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1o, v1944s.
-2,407,399
DUPLEX zcoNTRoL CIRCUITx
Filed July 24, 1944
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IN VENTOR.
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2,407,399
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
UNITED -s'l‘lrrts' PATENT‘Í' QFQFICEÁYI
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2,407,399`
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`
DUPLEX CONTROL CIRCUIT l
Robert vW. Carlson, VDepew, „ and -Madison G.
Nicholson, Jr., Snyder, N. Y., assignors to
vColonial Radio Corporation, Buiïalo, N. Y.v '
L
Application July 24, l1944, Serial No. 546,404
15 Claims. (Cl. 179-15)
1
2
when the other is in.-
cuits, and more particularly to such circuits as
may be employed to control a transmitter which
may operate with one of a number of different
vAt the same time, to prevent one modulator be- i
ing rendered. inoperative, it is desirable tto provide
control circuits whereby these modulatorszmay
be alternately operable in turn for a period ofl
time which> isgsuflicient to permit them tofsend
characteristics; that is to say, the transmitter .
may be controlled from two different keying po-sitions I and 2 and each of the keying positions
out` the
may controla number of different modulators,
each having its `own particular characteristicy
which it impresses onthe carrier.'
may be different from those of the modulators in
keying position I. Similarly‘modulators F, G,
n
one key will operate its modulator to send out
the signal characteristic of the operating modu
lator, and after this action is completed, control
is transf-erred to thel other modulator, which
Modulator B may cause the transmitter
Keying position 2 may'similarly con-_trol four
~
I and another key in keying position 2 yare closed
to send three pulses of predetermined length and
spacing, modulator C- four pulse-s of predeter
mined length and spacing, andmodulator D five
pulses of predetermined length and spacing, and 20
modulators', such as E, F, G, and I-I.,> E may'cause
the transmitter to send two' pulses of predeter-`mined length’with a predetermined'spacing be#
.tween them, and these pulse and space lengths
"
simultaneously. ' Then, under such conditions,
Modulator A may, for example, cause the
any yone of these may be operated from its par
ticular switch or key in keying position I.
f
`
circuit, ’supposinglthat a key in keying position
` 10
transmitter to send two pulses of predetermined
length with a predetermined spacing between
them.
desired> signal.
For example, in the operation of `our control
For instance, in keying position I there may be,
for example, four «different modulators A, B, C,
and D.
,
sary to provide arrangements for locking >one `out
This invention relates to duplex Control cir
causes the transmitter to send out a signal modu
lated with the characteristic of the other modu
lator, and the entire process of operation may be
completed in lan extremely short period of time;
for example, of 'the order of 1/1oo` of- a'second.
Thus, while the two modulators act successively
arid never simultaneously in point of time, yet
their operations follow eachother so quickly that
for a1l<fpractical purposesthey may be regarded as
simultaneous, and this, in eil‘ect, provides for
duplex opera‘tion of the transmitter.
, The invention herein is an improvement on the
' invention described and claimed in the coi-pend
and H may cause the transmitter to send 3, Il, and 30 ing' application of Madison G. Nicholson, Jr.,
5 pulses` of predetermined length and spacing
diiTering from the length and spacing of the
pulses controlled b-y modulators A, B, C‘, and D.
It is to be understood that the action of the
modulators is not repeated; that is to say, if L
the key controlling modulator A be closed in
keying position I, the transmitter willr send two
pulses separated by a space of predetermined
entitled “Duplex control circuit,” owned by the
assignee ’of the present application.
It is an object of this invention to provide an
improved duplex control circuit which will pre
vent one modulator from controlling the trans
mitter While the other is in control.
It is a, further object of this invention to pro
vide such a circuit in -which the operation of the
length, and no further action will occur unless
second modulator, although temporarily pre
mission is «completed in a few milliseconds so that
plex operation is provided.
the key is opened and closed again, at which time 40 vented .from occurring While the first modulator
is in control of the transmitter, will, nevertheless,
the transmitter" will again send ltwo pulses with
occur within an extremely short interval of time
a predetermined space between them. after the control key is operated.
