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Патент USA US2407402

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Sept¿ 10, 1946.A
F. H. cLAusERy Erm.
2,407,401
LATERAL CONTROL ARRANGEMENT
Filed sem-„8,
1941
7 'sheets-sheet 1
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A TTORNEY
Sept. 10, 1946.-
2,407,401
F. H.- cLAusER ETAL '
-
LATERAL CONTROL ARRANGEMENT
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_Filed sept. 8._ 1941
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ATTORNEY
Sept. 10,1946.
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F. H. cLAusER ETAL
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A LATERAL CONTROL ARBANGEMENT
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BY
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Sept. 10, 1946. n
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LATERAL CONTROL ARRANGEMENT
Filed Sept. 8, 1941
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Sept. 10, 1946.`
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F. H. cLAUsER ETAL
LATERAL cíoN-TRoL ARRANGEMENT
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LATERAL CONTROL ARRANGEMENT
Filed sept. 8. 1941
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Patented Sept. 10, l1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,401
'
LATERAL CONTROL ARRANGEMENT
and Carlos C.
Francis H. Clauser, darita Monica,
Calif., assignors to
Wood, West Los An geles, Inc., Santa Monica,
Douglas Aircraft Company,
Calif.
Application September 8, 1941, Serial No. 410,098
22 Claims. (Cl. 244-42)
l
able drag and lessening desirable lift. The above
disadvantages are heightened by the necessity of
having the spoiler move upward from its flush
position through a relatively large angle in order
Our invention relates to the lateral control oi
aircraft and particularly to the control oi high
speed aircraft of the type necessitating full span
With the ever increasing maximum speed
of modern airplanes
higher wing loadings
the stalling speeds and landing speeds have nec
essarily increased accordingly. ’This is undesir
able ior the reason that increase
l to obtain suiiicient lateral control in a full span
r.
ilap condition where the aileron at the trailing
edge is immovable in level flight.
The fact that spoilers move only upward tends
to prevent their use for raising a' wing. In other
words, when a pilot wants to level his airplane he
may do so only by dropping the high wing. This
is particularly serious at landing when it may
landing
speeds increases‘danger, particularly in View of
the :fact that runway lengths of landing -fields
generally have not been increased proportionate
ly with the increased landing speeds.
l
Some time ago iiaps, or air brakes as they are
be necessary to raise the low wing to avoid con
sometimes called, were added to aircraft along
the trailing edge portions of the wings not occu
pied by ailerons in order to selectively change the
lift and drag characteristics of the wings, lower
the stalling speed and increase the gliding angle
chown that the full lifting power of a ñap can
tact with the ground. Tests have conclusively
not be obtained without controlling the flow oi
air thereover and, as above stated, such control
cannot be obtained from an ordinary spoiler be
cause in order for the spoiler to be truly eiîec
tive it is necessary that it rise a considerable
which the aircraft could approach the land
ing field.
This was satisfactory for a time but 20 amount from its normal flush position in the
as aircraft speeds continually increased it be
wing, and in its raised position it necessarily dis
came necessary to increase the nap area and it
turbs the flow over the nap.
was inieasible to do this by further extension
along the trailing edge for the reason that the
ailerons, provided `for lateral control, necessari
ly tool; up a certain portion oi the wing span at
- the trailing edge.
To overcome this problem, experiments were
made with lift spoilers which were placed aheadv
of the ailerons and adapted to lie 'flush with the
top surface of the wing under normal flight con
ditions.
In addition to the above enumerated spoiler
disadvantages as aiîecting flight characteristics
25 of an airplane, the spoilers have certain undesir
The ailerons were then arranged.A to
able characteristics from the pilot’s standpoint.
For >one thing, they have a tendency to give un
satisfactory stick forces for the reason that
when the pilot begins to move one spoiler, the lift
created thereon causes'it to rise abruptly and
pull the pilot’s control stick over sharply, Fur
thermore, there is a tendency to either over-con
move downward in the manner of a flap to co
trol or under-control the airplane when ñying
operate With the conventional flaps in increasing
the lift and drag of the wing. As the airplane
with spoilers, since there is no load ieel which is
proportionate to the amount of control as in or
approached the lano‘ng held or slowed down to
ward stalling speed the conventional ailerons
were lowered to increase the wing liit and lateral
control of the crait was taken over by the spoil
ers, these members being raised, one at a time,
from their respective flush positions in the wing.
