac
operative energization of relay coil 2I8. Upon
cordance with standard practice.
increase in bearing temperature and consequent
In Figure 2 there is schematically illustrated
increase in the ohmic value of its associated
the manner in which the invention is applied to
line 222, relay contact 220—C, a relay coil 223 and
line 220 to junction I09 of power supply line IOI.
a typical machine, for example a locomotive. In 45 resistance, the voltage applied to grid I83 ?nally
becomes such that relay 2I6 is energized and
Figure 2 there are illustrated four wheel and axle
closes contact 2I6—A. This energizes relay 220.
assemblies of a locomotive these being numbered
As a result of the energization of relay 220
84, 85, 86, 81. In the actual locomotive the wheel
contact 220——B is opened, thus interrupting the
and axle assemblies are electrically connected
together by the locomotive frame as indicated 50 circuit of motor 90, which accordingly stops
quickly in a position such that contact 8| of‘
by the dotted line 88, and the frame is grounded
selector switch 60 is on the particular contacts‘
at 40, this being in an electrical sense, the ground
5I‘—58 and 1I-18, corresponding to the offend
40 of Figure l. The journal blocks are indicated
ing resistance*3l—38, the value of which had
at 84', 84", 85', 85", 88’, 86", 81', 81" and each
journal is provided with one of the resistance 55 been increased by an increase in the temperature
'of its bearing. With the motor 80' stopped and
elements 3I through 38 of Figure 1, these being
relay 220 energized contact 220—A is closed, thus
suitably attached as in Figure 3. It will be under
establishing a circuit from winding I21 of the
stood that one of the resistance elements 3I--38
transformer through line I28, then closed con
is placed in each wheel bearing. ‘Obviously for
locomotives or other machinery having a greater 60 ‘tact 220—A and bus bar Nil/through the par
ticular pilot lamp I4I—I48 corresponding to the
or lesser number of bearings, it is only necessary
offending resistor 3I-—38 and its contact and
to provide an equal number of resistance ele
thence through contact SI of the selector switch
ments of the type shown at 3I-38 in Figure l,
and line 62 to terminal 21 of the bridge, which
and in some instances several resistance elements
may be used in. a very large journal, where a 65 is connected by a lead wire not illustrated to
terminal 21 of the transformer secondary I21.
temperature difference may exist between parts
The pilot lamp corresponding to the offending
of the journal. In all instances, of course, the
resistor 3I--38 is accordingly lighted. At the
selector switch 60 would have a number of con
same time contact 220-C is opened and relay
tacts equal to the number of resistance elements
223 is de-energized whereby the signal or control
in the system.
circuit is completed through switch 223--A>
Operation
In order to place the apparatus in' service
switch I02 is closed (as shown) which accord
ingly furnishes power to the motor II 0 of the 75
thereby performing the desired function in such
circuit.
The switch 223-3 may, as explained
above, be used to stop the locomotive.
'
In the event one of the resistors 3I—.38, 'or any
9,407,801
»
portion or their respective circuits, becomes open
circuited, this will in e?ect increase the value of
the resistance or resistances 8l-88 t0 in?nite
value, and the effect will be to stop motor Oil- and
- illuminate the corresponding pilot lamp ill-I48,
in the same manner as occurs when the value
of the resistances 3l--38 is increased due to an
increased temperature. Therefore such an open
circuit condition is automatically indicated by
»
10.
it is obvious that it likewise has utility for indi
cating conditions other than temperature as well
as for control purposes. It is also clear that many
changes may be made without departing from
the spirit of my invention and I therefore intend
vto be limited only by the scope of the claims ap
pended hereto.
I claim as my invention:
1. The combination comprising a plurality of
separately located resistances each having a
normal value. said resistancesbeing construct
If any one of the resistances 3l—88 becomes
short circuited or any other factors occur which ~ ' ed of ‘a material having an appreciable temper
ature coemcient of resistance, a resistance bridge
in effect lowers the resistance value of such por
tions of the resistors or their circuits. this will ecircuit composed of a plurality of resistors and produce a further unbalance of the bridge in the 15 ‘said separately located resistances, sequence
switch means for successively connecting said
direction normally maintained, vand as a result
Y remotely located resistances in said resistance
the motor 90 and signal lamps will not automat
bridge circuit including motor means for oper
ically be operated, to indicate the .low resistance
the apparatus.