'
' »
This action, as will be understood, is analogous
‘ VIt is still a further -o'oâect of our invention to
to that of a'magnetically operated bell which has
no interrupter in its circuit so ‘that when the .L provide an ‘improved control circuit for applying
two modulators to a transmitter alternately for
switch is closed, the bell will strike only once and
very short periods of time whereby in effect du
not ring continuously. Furthermore, the trans
it is possible for a modulator in keying position
2 ïto follow very rapidly the action of a modulator
in keying position I.
It is desired to provide a control circuit which '
will permit operation of any modulator at will,
as maybe desired, but it is also'imlportant to
prevent blocking of the modulators or improper
or faulty operation which might occur provided
the control keys for the modulators in positionA I
and position 2 were operated simultaneously.
Since only one modulator can be permitted to
operate at a time on the transmitter, it is nec-es
AIt is still a further object `of our invention to
provide such a control circuit in which more than
two modulators may be employed, the first being
any one> of a group of modulators which may be
selectively employed and the second being any one
of another group of modulators which may be
selectively employed.
Y
Still other objects and advantages of our in
vention will be apparent from the specification.
The features of novelty which We believe to be
vcharacteristic of our invention are set forth with
partìcularíty in the appended claims. Our inven
2,407,399
3
4.
tion itself, however, both as to its 4fundamental
of relay 32 to fromu contact 40j of switch et, the
other end of the winding of relay Sel to front con
tact fs2f of switch t2, Vand the other end of the
winding or” relay St to back contact ¿ith of switch
principles' and as nto its., particular embodiments,
will best be understoodì'by reference tothe speci
fication and accompanying drawing, in which ’
The single figure is a circuit diagram of an im- .
proved duplex control system in accordance with"
our invention.
-
Referring now more particularly to the draw
ing, it indicates the transmitter, which may be
controlled by any one of the modulators A, B», C,
42.
‘ Like switches 3l', 3S, and 4i, switches 38, 135i,
and »t2 may be biased to back contact position,
and are arranged so that there is an interval of
time when the circuitl is open as the switch is
moved from back contact to front contact. The
or D in keying position i, and by any one of the
blade of switch ¿i2 is connected to the back con
modulators E, E', G, and l-ï in keying position 2.
The construction and operation of the modula
tact of _switch til, the blade of switch lli) to the
back contact of switch 35, and the blade of switch
tors is not shown or described in detail since these
3B through resistance ¿it to the -I~ B source.
Contacts Etc of relay 3@ close the circuit to
Modulators A, B, or C may be selected and put
modulator E, contacts 32e to modulator F, con
into operation by means of switches 3l, 39, and 4i
tacts ’32o to modulator G, and contacts `»tic to
respectively in keying position I and any one of
modulator H. The -I- B source is connected
modulators E, F, and G may be selected and put
through resistance l5 to the cathode of tube Ii
into operation by switches 38, sil, and ¿i2 in keying 20 and through resistance it to the cathode of tube
position 2 respectively. Modulator D in keying
I2.
position I and modulator H in` keying |position 2
For controlling tubes I! and I2, we provide a
are not provided with a selecting switch since
multivibrator comprising tubes 2i and 22, the
these send clearing signals at theV completion of
~former having cathode 2SC, control electrode Zig,
operation of any other modulator of the same 25 and anode i2 la, and thev latter cathode 22e, control
keying position and are caused to operate by the
electrode 22g, and anode 22a,
circuits herein employed, as will be described
y'l‘he cathodes of tubes 2l and 22 are connected
Prevention of operation oía modulator oi posi
together and to ground, the grids through resis
tion I simultaneously with the modulator of posi
tances 23 and äfi respectively to the -I- B supply,
tion 2 is prevented by a pair of tubes which may 30 and resistance 23 is shunted by condenser 25 to
be of the thyratron type I I and I2, tube II having
resistance 2l in series, and resistance 2l! shunted
cathode IIc, control grid IIg, screen grid IIeg.
by condenser 26 and resistance 28 in series.
and anode I Ia. Similarly tube I2 may have cath
The intermediate point of resistance 2l and
ode I2C, control grid 12g, screen grid I zsg, and
condenser 25 is connected through a differentiat
anode I2a.
