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SePt- 10, 1946-‘
'
I
I
I F. G. HOBART
1 2,407,422
ENGINE VALVE MOUNTING‘
Filed Aug. 30, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
IN VEN 711m>
KLIN G. HOBART
9601.4. '4,’ MM
Sept. 10, .1946.
-
F, G, HOBART
I
2,407,422
ENGINE VALVE MdUNTING
Filed Aug. 50, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
5%
.I/v vsvvrore
FRANKLIN G. HOBART
3%“;
Arm/avg)’.
2,407,422
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. 1
ENGINE VALVE MQUNTING
Franklin G. Hobart, Beloit, Wis., assignor to Fair
~ banks, Morse & 00., Chicago, 111., a corporation
of Illinois
Application August so, 1945, Serial No. 613,542,
10 Claims. (Cl. 123—90)
2
1
II and surrounding water jacket l2. ‘Associated
Thisinvention relates to'i-mprovements in in
ternal combustion engines, and has particular
with the engine cylinder frame is a crankcase I4
reference to improvements in the arrangement
which as shown, is open at its upper end l5 for '
'
access to the interior of the crankcase and to
A principal object of the present invention is
_ parts of the valve mechanism as will presently
to afford an improved engine valve mounting ar
rangement which is suitable in particular to cam
actuated, cylinder fuel inlet and exhaust valves
for internal combustion engines of the L-head
appear. The opening l5 normally is closed by a
and operative mounting of engine valves.
type, the present improvements providing for
valve actuation by a cam and cam-follower or
valve tappet assembly, and valve loading means
all located in the engine crankcase in a position
of ready accessibility therein, and an improved ar
rangement of valve mounting such as to facili
tate machining and assembly operations rela
tive to the valve supporting means of the inven
tion.
'
Another object of the present invention is to
provide a valve stem compartment or housing
preferably formed as an integral part of the en
gine cylinder frame, the housing affording rela
tively spaced tapered seats for valve stem bush
ings, and the arrangement thereof being such
as to provide for insertion of the bushingsfrom
one end of the housing into assembly position
in the housing seats, and permitting removal of
the bushings from the same end of the housing.
Other objects and advantages of the present in
vention will appear readily from the following
description of a preferred embodiment of the in
vention as illustrated in the accompanying draw
ings, wherein:
‘
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional elevation verti
cally through an internal combustion engine of
a horizontal cylinder type, illustrating the pres
ently improved provisions for mounting the en
crankcase cover IS.
A pair of valve housings l8 and I 9 (Fig. 2) each
formed by preference as an integral part of the
cylinder frame It, are arranged longitudinally of
the cylinder H thereabove, and within the cyl
inder jacket space I 2, and each has a length sub
stantially co-extensive with the length of the cyl
inder. The housings l8 and I9 preferably are of
15 tubular form and are adapted at their corre
sponding ends 20 and 22 adjacent the head end
of the cylinder, to provide valve seats 23 and 24,
the opposite ends 26 and 21 of the housings being
open to the crankcase. Overlying the head end
of the cylinder and the valve seats 23 and 24 is a
cylinder head 28 which as appears, is formed to
provide a chamber 30 communicating the cyl
inder with the openings at the valve seats. As
appears in Fig. 2, the housings l8 and I9 are ar
ranged in parallel above cylinder ll, housing [8
being provided for the engine inlet valve 3| and
housing i9 for the engine exhaust valve 32. Since
each of the presently improved inlet and exhaust
valve assemblies are substantially identical in
structure and arrangement, only one thereof will
be hereinafter described in detail, the same char
acters of reference differentiated by letter suf?x a,
being applied to the corresponding parts of the
other assembly.