'
'
10'
fault. ‘1 In order to test for such low resistance or
ating said sequence switch means, a power sup
short-circuit types of faults, test switches 28 and 20 ply ior'said motor means, relay means for con
trolling the connection 01' said motor means to
228 (which are connected together) are manu
said power supply, an ampli?er having its input
ally closed. Closure of switch 28 places resist
connected to said resistance bridge circuit and
ance i 5 in parallel with resistance It. The value
its output connected to said relay means, said I
of resistance It, is relatively low so that there
sulting resistance of resistances i4 and IS in 25 ampli?er being adjusted so as to cause the op
eration of said relay means to stop the motor
parallel is su?iciently low that any unbroken or
when the sequence switch driven by the motor
has connected to ‘the bridge circuit one of the
separately located resistances having an appre
age to grid I83 at a normal journal bearing tem
perature such as to indicate that the journal 30 ciably increased resistance, a plurality of sig
nal' means, one corresponding to each separately
bearing temperature is too hot. Stated in an
located resistance, and a set of contacts in said
other way, the effect of closing switch 28 is to
sequence switch for successively connecting said _
lower the temperature setting of each of the re
_ signal means in a suitable circuit.
sistances 3| to 38 so that each of them, unless
unshorted one of the resistances 3l—38, when
connected in the ‘bridge circuit, will apply volt-
short circuited, causes relay 2l6.to be energized 35 2. The combination comprising‘a plurality of
separately located resistances each having a nor
and the proper pilot light to be lighted. The si
multaneous closing of switch 228 provides con
stant energization for motor 90 so that it does
_ mal value, said resistances being constructed of
a material having an appreciable temperature
not stop upon energization of relay 216. In this
’ coef?cient of resistance, a resistance bridge cir
manner each of the resistances 3l-—38 may be 40 cuit composed of a plurality of resistors and said
checked sequentially. If one of these resistances
should be short circuited or its resistance is be
low some predetermined value as dictated by the
separately located resistances, sequence switch
means for successively connecting said remotely
located resistances in said resistance bridge cir
value of resistance l5, then, the voltage impressed
' cuit including motor means for operating said
on grid I83 will be of the same order as though
such resistance were normal, the temperature was
motor means, relay means for controlling the
normal, and switch 28 was open. Such short cir
' cuited resistance will therefore fail to energize
relay H6 and its associated pilot light will not
become lighted thereby indicating the short cir
cuit.
Summing up then, upon a dangerous temper
ature being established at any bearing of the
locomotive, its associated resistance element has
its resistance increased causing ‘the motor 80 to
stop and an appropriate signal light indicating
which bearing is overheated to be lighted. .At
1 the same time, through switch 220-0, relay 223,
and switch 223--A an audible signal may be op-. '
erated. Switch 228-3 may be utilized to stop
'A burned out resistance will
the locomotive.
cause an increase in resistance just as a temper_
vature rise and the system thereby checks for a ‘
burned out resistance. In addition, the appa
ratus maybe tested or checked by closing
switches 28 vvand 228. In this checking operation
‘each pilot light will be' lighted provided its as
sociated resistance has not been short‘ circuited
below a predetermined resistance. Likewise, if
the pilot light itself should be burned out, it will
, not light and will be an indication that there
‘has been a failure of some type in the system.
While the present. invention has particular‘
‘utility in checking successively the temperatures
sequence switch means, .a power supply for said
connection of said motor means to said power
supply, an ampli?er having its input connected
to said resistance bridge circuit and its output
connected to'vsaid relay means, said ampli?er
being adjusted so as to cause the operation of
- said relay means to stop the motor when the
sequence switch driven by the motor has con
nected to the bridge circuit one of the sepa
rately located resistances having an appreciably
increased resistance, a plurality oi'signal devices,
one corresponding to each separately located re
sistance, a set of contacts on said selector switch,
there being one contact for each signal device for
preparing a circuit therethrough, and means op
erable coincidental with the stopping of said
sequence switch drive motor for completing said
signal device circuit.
'
3. In a measuring apparatus, a plurality of‘
measuring devices for measuring an undesirable _
condition, a mechanism to be actuated thereby
upon the occurrence 01' an undesirable condition,
means for recurrently connecting and discon
necting each of said devices to said mechanism_
to cause actuation of said mechanism upon the
occurrence of an undesirable condition at any
one of said devices, and means associated with
said devices and mechanism for effectively lower
ing the value of said undesirable condition'ior
of'bearings in a locomotive or other railway car, 75 causing actuation of said mechanism by each
2,407,861
11
12
of said devices even though an actual undesir
having a pair of contacts for each of said resis
tors, each of said resistors being connected to
one contact of each of said pairs, the other con
tact of each of said pairs being connected to an
able condition does not exist, whereby the op
erativeness of said measuring apparatus may be
checked.
'
4. Inv combination, an electrical apparatus.
adapted to be operated when connected to a pre
determined electrical resistance value, a resist
' individual signal means, said switch means in
cluding a contactor driven by the switch motor
and engaging said contacts a pair at a, time, said
switch means being capable of sequentially plac
ance means connected to said apparatus and
normally having a, value other than said prede
ing said resistors into and out of said network
termined value, a test resistance, and means for 10 so that said bridge network is sequentially com
connecting said test resistance to said resistance
pleted by each of said resistors, means supplying
.means, said test resistance having such value
input current to said network, said network, when
completed by a resistor, giving an electrical out
that the resistance means and test resistance
together subject said electrical apparatus to said
put indicative of the resistance of said resistor,
predetermined resistance value to operate the 15 means for amplifying said output, relay means
controlled by said ampli?ed output, second'sig
same when said resistance means is at said nor
mal value, but do not subject said electrical ap
nal means, and means controlling the movement
of the vehicle, said relay means, when actuated
by an ampli?ed output current of predetermined
lower than said normal value.