This development was definitely a step in the
right direction. However, it soon became ap
parent that under certa-in ilight conditions
» dinary ailerons.
Under the present invention an arrangement
has been worked out whereby the advantages oi
full span naps are obtained with the least sacri
iìce of normal control characteristics and with
none of the disadvantages of spoilers.
Accordingly, it is the principal object of our
invention to provide a full span ilap arrange
ment for aircraft which gives satisfactory lateral
spoilers have numerous disadvantages. For one
thing, they tend to cause a control lag at the
control characteristics under all ñight condi
most critical time, that is; at low speeds when
positive and immediate control is most needed.
full span flap arrangement by which an airplane
Furthermore, spoilers cause a yaw in the
at a time when it is not desired, such as
the pilot is merely leveling up the airplane
ont turning. The discontinuity between a
er when raised andthe aileron when the
craft
when
with
spoil
latter
is being used as a flap causes a separation of the
airilow over the aileron, thus creating undesir
tions.
Another object of the invention is to provide a
may be levelled without introducing undesirable
adverse yaw.
Another object of our invention is to provide
a full span flap arrangement in which there is
no appreciable control lag.
Another object is to provide a full span flap
2,407,401
3
arrangement in which full lateral control can
be obtained with only a relatively small move
ment of the lateral control member.
Another object is to provide a full span flap ar
rangement in which the flow of air over the ñap
is controlled to obtain maximum lift increases.
Another object is to provide a full' span ñap
arrangement in which there are satisfactory lat
eral control stick forces,
Another object is to provide a full span flap
arrangement with low hinge moment character
istics.
’
Another object is to provide a full span flap
arrangement furnishing substantially normal
4
the airplane wing and control airfoils mounted
thereon, with portions thereof out away to show
another embodiment of a control mechanism;
Figure 9 is a fragmentary perspective View of
the airplane wing and control airfoils of Figure 8,
showing the mechanism displaced whereby one
of the airfoils is moved to a lift increasing, take
off or approach position; and
Figure 10 is a fragmentary perspective View of
the airplane wing and control airfoils of Figure 9,
showing the mechanism still further displaced
whereby one of the airfoils is moved to a maxi
mum lift or landing position.
With reference to the drawings, and particu
load feel to the pilot under all flight conditions.
larly Figure 1, an airplane wing l@ is shown as
Another object is to provide a full span iîap
being attached to a fuselage indicated in part
arrangement in which the gap between the wing
by the lines H. The wing carries a conventional
and the flap opens and closes in accordance with
ñap i3 of the split trailing edge type on the
the desired control movements and eñ‘eots.
inboard portion and a control airfoil arrange
Another object is to provide a full span ilap
mechanism which selectively varies the move 20 ment on the outboard portion. For clarity, both`
the conventional flap and the control airfoils of
ments of the control airfoils in accordance with
flight conditions.
Another object is to provide a full span flap
mechanism which is compact and of relatively
light weight, and which provides suitable and
adequate lateral control.
Other and further objects will become ap
the present invention are shown in a lift in
creasing position with respect to the wing i5.
Figure 2 is a close-up view of the control air
foil arrangement and is cut away to show a
mechanism assembly l2 for controlling the air
foils.
’
This assembly l2 is pivoted at lll and i5 to a
beam I7 forming a part of the wing structure
Figure 1 is a perspective view of an airplane 30 and serves two purposes, namely; to support a
pair of control airfoils and to move these control
wing with a conventional split trailing edge flap
airfoils with respect to the main supporting air
at the inboard end thereof andthe control airfoil
foil to effect lateral control of the airplane to
arrangement of our invention at the outboard
end thereof;
which they are attached. The mechanism as
sembly l2 includes a carrier member i3 which
Figure 2 is a fragmentary perspective view of
is connected to the main airfoil structure at the
the wing and control airfoils of Figure l, with
pivot Ill. This carrier member has a pair of
portions thereof cut away to show one embodi
laterally protruding arms 2@ and 22 between
ment of a control mechanism for moving the
control airfoils;
which is journaled a crank 24. The crank in
Figure 3 is a diagrammatic side elevational 40 turn has a pair ofsimilarly protruding arms 26
and 2S. rThe arm 25 is connected by a link Sil
view of the trailing portion of the airplane wing
at 3l to one of the control members 32. This
with control airfoils mounted thereon in neutral
member 32 functions as an ordinary aileron un
high speed or cruising speed position, with broken
parent after reading the speciñcation and study
ing the drawings in which:
lines indicating the approximate extent of their
diiïerential rotation about their mounting pivots
from their respective neutral positions;
der all normal flight conditions but, in addition,
it may be moved rearward and downward from
the position shown in Figure 2 in the manner
of a ñap under flight conditions requiring in
creased lift on the main supporting airfoil It.