’
Within the housing l8 and near-the valve seat
end 20 thereof, is an annular projection or boss
gine valves;
34,'the surface of which is tapered by a prede
termined degree convergently toward the crank
Fig. 2 is a somewhat enlarged, fragmentary lon
gitudinal sectional elevation of the engine as
taken in a plane displaced 90° from the plane of
Fig. 1, as along line 2—2 in Fig, 1, and
Fig 3 is a fragmentary sectional view of the
engine in the valve mounting zone thereof, illus~
trating a modi?cation of the cam follower guide
case end of the housing, the degree of taper here
preferred being of the order of 2 degrees. In
wardly of housing l8 near the crankcase end 26
thereof, is a further annular projection or boss
35 the surface of which is tapered to a similar
degree and in the same direction. The tapered
surfaces of bosses 34 and 35 provide mounting
seats for externally tapered valve guide bushings
7
36 and 38 respectively, the bushings affording an
While the present invention is applicable gen
operative support‘ for thestem 39 of the valve
erally to engines of various types, nevertheless for
3| in control of the opening through valve seat
the purpose of present disclosure, it is preferred
to show the present improvements in connection 50 23. Stem 3B is projected beyond the housing end
with an L-head type engine having its cylinder
26 and is provided with a spring abutment 40
means.
or cylinders in a horizontal position.
against which abuts one end of a spring“ en
Referring now to the drawings by suitable char
circling the stem, the opposite end of the spring
acters of reference, theengine shown includes an
abutting a washer element 43 located in the hous—
engine frame [0 providing a horizontal cylinder 55 ing [8 against shoulder 44 provided by boss 35.
2,407,422
4
3
In axial alignment with the valve stem is a cam
follower or tappet member 46, which is slidably
mounted in a follower support 41 carried by the
crankcase, the follower being adapted for engage
for repositioning the cylinder frame for machin
ing the guide surfaces of the support, as the
guide surface 62 shown, the diameter of such
guide surface is made slightly less than the min-.
being suitably driven from the engine crank shaft
imum diameter of the tapered seat 35. There
fore, machining of the guide surface E52 may be
5|. The operative engagement between the fol
lower 46 and the free end of the valve stem 39
done from the head end of the cylinder frame at
the time the valve seat 23 and tapered bushing
is adjustable through an abutment screw 52
threaded in follower 4B and locked in adjusted
position by lock nut 54.
From the foregoing it will appear that accord
ing to the arrangement as thus far described, the
seats 34 and 35 are machined.
If preferred and as may be advantageous in
ment by a valve cam 48 on cam shaft 50, the latter
the instance of small engines having relatively
short length cylinders, the correspondingly
shorter valve stems may be operatively support
ed each by but a single bushing element exter
and the follower 46 are all readily accessible, as 15 nally tapered and received in a tapered seat
formed centrally in the stem housing, as the
for inspection, repair or replacement of these
housing !8 or I9 in Fig. 2. For example, the
parts, through the crankcase opening l5, It will
bushing 36 associated with valve stem 39, could
appear further that mounting or removal of the
valve spring 42, follower contact adjustment 52,
valve 3| relative to housing l8, may be readily
effected from the head end of the cylinder upon
removal of the cylinder head 28 and the valve
loading spring 42.
An important feature of the present invention
be employed alone in the smaller engine, with
the tapered seat 34 therefore located preferably
near the longitudinal center of the housing l8,
while a like arrangement of bushing 35a and
seat 34a would obtain in housing in. In this
case, the single bushing supporting each valve
the bushings 36 and 38 in housing l8. The ta 25 stem, may be of somewhat increased axial
length in order to assure sui‘?cient guiding sup
pered seat 35 is formed such that the maximum
port for the stem in valve operation.
diameter thereof is less than the minimum di
Having now described the invention with re
ameter in the convergent end of the tapered
gard to presently preferred embodiments thereof,
seat 34. Thus it will appear that bushing 38 may
it is to be understood that alterations or modi
be inserted from the end E9 of the housing,
?cations of parts and the arrangement thereof,
through seat 34, and then frictionally engaged
may be made without departing from the spirit
in seat 35. Whereupon bushing 36 may be in—
and full intended scope of the invention as de
serted in seat 34. Removal of the bushings when
?ned bythe appended claims.
