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- Sept. 10, 1946.
.5A
.
. IN REFRIGERATORS
KEROSENE BURNER FOR O
USE
D2 E
m.
J
2,407,426,
1L
L
W
‘ OR IN OTHER HEAT~ACTUATED ‘APPARATUS
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.
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’
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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‘
\NVENTOE.
Georg EH5 jodQH'
QWATT‘Y. l
‘Sept- 10. 1946.
G. E. JODELL'
KEROSENE BURNER FOR USE IN REFRIGERATORS
2,401,426
OR IN OTHER HEAT-ACTUATED APPARATUS
Filed Aug. 2, 1944
z-sheets-sneet 2
TLIZIE.
52
GEORGE Ems JbDEpL.
INVENTOR
FE; ATTORNEY _
2,407,426
Patented Sept. 10, 1946 '
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,426
KEROSENE‘BURNER FOR USE IN REFRIG
ERATORS' OR'IN OTHER HEAT-ACTUATED‘
APPARATUS"
Georg Elis Jodell, Prahran, Victoria, Australia,
assignor to Electrolux Pty. Limited, Sidney,
Australia, ‘an Australian company
Application August 2, 1944, Serial’No._547,'715
In Australia August 18, 1943'
4 Claims.
2.
1
be heated. In the case of a kerosene burner, the
Most kerosene-operated refrigerators make use
of an ordinary wick‘ type keroseneburner which,
in- all its essential 'featuresis nothing else; than
the‘ old. kerosene‘ lampthat was used extensively
forlightingpurposes before homes were generally
electri?ed. In-some country districts this kero
problems that occur'in the heated portion of a
sene lamp is still in use.
My invention relates to improvements in kero
sene burners for use in refrigerators, or in hot
water systems or other heat-actuated apparatus
using a ?ue pipe to convey the hot products of
combustion to the portion of the apparatus“ to
In orderto' adapt. the ordinary kerosene lamp
refrigerator alsooc'cur' in a hot Water system: or
for the running of ' a' refrigerator, the burner is
as above-mentioned. rl’he term“kerosene” is used 10 ?tted on to a metal tank (frequently termed “the
other heat-actuated apparatus using a ?ue pipe
broadly herein to include any oil’ of similar characteristics. ,
'
rI‘he objects of my improvements are, ?rst to
provide a burner which is safer than standard
burners previously adopted‘ for the said uses;
second, to‘ provide a burner which is more'rugged
and durable than said standard burners; third,
to facilitate adjustment of a burner applied. to
the said uses; fourth, to‘ provide a better regula
tion ‘of the-inner and outer: air feeds to the burner 20v
than‘ in' said standard‘ burners; ?fth, to‘facilitate
repair of, the burner, and sixth,‘ to provide a‘
font”) which carries a‘ comparatively large‘quam
tity'of kerosene; As arule this is done by attach‘
ing to the'lower portion. of the.‘ burner-a; socket
pipe which is pushed into a’ socket in the tank.
Further; the: burner is ?tted with a short lamp_
glass which butts up against-a centralising ring
?tted on to; they ?ue pipe of the boiler‘ of the
refrigerator’ unit. This ?ue. pipe. consists of a
central tube'for heating the boilerrwith an outlet:
The; kerosene lamp commonly used for refrig
eration has quite a number of weak‘ points which
have. beenbrought about by thefact that the lamp
burner which as‘ a whole. is'more suited than
was designed for the. purpose‘of being used as a
standard burners to the. uses above-speci?ed.
I- attain these. objects by- mechanism illustrated 25. lighting lamp and not for. the purpose of con
veying, heat only to- a refrigerator; Whilst‘ the
in the: accompanying drawings; in which:
construction may-‘be quite. suitable for lighting
Figure 1 is a central vertical section through
purposes‘ where the lamp. is: properly cooled by
a. burner (in position on a tank and beneath the
the‘ surrounding. air. and‘. where it. obtains. itsnat
?ue pipe) using a wick which itselfis‘not‘ circular
30 ural draught through the burner'gallery and the“
(although turned» at the top to that shape) ;'
glass chimney- ?tted to the burner, it has. been
Figure, 2 is a cross-section on the line 2—2 of
proved that when: applied to a refrigerator the.