Figure 4 is ¿a fragmentary perspective View of
the airplane wing and control airfoils shown in
Figure 1, with portions cut away to show the 50 Because of the dual functioning of the member
mechanism of Figure 2 and with one of the con
trol airfoils moved to a lift increasing ltakeoiî or
32 We have termed the memb‘er an “ailer?lap”
and it will be so referred to hereinafter.
Figure. 5 is a diagrammatic side elevational
view of the trailing portion of the airplane wing
of Figure 3, with the control airfoils moved to
a moderately low speed, takeoff or approach po
The ailerflap is indirectly carried by the main
sup-porting airfoil for pivotal movement with
respect thereto through the mechanism assem
bly l2. It is directly connected to the mechanism
assembly at two points; ñrst, at the pivot 3l pre
sition as indicated in Figure 4, and including
viously mentioned and second, at a pivot 34
approach position;
broken lines indicating the approximate extent
through a bracket 35, fixed to the ailerñap struc
of diiîerential rotation of the control airfoils 60 ture. A link 38 extends from the pivot 3d for
ward to a pivotal connection £5 at the lower ex
from their respective new neutral position;
tremity of the carrier member i8. A short dis
Figure 6 is a fragmentary perspective view of
tance forward of the pivot Sli a link ¿l2 is pivoted
the airplane wing and control airfoils shown in
to the link 3B at 39 and extends upward to con
Figure 1, with portions cut away to show the
nect with the main airfoil structure beam Il at
mechanism, and with one of the control airfoils 65 the
pivot i6.
.
moved to a maximum lift or landing position;
The upper arm 28 of the crank 2li is provided
Figure '7 is a diagrammatic side elevational
with two adjacent pivotal connections G4 and 46
View oi” the trailing portion of the airplane wing
at its outer extremity. From the pivot 1M a short
of Figure 5, with the control airfoils moved to a
maximum lift or landing position as indicated 70 link ä8 extends to a pivotal connection 59 with
the center arm of a conventional three-armed
in Figure 6, and including broken lines indicating
bell crank 52 which is in turn pivoted to the
the approximate extent of rotation of the control
main airfoil structure at 53. The other two arms
airfoils from their respective new neutral
position;
of this bell crank provide attachment for cables
Figure 8 is a fragmentary perspective view of 76 54 and 56 which extend to the pilot’s compart
ment and connect to a control member therein
7
2,407,401
As may be readily seen in the drawing, when
>the ailerñap is full down it is still controlled by
the cables 54, 56 for simultaneous movement with
the slot lip about their respective neutral posi'
tions. It may be mentioned here that self-align
ing bearings are used in all pivots where there
is any displacement ci one member relative to
another out of the normal plane of pivot. These
bearings ordinarily permit at least a 10° variation
on either side oi the pivot plane.
Relative movements of the slot lip and ailer
’ñap as eiîected through the mechanism assembly
while in the latter position are sho-wn in Figure
'7, and broken lines |25, |28 and H0, ||2 indicate
the upward and downward ranges or" movement
of the two members from their respective neu
trals. It may be seen that in this maximum lift
position of the ailerflap as in all of its positions,
the slot lip continues to function in controlling~
the Iiow of air over the ailerilap in accordance
with the desired lateral control eiïeet.
beam |56 similar to the beam |'| in Figure 2 to
which is pivoted a link |58 at |50. The link |58
extends downwardly and connects at |6| with
an arm |62 which is in turn pivoted at | G4 to the
lower end of the carrier member H6 and at |66
to a bracket Hi8 fixed to the lower surface of the
ailerflap.