desired or necessary, may be equally readily ac~
I claim:
complished by driving the bushing 38 out of its 35
1. In an engine of the character described,
seat 35 by any suitable means inserted in the
providing a cylinder and crankcase assembly, the
housing from the crankcase end thereof, follow
concerns the location and manner of mounting
crankcase having an access opening, a cylinder
valve having a stem extending toward and ter
of its seat from the same end of the housing. A 40 minating in an end section exposed in the crank
ing which the bushing 36 (through the interposi~
tion of bushing 38) may be similarly driven out
further important advantage of the present valve
mounting arrangement is that it facilitates Ina
chining of the tapered valve seat 23 and the sur
case near said access opening, means formed in
tegral with the cylinder enclosing said valve stem
between the valve thereof and said end section
of the housing.
As appears in Fig. 2, bushing 38 is provided
of the stem, said means providing a shoulder ex
posed in the crankcase, means providing a ta
pered seat in said enclosing means, an externally
with one or more longitudinal grooves 56 which
tapered guide bushing for said stem, removabiy
faces of seats 34 and 3'5 from the head end N)
afford lubricant passage from the crankcase to
the interior of the housing £8 for the lubrication
of the valve stem 39 and bearing surfaces of the ,
received in said tapered seat, an abutment on
said stem end section, and a valve closing spring
effective between said abutment and said shoul
bushings 36 and 36. Also and as shown by Fig.
2 in particular; a conduit 58 opens laterally from
the housing i8 adjacent the inlet valve 3! and
through the outer wall of the cylinder frame ii)
for connection to the source of engine fuel (not
der, said spring being accessible through said
shown). The bushing 33 as appears, serves to
close the conduit 58 to the interior of the hous
ing on the crankcase side of the bushing. Simi
ments in said housing each having a tapered bore
therethrough, the minimum diameter of one bore
being greater than the maximum diameter of an
larly, a conduit 59 opening laterally of the hous
ing E9 in the zone of exhaust valve 32, provides
seated in said bores, and a valve stem extending
crankcase access opening.
2. In an engine of the character described, a
cylinder frame provided with a housing longitu~
dinally of the frame, longitudinally spaced ele
other of said tapered bores, tapered bushings
for exhaust discharge as through an exhaust
manifold or pipe (not shown) connected to con
longitudinally in said housing and through said
duit 58. In this instance also, the bushing 36a
closes the exhaust conduit to the interior of house
ing !9 on the crankcase side of the bushing.
The valve mounting arrangement shown in
the fragmentary view of Fig. 3, may be similar
to that already described say for the valve stem
3. In an engine of the character described, a
frame providing a cylinder and a housing longi
tudinally of the cylinder, a cylinder head over
lying one end of the cylinder and the correspond
39, hence the same reference numerals apply to
the corresponding part-s. However, the support
60 (corresponding generally to the support M)
for the cam followers 46 and 46a (Fig. 2), is here
shown as being carried by or integral with the
cylinder frame H3. Accordingly and in order to
reduce machining operations and any necessity
bushings.
ing end of said housing, said housing end being
adapted as a valve seat, relatively spaced elements
in said housing each providing a tapered bore
therethrough, tapered bushings seated in said
bores, the maximum diameter of one of said bush
ings being less than the minimum diameter of
the tapered bore receiving another of the bush
ings, and a valve stemhaving a valve head co
operable with said valve seat, extending longi
2,407,422
6
tudinally in said housing‘ and through said-bush
der and open to the crankcase, a cylinder valve
lngS.