'
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l
35 ing network comprising condense-r i9 and re
In the embodiment of the invention herein
sistance I'I to grid llg of vtube I l, and the inter
shown, the cathodes of these tubes are connected
mediate point of condenser 2S and resistance 28
to ground through resistances I S and I4, and the
similarly connected through a differentiating
plate circuit of tube I I is connected to one end of
network comprising condenser 2li and resistance
the actuating winding of relays 2S, 3|, k33. and 35 40 i3 to grid lßg of tube I2. Anode 25a of tube 2I
in keying position I. The other end of the wind~
is connected to the intermediate point between
ing of relay 29 is connected to front contact 31j
condenser 25 and resistance 2&3 and anode 22a
of switch 3l', winding of relay 3.I to front contact
of tube 22 to the intermediate point between` con
39j of switch 39, and the other terminal of the
denser ?!5 and resistance 2l.
`
winding of relay 33 to front contact 4 if of switch 45
The constants of this multivibrator circuit are
fil. The other terminal of' relay winding 35 is
preferably so chosen that the circuit delivers a
connected to back contact Mb of switch 4I, the
square wave having a frequency of the order of
blade of switch 4! connected to back contact 3%
25 cycles per second. Consequently, there will be
of switch 39, and the blade of switch 39 connected
applied to grid Mn of tube ll through the dif
to back contact 31h of switch 31 and through re 50 ferentiating network condenser I5? and resistance
sistance 43 to the source of supply -I.- B.
I‘I 25 positive pulses per second and te grid 12g
Switches 31, 39. and ¿Il are preferably spring
of tube 4I2 through differentiating network con
biased to back contact position, and they are of
denser 12!) and resistance I8 25 positive pulses per
the type in which there is no wipe-over; that is
second, and these will be delivered alternately,
to say, when they are moved from back contact 55 ñrst to tube I l, then to tube I2, so that these
to front contact position, there is an intermediate
grids electrically may be regarded as the opposite
position in which the switch is open, relay 29
ends of a see-saw, never going positive at the
controls its contacts 29e, relay 3! its contacts 3 Ic,
same time.
relay 33 its contacts ttc, and relay 35 its Contacts
Of course, negative 'pulses are also applied to
35e, these contacts beinor normally biased to open 60 said grids once per cycle. ‘but since these negative
position and closed by the flow of current through
pulses »play no part in the operation of the circuit,
their respective windings.
they need not be considered.
Contacts 29e close the circuit controlling modu
The operation will now be described with ref
lator A. contacts 3io modulator Bi, contacts 33C
erence to keying position l, and it will be under
modulator C, and contacts 35e modulator D, in 65 stood that the description as applied to keying
form per se no part of this invention.
such a manner that when any one of these relays
position I applies equally to keying position 2.
operates, its respective modulator is put in con
trol of the transmitter and causes the transmis
sion of the signal characteristic of such modula
tor, Keying position 2 is entirely similar to key~ 70
Under normal conditions; that is, when no signal
is being transmitted, the relays and switches are
in the position shown. Tube I! is ionized and
will remainY ionized, the negative pulse which is
Anode I2a of tube 2&2 is connected to onerend of
ing position I.
the actuating windings of relays 3Q, 32, 34, and 36,
periodically impressed upon this tube by the mul
tivibrator being insufficient to deionize.