Considering the operation of the slot lip and
ailerñap to move them from their neutral posi
tions, as shown in Figure 8, it -may be seen that
fore and aft movement of the control link |3il will
cause rotation of the crank |22 about its pivot
|28. This will transmit movement to the link
Hi8 and cause the ailer?lap to pivot about point
|66. At the same time `the slot lip will be caused
to move in ,accordance with the ailerflap by rea
son of its connection with control link |30
through links |32, |36, and Mii. With the mech
anism in this position the relative movements of
the two control airfoils as eiïected by movement
of the control link |3û will be substantially as
In Figures 8, 9, and l0 we have shown another
shown in Figure 2.
embodiment of a mechanism for accomplishing
In Figure 9 the piston |24 of hydraulic cylin
the movements of the ailerñap and the slot lip
der |26 has been partially extended to move the
as previously described.
25 pivot |29 and likewise the two crank links ||6
Figure 8 shows this mechanism as it appears
and I 22 to the rear about their upper pivots.
when the ailerfiap is in its full up or normal po
This
act, through the linkage |58 and |62, dis
sition wherein it functions exclusively as an
places the ailerflap to a rearward, takeoff or ap
aileron.
proach position. From this new position simul
Figure 9 shows the mechanism as it appears 30
taneous
movement of the two control airfoils is
when the ailerñap has been moved to a takeoff
still
eiîected
by fore and aft motion of the con
or approach position to slightly increase the lii‘t
trol link |3i| but in a changed degree by reason
of the main supporting airfoil and at the same
of the change of position of the various links
time perform ,aileron functions.
relative
to each other. Relative movements of
Figure 1o shows the mechanism as it appears 35
the slot lip and ailerflap are substantially as
when the ailerfiap is -in the full down or maxi
shown in Figure 5.
mum lift increasing position, wherein it still
In Figure 10 the piston |24 of hydraulic cylin
functions as an aileron but to a lesser extent.
derY |26 has been completely extended, moving
With particular reference now to Figure 8 it
ailerflap still farther aft and downward to
may be seen that the basic operating principle of 40 athemaximum
lift position. In this new linkage
this arrangement is quite similar to that shown
in Figures 2, 4, and 6. The mechanism assembly
Hä includes a carrier member I l5 pivoted to the
main airfoil structure at | it which pivot, inci
dentally, is coaxial with the slot lip pivot. The
member is in the form of a crank having a cen
tral pivot |22 and this same pivot serves as a
central turning point for a similar crank |22.
Also attached at this pivot is a piston |24 of a
position rotation of the ailerilap and slot lip
about their pivots is effected as before by fore
and aft movement of the control link |39 in a
still different amount, substantially as shown in
f Figure 7.
With both linkage embodiments it may be
seen that while the lift of the main airfoil is
varied in accordance with night conditions
through movement of the ailerflap pivot, both
the aileriiap and slot lip retain lateral control
eiTectiveness at all times. As the ailerflap moves
downward its effect for lateral control gradually
the main airfoil structure.
decreases but at the same time the movements
At the upper end of crank |22 a pivotal con
nection |28 is provided for a control link |30 in Ul and effectiveness of the slot lip gradually in
crease and thus retain ample lateral control with
corresponding in function to the link 48 in Fig
respect
to the main airfoil. Satisfactory hinge
ure 1. In other words, this link extends to a bell
moments are retained and a substantially con
crank to which control cables are attached for
stant load feel eiïect is provided by the combined
movement of the ailerflap and slot lip in either
direction from their respective neutral positions. 60 movements of the ailerñap and slot lip.
While we have herein shown and described our
From the pivot |28 a short link |32 extends
invention in its present and preferred linkage
downwardly and is pivotally connected at |34
embodiments it will be obvious to those skilled in
to a link |36. The latter link is pivoted at |38
hydraulic cylinder |26 identical to the cylinder
92 described inthe previous embodiment. rï‘his
cylinder is likewise pivoted at its closed end to
to a bracket Mt fixed to the main airfoil struc
ture. Substantially intermediate the ends of
link |36, at the bend therein, there is a pivotal
connection |42 for a link IM extending upwardly
and connecting at Mii to the slot lip. It is this
latter link which transmits the movement of the
control link |30 to the slot lip. Movement of the 70
ailerilap is effected by a link |48, pivotally con
necting at |50 to the lower end of crank |22 and
the art, after understanding the invention, that
other mechanisms may be devised to obtain the
same relative movements of the two control
members both with respect to each other and
with respect to the main airfoil. Accordingly,
we do not wish to be limited other than by the
appended claims.