Figure 1 (with the tank omitted)‘ ;.
burner is: subjected.‘ to. considerably" more; heat;
Figured is a plan view of the upper portion of
which is conveyed from: the hot boiler of the
the burner;
refrigerator through. the short lamp-glass and
Figure ll'isia cross-section on the line 4-4 of
onto-the: burner: It has'also' beeniproved that‘for
Figure 1, (with the skirtings and tank omitted);
one and. the same size of wick therkerosene con
Figure 5 is a diagrammatic view of a spring‘
sumption; is‘very. much’ greater Whenthe burner
clip forthe cog wheels, looking in‘ the. direction
is usedwith a ?ue than‘if‘ the burner is‘operate'dv
of the arrow 5 in Figure2;
’
Figure, 6'is a central verticalsection ofaburner. 4.0 for' lighting.‘ purposes. This: increased.‘ kerosene
consumption naturally.) means that much more
(in position on a tank and. beneath the ?uepipe)
heat is produced per hour, by the burner when
with‘a circular ('i. e. tubular). wick; and
usedjon a' refrigerator, hot water system or the
Figure '7 is a cross-section on the‘ line l—'l:'off
like; than’when used without a ?ue as a lamp
Figure? (with the; tank omitted);
As hereinb'efore stated the burner‘is' adapted: 45. for lighting. This increased. amount of heat tends
to increase‘ further the temperature ‘of the burner,
for‘ use in any appliancev which is heated‘. by: a
whichis an undesirable feature. ItThas also been
kerosene‘burner and which operates with a ?ue.
di?cultv to" obtain a good seal between the lampV pipe. to convey: the‘ hot products; of combustion
glass‘ and the centralising ring of. the boiler ?ue
to'the. portion ofthe-apparatusto be heated; but,
aszt'ne problems which arise in connection with 50. andv unless this seal isgood the efficiency of'the
the heatingof refrigerators are the same: as occur
‘ burner ‘ deteriorates
inthe heating“ of other appliances of the‘ type
above-mentioned, the invention is described
herein primarily in’ relation to the use of the‘
burner- inaa refrigerator,
5,5
4
The'constructionpofthe vkerosene'rburn‘e'r as used
up to the :present' is not strong andlrobust enough
for the purposes‘ it has to ful?ll in- a refrigerator.
as the wholela-mp is- made out of light sheet metal
2,407,426
3
pressings, soldered together.
The wick-raising
4
against this surging action, and for this reason
mechanism is built into this soldered construc
a ventilation pipe has sometimes been used on
tion, so that if anything goes wrong with this
the side of the burner which releases the fumes
wick-raising mechanism the Whole burner is use
into the free air. It has proved to be necessary
less unless it is returned to the factory where the UK to cover the free opening of this ventilation pipe
soldered joints are unsoldered, the gear box re
with a wire gauze as otherwise a ?ash-back from
paired and put back into place, and the burner
resoldered.
the flame through the gallery and through the
ventilation pipe into the interior of the burner
The fact that ‘the burner of the type in use is
and the tank can take place. The disadvantage
It has 10 with such a ventilation pipe, however, is that by
proved on many occasions that if a burner is
careless use of the burner the safety gauze re
allowed to operate in a dirty condition with kero
ferred to above may be damaged and then there
a soldered product is its weakest point,
sene spilled on the burner, this kerosene evapo
exists no protection against a ?ash-back. There
rates and mixes with air surrounding the burner
and an ignition of these fumes on the surface
of the burner may take place by means of a flash“
back through the gallery. When this occurs the
is moreover another great disadvantage with
surface of the burner is for a short while en-v
having such a side ventilation pipe even if
properly covered with a gauze and that is that if
the burner catches ?re as previously referred to,
the ?re on the surface of the burner will be fed
veloped in ?ames. This ?re only lasts until the
by fumes escaping through this side vent pipe
kerosene and dirt on the burner are consumed
and when the spilled kerosene and/or dust on
but with a soldered burner it has been proved
the burner is consumed a ?re still remains on
that frequently the solder melts. Once/a soldered
top of the gauze in this ventilation pipe and
joint melts there is a great risk that fumes will
creates so much heat that solder joints in the
escape from the tank through the faulty joint.
burner will melt.
These fumes will be ignited by the ?ame and may 25
With the standard kerosene burner, even if the
feed the ?re inde?nitely and under some condi
side vent pipe is not intentionally provided a
tions a ?ash-back to the tank can take place
certain leakage generally takes place at the point
which may result in an explosion of the tank.
where the wick-raising spindle extends through
Another disadvantage with the kerosene burner
the burner. As the standard burner is a sheet
normally used is that too much heat is carried 30 metal product, this spindle is usually inserted in
from the flame by the burner itself through the
a light metal tube soldered onto the burner proper
burner proper into the tank. Also a considerable
amount of heat is conducted back from the fine
increase in temperature of the kerosene in the
tank that takes place due to these circumstances
but it is difiicult to obtain a neat ?t of the spindle
into this sheet metal tube and fumes usually
escape at this point, particularly if the burner
has caught ?re as explained previously.