Plate current flows only through the winding
the other end of which may be connected to front
of relay 35, and contacts 35e are closed.
contact 38j cfgswitch 38, the other end of winding
contacts of the other relays, 29, 3i, and 33, are
The
2,407,399
g5
position I and a switch in keying positionV 2v are
open, and the plate circuit of tube II is com
simultaneously closed for about 1/25 second or
longer, four signals will be sent; ñrst', the oper
ating signal from either keying position I or 2,
pleted through back contact Mb, blade of switch
4I, back contact 39h, bladev of switch 39, back7
contact 3‘Ib, and blade of switch 3l.
If now switch 4| be moved from back to front
depending upon which of tubes II and I2 is ñrst
ionized; second, the operating signal from the
other-keying position; third, the clearing signal
contact, the plate circuit of tube-II is open during
the interval when'the blade of switch 4I moves
from the one keying position; and finally, theoff back contact 4Ib until it reaches front con
clearing signal from the other keying position;
tact 4If. By opening the plate circuit, tube 3l is
caused to deionize, this interrupting plate cur 10 and the entire sequence of operation will be com
pleted in not more than a tenth of a second
rent through relay 35 and allowing relay con
tacts 35o to open.
.
longer than theV time during which the keys were
,
held down.
While we have shown and describedvcertain
When the blade of switchVlII reaches front
contact, the plate circuit of’tube II is completed
through the winding of relay 33. The operating
preferred embodiments of our invention, it will be
understood that modiñcations and changes may
be made without departing from the spirit .and
voltages on tube II are so chosen that the tube
will not ionize until a positive pulse is impressed
upon grid' I Ig from the multivibrator. There
fore, tube II will remain in deionized condition
until a positive pulse reaches grid IIg. When
this occurs, tube I I ionizes and plate current be
ginsv to flow through winding of relay 33, there
by energizing the relay and causing closure of
contacts33c, and the closure of these contacts
Vcauses operation of modulator C, causingrthe
transmitter to send the characteristic signal pro
duced by modulator C.
Once the signal has been sent, no further ac
ment, or combination Which we claim'as our in
vention or discovery,l and we have explained the
tion will occur so long as switch III is held on
front contact 4If. When this switch is released, ‘
l. The combination with a transmitter, of a
plurality of banks'of modulators, each bank com
scope thereof, as will be clear to those skilled in
the art.
ed out andhdistinctly claimed the part, improve
principles thereof and the best mode in which
we have contemplated applying those principles
so as tc distinguish our invention from other in
ventions.
We claim:
it is carried back to bac-k contact, and in passing
off front contact 4U opens the plate circuit of
tube II, which causes deionization of the tube.
'Iïl'n's interrupts the plate current flowing through
the actuating winding of relay 33 and contacts
33o open.
quential operation of the modulators when two
switches controlling molulators in different
banks are closed simultaneously.
2.l The combination with a transmitter, of a
contact, the plate circuit of the tube is again
completed, `but the tube does not reionize until
the next positive pulse from the multivibrator is
yplurality of banks of modulators, each bank
comprisingV a plurality of modulators, each ar
ranged to impress its characteristic modulation
f
When this occurs, the tube fires and the plate
on the transmitter, a switch for controlling each
current flowing through the winding of relay ‘35
closes contacts 35o, and molulator D isestab
lished as the controlling molulator, causing the
transmitter to send the clearing signal. This
completes the cycle of'operation, and the appara
tus is now ready for another closure of switches
31, 3S, or 4I to front contact.
y
. it will be understood that operation of the
prising a plurality of modulators, each arranged
to impress its characteristic modulation on the
transmitter, a switch for controlling each modu
lator respectively, and means for causing se
As soon as switch 4I closes on back
impressed upon its grid.
`
In this application we have particularly point- '
modulator respectively, means ,for causing se
quential operation of a modulatorY in each bank
»
kwhen their control switches are closed simulta
neously, said last mentioned means includingv a
pair of gas discharge tubes, and means for pre
venting simultaneous ionization of said tubes.