We claim:
1. In a lateral control device for aircraft, a
main supporting airioil, a control member spaced
Iing edge portion of the ailer?lap. The ailerñap
from the trailing edge of said main supporting
is supported from the main airfoil structure by a 75 airfoil to form a slot therebetween, said mem
ber being disposed spanwise of said main airfoil
at |52 to a bracket |54 ñxed on the upper lead
10»
9
for pivotal movement about an axis, a second
control member normally~ disposédfin slot closing
imparting thereto simultaneous upward and
simultaneous’downward movements about their
Y
resp'e'ciilv'e'pívotal -aXë's' 'fromn a neutral position. '
relatioV with'said main' supporting airi'oil and
~'i5/Ina' lateral Acontroldevice for aircraft, a
said `first named control'member and'adapted to
pivot about an
main supporting airfoil, a control member spaced
substantially parallel to the
froml the'trailing'ed'g'e of said'main supporting
airfoilto> forma slottherebetween, said member
pivotal axis of said first named control member,
unitary means operable by the pilot and inde
pendently connected :to each of said control
members for imparting simultaneous movement
to said control members about their respective
10
first named> control member and adapted'to pivot
abc'ut'an -axis substantially yparallel to the pivotal
axis'y of >said -first'darnedcontrol member, unitary
means operable bythe pilot and independently
connected Atoeacl'i of'said control members for
imparti toY said control members simultaneous
upw'* rd and >simiiltaneous downward movements
about their respect've pivotal axes Afrom a neutral
20 position, mea s for moving the Ypivotal axis cf
said iirst control member from a high speed posi
tion to one o_r various median’positio-ns and from
such -median positions toga landing position, said
last mentioned means serving to change the rotaÄ
25 tive movements of ’_saidncontrol members about
axes, and means associated with said first named
means for changing the position of the axis of
said ñrst named control member with respect to
the main supporting airfoil and with respect to
its spacing from the axis of said second control
member, said unitary means being adapted to re“
tain control of both of said control members at
all the spacing of said control member axes as
determined by said first control member axis
changing means.
being disposed spa'nvviseo'fsaid main airfoil for
pivotal movementaboutan axis', a'se'cond control
member Yric'irrnally disposed in slot- closing yrela
tionwith‘said main supporting airfoil and said
’
2. In a lateral control device forv aircraft, a
main supporting airfoil, a control member spaced
from the trailing edge of said main supporting
airfoil to form a slot therebetweemsaid member
bein-g'disposed spanwise of said main airfoil for
their pivotal axes with respect to each other as
pivotal movement about an axis, a second con
trol member normally closing the slot between
said main supporting airfoil and said ñrst named
control member, and adapted to pivot aboutan
effected by said unitary controlmeans.v '
‘
a
6. In a lateral control device for aircraft, a
mail? Supporting @ÍÍÍÍQÜ’ a @93u01 member Épaœd
from the trailing ede@ of ,Said main Surròrtíns
axis substantially parallel to the pivotal axis
airf. il t9 iam e Slot thefebétveëriè Seid member
of said first named control member, and unitary
being disposed _spanwise of said main airfoil for
means operable by the pilot and independently
pivotal'movement about an axis, a second con
connected to each of said 'control members for
trel member @mehr 'disposed in Slet Closing
imparting simultaneous codirectional rotative 35 ration with seid mais Supporting airfoîl arid
30
movement thereto about their respective pivotal
axes.