According to the construction shown .in
Figures 1-5:
is much greater for a lamp used on a refrigerator,
hot water ssytem, or the like than is the case if
the lamp is used for lighting purposes only.
If the temperature of the kerosene in the tank
machined, but’ which preferably is die-cast in two
parts I and IE, is attached to a lower moulded
section 2 of synthetic plastic material by a single
pipe by the lamp-glass and the burner proper
into the tank. As hereinbefore explained the
has reached the flash-point, and if by admixture
of the resultant kerosene fumes with air, owing
to the necessary ventilation of the tank, an ex
An upper metal portion, which may be cast or
screw 3. Both the cast metal upper portion and
the lower moulded plastic portion may be ma
chined after their formation. The low conduc
plosive mixture has accumulated in the tank
tivity of this lower portion of the burner more
underneath the burner, then a ?ash-back from
than compensates for the increased heat con
the ?ame at the top of the wick down into the
ductivity that is due to the greater thickness of
tank can take place if the wick does not ?t closely
metal of the upper portion of the burner as com
and evenly in the burner. Explosion tests car
pared with standard constructions.
ried out have proved that it is quite possible for 50
The lower portion of the burner is built so that
a flash-back to take place past the wick into
it constitutes an extension of the wick guide (that
the tank, particularly if by carelessness a wick
is, of the upper portion of the burner) and is so
has been used in the burner that is either too thin
constructed that it embodies an arcuate passage
or not wide enough. The same thing may happen
way 4 of considerable length in comparison with
if the vital wick-guiding parts of the burner have 55 the thickness of the wick and of such dimensions
been dented or distorted so that air gaps along
that the wick ?lls this opening completely or
side the wick have resulted. With the normally
nearly completely.
used construction of kerosene burner (that is a
The wick is thus fed through the long arcuate
burner made of thin sheet metal) the wick guide ‘
passageway 4, which it ?ts fairly closely, and
in particular is easily distorted and there is no
thence into a passageway 5 which becomes an
doubt that several explosions have occurred due 60 nular at the top. The close ?t of the wick in
to this fact.
the long passageway 4 has two advantages. The
The rick of an explosion taking place through
?rst and most important is that it prevents a
ignition past the Wick is increased if the kerosene
?ash-back past the wick into the tank. Even if
fumes that have accumulated in the tank are 65 a ?ash-back takes place from the lighted wick
being compressed and pushed past the wick.
into the upper portion of the burner this ?ash
Such a condition exists when the tank is being
back cannot pass the wick in the long passage
moved, as for instance when it is withdrawn for
way in the lower portion of the burner and con
re?lling or inserted after re?lling. The move
sequently this feature makes the burner explo
ment of the kerosene in the tank causes a surg
' sion-proof.
The second advantage of this fea
ing which presses kerosene fumes out past the 70 ture is‘ that it overcomes the e?ects of surging,
wick at one moment and sucks air in past the
because as the wick ?ts reasonably tightly into
wick at another moment depending on the move
this passageway it serves as a barrier against the
ment of the kerosene level in the tank. The
?ow of fumes or air through this, passageway.
commonly used burner has in itself no prote ‘3151011 75
The wick-raising mechanism comprises a pair
2,4023%
5.
oficog wheels 6; the‘ driving wheel of which is
slid' onto the squared or other non-circular end
of a spindle'l. The/other cog- wheel rotates on av
?xed" spindle 8. The‘ends of these spindles which
protrude'beyond' the gear wheels are recessed
annularly toform necks E! which are adapted to
be engaged by a spring clip iii having'two aper
tures ii' and E2“, the» former of which can be‘
passed over‘th'e- end’ of onespindle, after which
the clip isdrawn longitudinally to engage the
recess-in the spindle, and‘ the latter of which is
of'thesame dimensions as the neck of the other
spindle but can‘ be enlarged by forcing the arms
of theclip open’ to-enabl'e thecliptc-be passed
6
small" ‘flameswill burn'temporarily but theyiw-ill
not harm the metal of thedie-cast or machined
part i; The» gauze-covered ventilation‘~ openings
used- in- standard burners; where the - safety‘ gauze
coveringw-as-liable' tobe broken away; are obvi
ate'd inthe present construction.