3. The combination with a transmitter, of a
modulator in keying position` 2 is the same as that 50 plurality' of banks of modulators, each bank
comprising a plurality of modulators, each ar
already described except't‘oat they are controlled
ranged to impress its characteristic modulation
by tube I2 instead -of tube II and that, as
on the transmitter, a switch for controlling each
already stated, no modulator of keying position I
modulator respectively, means for causing se
can operate while any modulator of keying posi
quential operation of a modulator in each of
tion 2 is operating, and vice versa.
said banks when their controlling switches are
Suppose, now, that switch 4| in keying position
closed simultaneously, said last mentioned means
I and switch 42 in keying' position 2 happen to be
includinga pair of gas discharge tubes, means
closed simultaneously. It cannot be predicted
for preventing simultaneous ionization of said
which tube, II or I2, will ionize ñrst, this being
dependent upon which ñrst receives the positive 60 tubes, and a relay for each modulator respec
tively operated by the space current of said gase
pulse from the multivibrator. If it happens that
tube I2 receives the positive pulse before tube II,
then tube I2 will first ionize and modulator G will
be put in control, sending out its characteristic
group of pulses.
If switch 4I is still closed after the signal is
sent by modulator G, fthen the contacts of relay
33 will be closed, modulator C of position I will
beI placed in control, and its characteristic signal
will be sent. Upon release of keys 4I and 42
modulators D and I-I will be successively estab
lished in control and both clearing signals sent,
depending on which of tubes II and I2 first re
ceives a positive pulse.
Thus, it will be seen'that if a switch in keying
ous discharge tubes.
_
»
4. The combination with a transmitter, of a
plurality of banks of modulators, each bank co-m
prising a plurality of modulators, each arranged
tc impress its characteristic modulation on the
transmitter, aswitch for controlling each of said
modulators respectively, means for causing'se
quential operation of one modulator in each bank
when their control switches are closed simul
taneously, said last mentioned means including a
pair of ‘gas discharge tubes each having a control
electrode, a substantially square wave generator,
75/ >means forV impressing
alternately upon said con
2,407,399
7
trol electrodes positive pulses derived from the
the transmitted signal,V means for selectively
output of said square Wave generator.
5. 'Ehe combination with a transmitter, of a
plurality of banks of modulators, each bank com
causing operation of any one ,of said working
signal modulators, and means for energizing the
clearing signal modulator at the completion of the
prising a plurality 0l modulators, each arranged
working modulator signal.
to impress its characteristic modulation on .the
11. In a signaling system, in combination, a
transmitter, a plurality of working signal modu
transmitter, a switch for controlling each modu
lator respectively, means for causing sequential
operation ci one modulator in each bank when
said
their last
control
mentioned
switchesmeans
are closed
including
simultaneous
a pair of
gas discharge tubes each having a control elec
trode, a generator of substantially square waves,
and a pair of diiîerentiating net works connected
to said electrodes respectively and to points oi
160 degrees phase opposition in said square wave
generator.
The combination with a transmitter, of a
plurality of banks or modulators, each bank com»
prising a plurality of modulators, each arranged
to impress its characteristic modulation on the
transmitter, switches for controlling said modi;n
laters respectively, means for causing sequential
operation of one modulator in each bank when
their controlling switches are closed simultane
ously, said last mentioned means including a pair
ci gas discharge tubes each having a pair of con~
trol electrodes, a generator of substantial square
waves, means for applying alternately positive
pulses _from said square wave generator to one or” .»
said >control electrodes in each tube, the other of
said control electrodes being normally biased with
respect to the cathode of its respective tube so
as to prei/‘ent ionization thereof, said switches
lators, and a clearing signal modulator, means
for selectively energizing any one of said working
signal modulators, said means operating to inter
rupt the control circuit of said clearing signal
modulator whenever the control circuit of any
working modulator is established.