’
said first named control member and adapted to
pivot about an axis substantially parallel'to'the
pivotal axis of said ñrst named control member,
means to displace thc'piv'otal Aaxis of said first
»
3. In a lateral control device for aircraft, a
main supporting airfoil, a'control'mernber spaced
from the trailing’edge of ‘said main supporting
airfoil' to form a'slot therebetween', said member
name control member rearwardlyand down
wardly to lform a slot between said first and
being disposed spanwise of said main airfoil for
second name‘ddcontrolmembe'r's, and a unitary
means to'sfimultaneously' rotate both said control
members aboutV their pivotal axes in either direc'
tion of rotation, to increase or decrease the lift of
pivotal movement ‘about an axis, a second control
member’riormally disposed in slot closing rela
tionV with said main supporting airfoil and said 45
ñrst named control member and adapted to ‘pivot
said main sirpporting" air'foil respectively, said
about an axis substantially parallel to the pivotal
_ anA being so organized and arranged asv to
axis of‘said first named control member, unitary
correspondingly decreaserv andv increase respec
means operable by the pilot andindependently
tively thev 'sizeof the'"slot`between’ said control
connected to- each of said control members for 50
imparting to said control members simultaneous
' '7. -In >a lateral control device for aircraft, a main
upward Vand simultaneous downward rotative
supporting airfoilfa- c'ontrol'inember spaced from
the trailing edge of said main'supporting airfoil
movements about their 'respective pivotal axes
membvel?s‘,
from a neutral position, and means associated
with saidflrst named means for changing the
`rposition of 'the axis of said first named control
member with respect to the main supporting air
foil and with respect to its spacing from the axis
of said second control member, said unitary
means being adapted to retain control of both said
control members at all the spacings of said control
member axes as determined by _Said first control
,
,
„
,
,
„
disposed >spanwise'oïf said 'main airfoil for~ pivotal
moveinerítabout'an' axis, la; second' control mem
ber normally" disposed in slot closing relation
with' said‘main' 'supporting airfoil and said first
named control member "and adapted to pivot
about an axis >substantially parallell to the pivotal
axis ofj‘said'flrsjt 'named' control member, unitary
means operable by the'pilotand connected to
said controlfmembers for simultaneously and co
directio?allyrotating them ínbither direction
about their> respective pivots to increase vor de
crease respectively the lift of said main' 'support
ing Yairfoil,~ lsaid’ means `being organized and ar
ranged tomove said second- control member away
from said first control member in slot increasing
main supporting airfoil, _a _control member spaced
from _the treilîn-gtedee ,of Said main Supporting
airfoil to ferm" .a Slot therebetween, Said member
beine disposed Spariwíse òf saidÍmain aîrfoil for
pivotal movement about an axis, 4a ksecond _con
trol member normally @195mg ib@ S101J between
_
to form a slot therebetween, said member being
55
member exis Changing means
e. 1n a lateral _Control device for aircraft, _a
said mail? supporting ,eirfpil andsaid first ,named
control _member and adapted to pivot about an
axis'substaritially wpara lel to the pivotal Aaxis of
Said firstname@ @11h01 member, .and unitary
.
70
I'cnean'sd operable by _thewpilot Vand independently
@essere 'ie each' efiseid wird ,members iov: 7,5
relation'whensaid members swing upward on
their -nivo* axes and to move said second control
member ward said _first control member in- vslot
decreasing relation when said members swing
downward on their lpivotal axes. " "
’4
’
`
if _1.1.1 a lateral ,Weird devis@ I9; aircraft a
.__
main supporting airfoil, a ñrst control 'member
spaced from the trailing edge of said main sup
porting airfoil to form a slot therebetween, said
member being disposed spanwise of said main
_
.
i2"
_
_
_
first airfoil, a second airfoil pivoted to said ~ñrst
air-foil and spaced therefrom so as to form a
slot, a third airfoil pivoted to said ñrst airfoil
_ and adapted to overlie said slot, a linkage mech
' anism carried by said ñrst airfoil and connected
airfoil for pivotal movement about an axis, a
second control member normally disposed in slot
closing relation with said main supporting air
to said second and third airfoils for imparting
simultaneous rotation thereto about their Y re
foil and said first named control member and
spective pivots differentially from a neutral posi
tion, said mechanism including a carrier Ymem
ber pivoted to said airfoil, crank means mounted
on said carrier member for movement both with
adapted to pivot about an axis substantially par
allel to the pivotal axis or" said first control mem
ber, a primary member pivoted about an axis,
means operatively connecting both said iirst and
second control members to said primary pivotal
member each of said connections being independ
ent of the other, iirst pilot operated means for
rotating said primary pivotal member about its
axis to impart simultaneous movement to said
first and second control members about their
respective pivotal axes, and second pilot oper
ated means for simultaneously changing the
positions of said primary pivotal member’s axis
and'with respect thereto, a ñrst link meansv con- '
necting said crank means to said second airfoil,
a second link means connecting said crank means
to said third airfoil independently of the connec
tion of said ñrst link means to said second airfoil,
ñrst pilot operated means pivoted to said carrier
member for rotating said member on itspivot
to change the position of said second airfoil pivot
relative to said first airioil, and second pilot oper
ated means pivoted to said crank means for mov
and said iirst control member’s axis _with re
ing
said crank means relative to said carrier
spect to said main supporting airfoil and with
member to rotate both said second and third
respect to said second control member’s pivotal
airfoils about their respective pivots and vary the
axis, said ñrst pilot operated means being 3;.
size of the slot between said ñrst and second air
adapted to retain control of both said ñrst and
second control members at all the relative posi
tions of said control member axes.