including a valve stem extending longitudinally
in said housing, means operatively supporting the
valve stem in said housing, comprising relatively
spaced, tapered seats in the housing and tapered
valve stem bushings frictionally received in said
seats, one of said seats having its maximum diam-,
4. In an engine of the character described, a
frame providing a cylinder and a housing gen
erally paralleling the cylinder, a cylinder head
overlying one end of the cylinder and the corre
sponding end of the housing, said end of the
housing being adapted to provide a valve seat,
eter less than the minimum diameter of the other
means within the housing near said valve seat
seat, a cam on said camshaft, a cam follower be
providing a longitudinal tapered bore of a pre- .
tween said cam and the end of said valve stem,
determined diameter at its convergent end, means
within the housing and spaced from the first said
means, providing a longitudinal tapered bore hav
ing a diameter at its divergent end less than said
predetermined diameter at the convergent end of 1
the ?rst said bore, tapered bushings received in
and means carried by said crankcase providing
said bores, and a valve stem having a valve head
coopera‘ole with said valve seat, extending longi
tudinally in said housing and through said bush
an operative support for said follower.
8. The combination with an engine of the char
acter described, providing a cylinder, a crankcase
having an access opening at one side, and a cam
shaft in the crankcase near said access opening,
of a housing member arranged along said cylinder
and open to the crankcase, a cylinder valve in
cluding a valve stem extending longitudinally in
mgs.
said housing, means operatively supporting the
5. In an engine of the character described, a
frame providing a cylinder and a tubular housing
valve stem in said housing, comprising relatively
spacedtapered seats in the housing and tapered
valve stem bushings frictionally received in said
adjacent the cylinder, a cylinder head overlying
one end of the cylinder and the adjacent end of
said housing, said housing end providing a valve
seat, means integral with said housing forming
correspondingly directed tapered seats within the
housing, externally tapered bushings mounted in
said tapered seats, one of said bushings having
a maximum outer diameter less than the diam
eter at the convergent end of the tapered seat
receiving another of the bushings, and a valve
stem having a valve head cooperable with said
valve seat, extending longitudinally in said hous
ing and through said bushings.
6. The combination with an engine of the char
acter described, providing a cylinder, a crankcase
seats, one of said seats having its maximum
diameter less than the minimum diameter of the
other seat, a cam On said camshaft, a cylindrical
cam follower between said cam and the end of
said valve stem, and means providing a cylin
drical seat slidably supporting said cam follower,
the diameter of said seat being less than the
minimum diameter of said one of said tapered
seats.
9. A support for a cylinder valve of an internal
combustion engine, comprising a tubular valve
stem housing, means integral with the housing
therein forming longitudinally spaced tapered
seats, and valve stem guide bushings each of
externally tapered form, frictionally received in
said seats, said seats being tapered in the same
shaft in the crankcase near said access opening,
of a housing member arranged along said cylin at) direction and the maximum diameter of one seat
being less than the minimum diameter of another
der and open to the crankcase, a cylinder valve
of said seats.
including a valve stem extending longitudinally
having an access opening at one side, and a cam
in said housing, means including a cam on said
10. In combination with the cylinder of an
internal combustionv engine, a cylinder valve in
camshaft, for actuating said valve, and means
operatively supporting the valve stem in said 45 cluding a valve stem, means carried by the cyl
inder and forming an enclosure for the valve stem,
housing, said last means comprising relatively
and means operatively supporting the valve stem
spaced tapered seats in the housing, and tapered
in the enclosure, said last means comprising
valve stem bushings frictionally received in said
means integral with the enclosure therein pro
tapered seats, one of said bushings having its
viding relatively spaced tapered seats inwardly of
maximum outer diameter less than the minimum
the ends of the enclosure, and valve stem guide
diameter of the tapered seat receiving another
bushings each of externally tapered form, fric
of the bushings.
tionally received in said seats, said seats being
7. The combination with an engine of the char
tapered in the same direction and the maximum
acter described, providing a cylinder, a crankcase
having an access opening at one side, and a cam 55 diameter of one seat being less than the minimum
diameter of the other seat.
'
shaft in the crankcase near said access opening,
FRANKLIN G. HOBART.
of a housing member arranged along said cylin
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