12. In a signaling system, in combination, a
transmitter, a plurality of working signal modu
lators, and a clearing signal modulator, and
means for selectively operating any one of said
working signal modulators, said means operating,
when actuated, to interrupt the control circuit oi‘
said clearing signal modulator and establishing
the control circuit of said clearing signal modu
lator when returned to initial position.
13. The combination with a transmitter, of a
plurality oi banks of modulators, each bank com
prising a plurality of working signal modulators
and a clearing signal modulator, each arranged
to impress its characteristic modulation on the
transmitter, a switch for controlling each Working
signal modulator respectively, means for causing
sequential operation of one f-.rorking signal modu
lator of each bank when two working modulator
signal switches in diii‘erent banks are closed
simultaneously, the switches in each bank being
so interconnected that the closure of a working
being arranged to alter the bias on said last mem .
signal modulator contro-l switch in either bank
tioned control electrode in the respective tubes to
a valve such that the tube will ionize when a posi
tive pulse applied to the other control electrode of
said tube.
interrupts the controlv circuit to the clearing
7. In a signaling system, in combination, a
pressing
transmitter,
a predetermined
a plurality ofcharacteristic
modulators, each
upon the
transmitted signal, and a switch for selectively
modulator of said bank.
14. The combination .with a transmitter, of a
plurality of ba
ci modulators, each bank com*
prising a plurality of worlÍ g signal modulators
and a clearing signal modulator, each arranged
to impress its c' ai yoteristic modulation on the
transmitter, a switch for controlling each work
operating each of said modulators, said switches
ing signal modulator respectively, means for
having front and back contact positions, and 45 causing sequential operation of a working signal
being interconnected in a manner such that when
all of said switches are on back Contact position
a control circuit is established.
3. In a. signaling system, in combination, a
modulator in each bank when their control
switches are closed simultaneously, said last men
tioned means including a pair of gas discharge
tubes, and means for preventing simultaneous
transmitter, a plurality of working signal modu
ionization of said tubes, the switches oí each bank
being interconnected so that when all of the
switches oi either bank are in bank contact posi
tion the control circuit to the clearing modulator
of said bank is established.
lators and a clearing signal modulator and `a
switch for controlling each of said working modu
lators, said switches having front and back con
tact positions and being so connected that when
all of said switches are on back contact position
l5. The combination with Va transmitter, of a
the control circuit is closed for operating said
clearing modulator.
9. In a signaling system, in combination, a
transmitter, a plurality of working signal modu
lators, and a clearing signal modulator, a thyra
tron, a relay ior each modulator having one ter
minal of its energizing winding connected in the
anode circuit of said thyratron, and a switch for
plurality of banks of modulators, each bank oom
prising a plurality of working signal modulators
and a clearing signal modulator, each arranged
to impress its characteristic modulation on the
transmitter, a switch for controlling each work
ing signal modulator respectively, means for
causing sequential operation of a modulator in
each of said banks when their respective con
each of said working signal modulators for com
pleting the circuit through the respective ener
gizing winding, said switches having front and
back contacts and being so interconnected that
when the said switches are on back contact posi
tion the circuit through the energizing winding
of the clearing signal modulator relay is com
pleted.
trolling circuits are closed simultaneously, said
last mentioned means including a pair of gas
discharge tubes, means for preventing simultane»
ous ionization of said tubes, and a relay for each
modulator respectively, operated b-y the space cur
rent of said gaseous discharge tubes, the switches
of each bank being interconnected in a manner
to establish the control circuit t0 the clearing
signal modulator of said bank when all of the
l0. In a signaling system, in combination, a
transmitter, a plurality of working signal modu~
switches in said bank are on back contact.
lators, and a clearing signal modulator, each
ROBERT W. CARLSON.
impressing a predetermined characteristic upon 75
Y MADISON G. NICHOLSON, JR.
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