9. In a lateral control device for aircraft, a
main supporting airfoil, a'ñrst control member
spaced from the trailing edge of said main sup
porting airfoil to form a slot therebetween, said
foils.
_
12. In a lateral control device for aircraft, the
combination of : a main supporting airfoil; a
control flap aft the trailing edge of said main
al
member being disposed spanwise of said main
airfoil for pivotal movement about an axis, a sec
ond control member normally disposedin slot"
closing relation with said main Supporting vair
ioil and said ñrst control member, and adapted
supporting airfoil, said iiap being supported for
pivotal movement about an axis spanwise of the
airfoil; a control slot lip overlying the slot be
tween the airfoil and ñap, the slot lip bein-g sup
ported for pivotalV movement about an axis par
allel to said axis and in'slot-closing relation with
the airfoil; a ñrst means for moving the pivotal
support of the ñap over an upper fore and lower
to pivot about an axis substantially parallel to
aft range between a forward slot-closing posi
the pivotal axis of said first control member, a
tion and an aft-displaced maximum slot-open
primary member pivoted about an axis, means 40 ing position with relation to the airfoil and for
operatively connecting said primary pivotal
varying the inclination of the ñap to the hori
member to each of said ñrst and second control
zontal, the outwardly exposed surfaces of the
members for imparting simultaneous rotative
slot lip and flap fairing with the surfaces of the
movement thereto in at least two directions from
airfoil in said forward slot-closing position and
a neutral position each of said connections being
the iiap being inclined increasingly downwardly
independent of the other, c first pilot operated
in substantially direct correlation with the ex
means for rotating said primary pivotal mem
tent oi’ said. aft displacement from the airfoil;
ber about its pivotal axis„and second pilot oper
and a second means for co-ordinately and co
ated means for changing the relative- neutral ì directionally moving the nap and slot lip about
positions of said control surfaces and varying
their axesv over a limited angular travel _range
the relative movements thereof from said neu
above
and below a neutral position for aileron
tral positions as eiîected by said first pilot oper
roll control, said second means being operative
ated means.
_
at any position of the flap over said‘fore and
10. In a lateral control device for aircraft, a
aftV range to effect -a substantial and effective
first airfoil, a second airfoil pivoted to said first
aileron movement of the slot lip, and being oper
airfoil and spaced therefrom so as to form a slot,
ative at any position of the iiap over at least the
a third airfoil pivoted to said ñrst airfoil above
more forward portion of said range to effect a
and forward of said second airfoil in slot closing
substantial and effective'aileron movement of
relation, a linkage mechanism carried by said
the flap.
ñrst airfoil and connected to said second and co
13. The combination defined in claim l2 in
third airfoils for imparting simultaneous rota
which said slot between the slot lip and flap is
tion thereto about their respective pivots in at
substantially closed at all aileron positions of
least two directions from a neutral position each
the
slot lip and iiap with the flap in said slot
of said connections being independent of the
closing position and in which said slot between
other, iirst pilot operated means connected to
the slot lip~ and flap progressively increases in
said linkage mechanism for imparting move
width for corresponding aileron positions as the
ment thereto, and second pilot operated means
ilap is moved rearwardly and downwardly by
for displacing said second airfoil from its iirst
said ñrst means.
_
A
`
neutral position to different neutral positions
14. The combination deñned in claim 12A _in
said linkage mechanism being constructed and 70
which said slot betweenA the slot lip and flap is
connected to said second airfoil to impart said
rotation to said second airfoil in at least two di
rections from each of said diiîerent neutral posi
tions.
substantially closed’at lallaileron positions of
the slot up and flap with the flap irl said 'slot
closing position and in which said slot between,
- 11i. In -a lateral control device for aircraft, a 75_ the slot lip and ñap progressively increases in
Width for corresponding aileron positions as the
2,407,401
14
13
flap is moved rearwardly and downwardly by
20. In a lateral control device for aircraft, a
ñrst airfoil, a second airfoil pivoted to said first
said first means at least during a substantial first
airfoil and rearwardly displaceable therefrom so
portion of said rearward and downward move
ment.
l5. The combination defined in claim 12 in
as to form a slot of varying dimensions, and
which said slot between the slot lip and flap is f
size of said slot with lift decreasing pivotal move
ment of said second airioil relative to said first
substantially closed at all aileron positions oi
the slot lip and flap with the flap in said slot
closing position and said slot between the slot
lip and ñap progressively increases in width to
a maximum for corresponding aileron positions
as the flap is moved rearwardly and downwardly
by said first means, and said slot between the
slot lip and flap for any given fore and aft iiap position increases in width from a minimum at
the extreme down aileron position to a maximum
at the extreme up aileron position.