The: invention applies mainly to. the-type of
wick burner: using a ?at wick which, during its
passage-through theL burner, is gradually curved
by the shape ofi'thepassageway-until at andad
. jacent toits burning end its edges have met and
it; thusL has assumed’ a- circular shape but the
invention~<is1 not restricted to this type of‘ wick
burn-er only». It also appliesto the type of wick
over the. end of the spindle. The spindles ?t 15 burner that: uses a tubular wick which is com
pletely closed'iin cross-section. The construction
neatly in long cylindrical cavities formed in the
shown inFig-ures? and’? ‘is adapted‘ for use with‘
metaliupper portion'of‘thebodya Thelspindle ‘l
this-latter type of wick. As the‘wick 35 is a
is~rotatable in its cavity; If it is desired to repair
tubular structure theinner air supply must pass
tl'i'e-wi'ck-raising mechanism, the lower portion
22‘ being pro-v
of‘ thegbody is removed by releasing the screw 20 up‘ centrally,v a central air passage
This air passage is
videdj
for
thatpurpose;
tithe spring clip'is then released, and the cog
for-medlby theparts 23, 2s and‘ 25~hereunder men
wheels and spindles arearemoved; The removal
tionedlv and'thus extends up through theltank 32
and replacement’ of: the wick-raising mechanism
andv through the burner. The upper inner por
isthus a very simple matter, which can beef-r
tion23‘ of!‘ the bodyoffthe burner may be perma
fected by means of ascrew-dr-iver without send
nently attached to the lower inner portion 24
ing the burner tov the factory for repair. The
by- forcing the end of one onto the-other. The
spindle ‘t is-adapted- to be turned by a’ knurled
lower
inner portion 24 is fitted onto the wall5 25
disk 13; and thetwo cog wheels intermesh so
of1 the tank which forms the'lower portion of the‘
that onerotates the other. _As the spindles pass
air- passage 22’. Theupperouter portion 26 ?ts
through a substantial portion of the‘ metalinthe
into a’ socketv 21'? on the'lower outer portion 28"
mainbody itself, the fit between the spindle and
and isconnect‘ed' thereto by a screw- 29.1 The
the body can be'made» almost a- plunger ?t which
parts ‘24 and 28 are‘made of- plastic, and the
will'safés-guard against leakage of'fumes at this
parts 23 and 26 are formed of die-cast'metal.
point‘.
'
The-lower outerportion-?-S' of the body is recessed
The inside air'supply. is controlled by; means of
atvtti 'toireceive‘ and rest: upon a flange 3| on the
a skirting M11 permanently or removably attached
tank: 325 As the wick is tubular a single‘ cog
to the upperv portion of the burner body, said;
wheel-‘~53 can be used» for raising the wick. This
skirting ?tting tightly all round the top of the
cog wheel may be remcvably attached (by a
burner body but being wider than the burner
spring clip or other means, not shown) to a spin
body at its lower portion. The inner skirting M
dle 3d passing through a long cylindrical cavity’
has an arcuate portion IEA and lugs IS on which
in the upper outer portion of the body. No inner
rests an arcuate portion 15A of an outer skirt
skirting is required with the construction shown
ing 16 which is extended upwardly at H513 to form
a support for the lamp glass IT. The inner sup
ply of air thus passes between the inner skirting
and the adjacent portion EA of the- outer wall
of the body of the burner, and so through a lat
eral opening l8 and up through a central pas
in Figures 6 and ‘7 because the inner air feed is
through the bottom of the tank. Lugs 36 on a
substantially arcuate part 38 of the portion 25
of the body engage a substantially arcuate por
tion 31 of the skirting and thus ensure uniformity
of dimensions of the outer air port similarly to
sageway l9 to-the space within the top of the
wick. The outer supply of air passes between 50 the construction (shown in Figures 1-5) Where
the inner air supply passes in through a side
the inner and outer skirtings and up between
port and where a flat wick is fed through a pas
the lamp glass and the outer edge of the top of
sageway which is annular at the top.