20 value, energizing said individual signal means,
deenergizing said motor, energizing said second
5. In a device of the character described, in
' paratus to said predetermined resistance value if
said resistance means is at a value considerably
signal means and decreasing the movement of.
combination, a motor driven switch means hav
the vehicle.
_
ing a plurality of pairs of contacts and a con
8. In temperature 7 indicating, apparatus, in
tactor sequentially movable over said contacts a
pair at a time, one contact of each of said pairs 25 combination, a plurality of temperature respon
being arranged for connection to a remote tem
sive electrical means, electrical indicating means,
power driven switch means for sequentially con
perature responsive impedance, said contactor
necting said temperature responsive means in op
being connected to means capable of giving an
erative relation to said indicating means, said in
electrical response indicative of the impedance
value of each impedance connected to said switch 30 dicating means being capable of responding to a
predetermined temperature at any one of said‘
means, means for amplifying such a response, re
temperature responsive means in a given manner,
lay means capable of actuation when said ampli
and test means for electrically modifying said in
fled response is of a predetermined value, and a
dicating means so that said indicating means will
plurality of signal means, the other contacts of
each of said pairs being individually connected to
respond in said given manner when the tempera
said signal means, said relay controlling the en
ergization of the motor of said motor driven
ture at said one ‘means is at a normal value dif
ferent from said predetermined temperature.
9. In an indicating apparatus arranged to be
connected to‘a plurality of temperature respon
. of said signal means in such manner that, upon
anindication of an unduly high impedance value, 40 sive resistors having substantially similar char
acteristics comprising, in combination, an incom
the motor driven switch is stopped and a signal
plete electrical network, motor driven switch
means is energized to indicate on which pair of
means for sequentially connecting said resistors
contacts the contactor has stopped.
into said network, electrical means responsive to
6. In a device of the character described, in
combination, a motor driven switch means hav 45 the degree of balance of said network for stop‘
ping the operation of said motor driven switch‘
ing a plurality of pairs of contacts and a con
means and providing a given indication when a
tactor sequentially movable over said contacts
switch means and the energizing means for each
a pair at a time, one contact of each of said
resistor'responding to an abnormal temperature '
pairs being arranged for connection to a remote
is connected into said network, and manually op- ,
temperature responsive impedance, said contac
50 erated testing means including a circuit for alter
ing the balance of said network so that said given
indication will result from the connection into the
network of a resistor responding to a lower tem
perature, said testing means also causing oper
switch means, means for amplifying such a re—
sponse, relay means capable of actuation when 55 ation of said motor driven switch means.
said ampli?ed response is of a predetermined
10. A railway vehicle having a plurality of
value, a plurality of signal means, the other con
journal bearings, a temperature responsive re
tacts of each of said pairs being individually
sistance unit mounted in close thermal communi
connected to visual signal means, and an audible
cation with each bearing, a plural element par
signal means, said relay controlling the energi 60 tially completed electrical'network circuit, a mo
zation of the motor of said motor driven switch
tor driven sequence switch for successively con
and the energizing means for said signal means
necting said resistance units to the network cir
in such manner that, upon an indication of an
cuit to complete said. circuit, relay means, an
unduly high impedance value, the motor driven
ampli?er means having its input connected to the
switch‘ is stQDped, ‘the visual signal means is en
network circuit and its output connected to said
ergized to indicate on which pair of contacts the
relay means, signal means corresponding to each
contactor has stopped and the audible signal
resistance unit, contact means operated by said
means is sounded.
sequence switch for preparing a circuit to the sig
'1. In a journal bearing alarm system for 3, ve
nal means corresponding to a particular resist
hicle having a plurality of journal bearings, a
tor being connected to means capable of giving
an electrical response indicative of the imped
ance value of each impedance connectedto said
temperature sensitive resistor means associated
with each of said bearings and responsive to the
temperature of same, a partial electrical bridge
network capable of being completed by any one
of said resistors, a motor driven sequence switch 75
ance unit when said unit is connected to said
network by said sequence switch, said relay means
interrupting the circuit to said‘ sequence switch
motor and completing the circuit to said signal
means when the said unit connected into said
2,407,881
13
14
network circuit has a resistance indicative of a
a plurality of signal means, the other one or each
relative high temperature;
of said pairs of switching means being individu- _
11. In a device of the character described, in
combination, a plurality of switching ,means,
means including a motor for operating said
switching means in sequence a pair at a time, one
ally connected to said signal means, said relay
means controlling the energization Of the motor
of said motor operated switching means and the
energizing means for each of said signal means in
of ‘each of said pairs being arranged for connect
such manner that, upon an indication of an un
v _ ing a remote temperature responsive impedance
duly high impedance value, the motor operated
to means capable of giving an electrical response
indicative of the impedance value of the said im
pedance, means for amplifying such a response,
relay means capable oi.’ actuation‘ when said am
switching means is stopped and a signal means
pliiied response is of a predetermined value, and
is energized to indicate at which pair the switch
ing, means has stopped.
,
JOHN M; WILSON.
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