16. The combination defined in claim 12 in
which the slot between said slot lip and flap is
means movable, in al1 positions of rearward dis
placement of said second airfoil, to increase the
airfoil and to decrease the size of said slot with
lift increasing pivotal movement of said second
airfoil relative to said first airfoil.
2l. In a lateral control device for aircraft, a
first airfoil, a second airfoil pivoted to said first
airfoil and spaced therefrom so as to form a slot
therebetween, a third .airfoil pivoted to said
first airfoil above and forward of said second
airfoil pivot in slot closing relation, both said
second and third airfoils cooperating when in
their normal positions to form a substantial con
tinuation of said first airfoil, first pilot operated
substantially closed at all aileron positions ci 20 means for moving said second airfoil aft and
said slot lip and flap with said flap in said slot
downward from said normal position with re
closing position and the slot between said slot lip
spect to said ñrst airfoil to one or several sec
and flap progressively increases in width to a
ond positions wherein said slot is increased in
maximum for corresponding aileron positions as
size, and from said second positions to a third
the flap is moved rearwardly and downwardly by
position wherein said slot is further changed in
said first means and the slot lip is disposed wit
size, and second pilot operated means for simul
its under surface directed to prevent air separa
taneously rotating both said second and third
tion from the upper surface of said flap in the
airfoils about their respective pivotal connections
downward portion only of the range of the aileron
to said first airfoil in varying relative amounts
movement given said iiap and slot lip by said sec
depending upon their relative positions as de
ond means.
'
`termined by said nrst pilot operated means, said
17. The combination deñned in claim 12 in
third airfoil being rotatable in said third posi
which the slot between said slot lip and flapI is
tion to at least the degree of rotation possible
substantially closed at al1 aileron positions of said
when in said second positions.
slot lip and flap with said flap in said slot closing
22. -In a lateral control device for aircraft, a
position and the slot between said slot lip and
first airfoil, a second airfoil carried by said first
flap progressively increases to a maximum for
airfoil for pivotal movement and spaced there
corresponding aileron positions as the flap is
from so as to form a slot therebetween, a third air
moved rearwardly and downwardly by said ñrst
foil pivoted to said first airfoil above and Íonward
means, the slot between said slot lip and flap for 40 of said second airfoil pivot in slot closing rela
any given fore and aft flap position increases in
tion, both said second .and third airioils cooper
width from a minimum at the extreme down
ating when in their normal positions to form a
aileron position to a maximum at the eXtreme
substantial continuation of said first airîoil, ñrst
up aileron position and the slot lip is disposed
pilot operated means for moving said second air
with its under surface directed to prevent air 45 foil aft and downward from said normal posi
separation from the upper surface of said ñap
tion with respect to said ñrst airfoil to one or
in the downward portion only of the range of the
several second positions wherein said slot is in
aileron movement given said flap and slot lip by
creased in size, and from said second positions
to a third position wherein said slot is further
said second means.
l
18. The combination deñned in claim 12 in
changed in size, second pilot operated means for
which as said flap is moved rearwardly over said
simultaneously rotating both said second and
fore and aft range by said first means the angu
third airfoils about their respective pivotal con
lar range of aileron movement of said flap by
nections to said ñrst airfoil, and means inter
said second means has no substantial increase
connecting said first and second pilot operated
and the angular range of aileron movement of
said slot lip by said second means substantially
means for varying the relative rotative move
ments of said second and third airfoils in ac
increases.
cordance with their varying relative lpositions,
19. The combination defined in claim 12 in
said third airfoil being rotatable in said third
which the neutral and extreme positions of the
position to at least the degree of rotation pos
60
slot lip for roll control for the more rearward
sible when in said second positions.
portion of the fore and aft range of movement of
the flap are respectively higher than the cor
FRANCIS H. CLAUSER.
responding roll control positions of the slot lip
CARLOS C. WOOD.
in the more forward portion of said fore and aft
range.
65
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