the burner. The arcuate form of the portion
No feature of the present burner will prevent
ISA of the outer skirting enables the outer skirt
ing with its lamp glass to swivel slightly and thus 55 it from being interchangeable with standard
burners of the same ‘capacity used in refrigera
automatically to ?nd its correct position in the
centralising ring 20A attached to the ?ue pipe
tors, hot water systems and like apparatus, and
its heat input is at least as good as that of stand
20. Also the dimensions of the skirtings and
ard burners. It is constructed as a plain ‘engi
the lugs, as hereinbefore mentioned, are such
that the size of the air port between the two 60 neering product without any fancy ornamenta
skirtings is not altered by the swivelling move
tions and is strongly built of heavier metal than
ment of the outer skirting. Bleeder holes 2| of
previously and without soldered joints and its
small size (as, for example, three holes each
vital parts should withstand rough handling with
0.8 mm. diameter, two of which are shown in
out being dented or otherwise distorted.
Figure 1) may be provided so that if for any rea
Not only is the burner more rugged and more
son over-pressure be built up in the tank, the
readily assembled than standard burners of the
fumes will escape through these bleeder holes.
same size but it ensures a correct supply of air
The fumes will then be carried by the air stream
to the inner edge of the wick and also to the outer
through the centre of the burner up to the ?ame.
edge of the wick and is more reliable than stand
They will normally be so diluted by the air pass 70
ard burners of the same size.
ing through the centre of the burner body that
When the burner is inserted in the refrigerator
they will be safe from ignition but should an
or other apparatus the top of the lamp glass
ignition take place, a ?ash-back into the tank is
is self-aligning and seeks its correct position in
impossible because of the small size of the bleeder
holes and if the fumes are ignited the resultant 75 relation to the ?ue pipe. This does not interfere
2,407,426
with the air ports which feed ‘the outer and inner
air supplies to the ?ame.
Another advantage of this burner is that it is
more draught~proo|f than standard burners.
This invention also obviates interference with
the air supply and the throwing of the inner and
8
of the tank, said wick guiding body including a.‘
lower portion consisting of a plastic of low heat
conductivity and extending from the interior of
the tank to a level a short distance above the
top of the tank, and an upper thick-walled cast
metal portion seated on said lower portion.
2. A wick type kerosene burner, as claimed in
claim 1, in which said lower portion of said wick
outer air supplies out of balance, which occurs
with standard types of burner owing to obstruc
tion of the small holes in the outside and inside
guiding body is formed with a wick guilding pas
galleries by dust, ?u? or the like.
10 sageway which is of considerable length in com
A further very important advantage of the
parison with the thickness of the wick and so
invention is that the outside and inside skirtings
dimensioned that it is substantially completely
can be lifted away from the burner which en
?lled by the wick, and said upper portion is
ables the user always to keep his burner clean.
formed with a wick guilding passageway forming
As the lamp glass is attached to the outside skirt
an extension of said wick guilding passageway in
ing, it is removable therewith. This obviates the
said lower portion.
‘
trouble of removing the lamp glass from its sup
3. A wick type kerosene burner, as claimed in
port as, was necessary in prior standard con
claim 1, in which said upper portion is provided
structions and which led to numerous breakages
of the lamp glasses.
The fact that the skirtings .
have no perforations also facilitates greatly the
cleaning of the burner. The construction of the
skirtings is such that when crust from the wick
or soot from the chimney falls into the burner
it does not accumulate in the burner itself as is
the ‘case with normal existing burners, but usu
ally ifalls straight out through the air ports.
With this new construction the risk of a burner
catching ?re due to a dirty condition and spilled
kerosene will be greatly reduced, and if it does
catch ?re this ?re will be shorter lived and, due
to the construction in general of the burner, will
be unlikely to cause harm.
I claim:
1. In a wick type kerosene burner, the com
bination with a kerosene tank of a composite body
for guiding the wick from the interior of the tank
upwardly to a level considerably above the top
with a cavity to receive at least one wick raising
cog wheel and with at least one bore of sub
stantial length passing from said cavity through
the material forming a thick wall of said upper
portion to the outside to accommodate the spin
dle of said wick raising cog wheel with a neat ?t.
4. A wick type kerosene burner, as claimed in
claim 1, in which said lower portion and the
lower part of said upper portion are provided with
registering wick guiding passageways of an arcu
ate cross-section corresponding to between about
300 and 320° of a circle and merging in the upper
part of the upper portion into a wick guiding
passageway of completely circular cross-section,
the upper part of said upper portion being fur
ther provided with an axial air duct and the
lower part of said upper portion being provided
with a radial air duct communicating at its inner
end with the lower end of said axial air duct.
GEORG ELIS J ODELL.
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