- Sept. 10, 1946. .5A . . IN REFRIGERATORS KEROSENE BURNER FOR O USE D2 E m. J 2,407,426, 1L L W ‘ OR IN OTHER HEAT~ACTUATED ‘APPARATUS w . F I ’ 2 Sheets-Sheet l F/6,4 ‘ \NVENTOE. Georg EH5 jodQH' QWATT‘Y. l ‘Sept- 10. 1946. G. E. JODELL' KEROSENE BURNER FOR USE IN REFRIGERATORS 2,401,426 OR IN OTHER HEAT-ACTUATED APPARATUS Filed Aug. 2, 1944 z-sheets-sneet 2 TLIZIE. 52 GEORGE Ems JbDEpL. INVENTOR FE; ATTORNEY _ 2,407,426 Patented Sept. 10, 1946 ' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,407,426 KEROSENE‘BURNER FOR USE IN REFRIG ERATORS' OR'IN OTHER HEAT-ACTUATED‘ APPARATUS" Georg Elis Jodell, Prahran, Victoria, Australia, assignor to Electrolux Pty. Limited, Sidney, Australia, ‘an Australian company Application August 2, 1944, Serial’No._547,'715 In Australia August 18, 1943' 4 Claims. 2. 1 be heated. In the case of a kerosene burner, the Most kerosene-operated refrigerators make use of an ordinary wick‘ type keroseneburner which, in- all its essential 'featuresis nothing else; than the‘ old. kerosene‘ lampthat was used extensively forlightingpurposes before homes were generally electri?ed. In-some country districts this kero problems that occur'in the heated portion of a sene lamp is still in use. My invention relates to improvements in kero sene burners for use in refrigerators, or in hot water systems or other heat-actuated apparatus using a ?ue pipe to convey the hot products of combustion to the portion of the apparatus“ to In orderto' adapt. the ordinary kerosene lamp refrigerator alsooc'cur' in a hot Water system: or for the running of ' a' refrigerator, the burner is as above-mentioned. rl’he term“kerosene” is used 10 ?tted on to a metal tank (frequently termed “the other heat-actuated apparatus using a ?ue pipe broadly herein to include any oil’ of similar characteristics. , ' rI‘he objects of my improvements are, ?rst to provide a burner which is safer than standard burners previously adopted‘ for the said uses; second, to‘ provide a burner which is more'rugged and durable than said standard burners; third, to facilitate adjustment of a burner applied. to the said uses; fourth, to‘ provide a better regula tion ‘of the-inner and outer: air feeds to the burner 20v than‘ in' said standard‘ burners; ?fth, to‘facilitate repair of, the burner, and sixth,‘ to provide a‘ font”) which carries a‘ comparatively large‘quam tity'of kerosene; As arule this is done by attach‘ ing to the'lower portion. of the.‘ burner-a; socket pipe which is pushed into a’ socket in the tank. Further; the: burner is ?tted with a short lamp_ glass which butts up against-a centralising ring ?tted on to; they ?ue pipe of the boiler‘ of the refrigerator’ unit. This ?ue. pipe. consists of a central tube'for heating the boilerrwith an outlet: The; kerosene lamp commonly used for refrig eration has quite a number of weak‘ points which have. beenbrought about by thefact that the lamp burner which as‘ a whole. is'more suited than was designed for the. purpose‘of being used as a standard burners to the. uses above-speci?ed. I- attain these. objects by- mechanism illustrated 25. lighting lamp and not for. the purpose of con veying, heat only to- a refrigerator; Whilst‘ the in the: accompanying drawings; in which: construction may-‘be quite. suitable for lighting Figure 1 is a central vertical section through purposes‘ where the lamp. is: properly cooled by a. burner (in position on a tank and beneath the the‘ surrounding. air. and‘. where it. obtains. itsnat ?ue pipe) using a wick which itselfis‘not‘ circular 30 ural draught through the burner'gallery and the“ (although turned» at the top to that shape) ;' glass chimney- ?tted to the burner, it has. been Figure, 2 is a cross-section on the line 2—2 of proved that when: applied to a refrigerator the. Figure 1 (with the tank omitted)‘ ;. burner is: subjected.‘ to. considerably" more; heat; Figured is a plan view of the upper portion of which is conveyed from: the hot boiler of the the burner; refrigerator through. the short lamp-glass and Figure ll'isia cross-section on the line 4-4 of onto-the: burner: It has'also' beeniproved that‘for Figure 1, (with the skirtings and tank omitted); one and. the same size of wick therkerosene con Figure 5 is a diagrammatic view of a spring‘ sumption; is‘very. much’ greater Whenthe burner clip forthe cog wheels, looking in‘ the. direction is usedwith a ?ue than‘if‘ the burner is‘operate'dv of the arrow 5 in Figure2; ’ Figure, 6'is a central verticalsection ofaburner. 4.0 for' lighting.‘ purposes. This: increased.‘ kerosene consumption naturally.) means that much more (in position on a tank and. beneath the ?uepipe) heat is produced per hour, by the burner when with‘a circular ('i. e. tubular). wick; and usedjon a' refrigerator, hot water system or the Figure '7 is a cross-section on the‘ line l—'l:'off like; than’when used without a ?ue as a lamp Figure? (with the; tank omitted); As hereinb'efore stated the burner‘is' adapted: 45. for lighting. This increased. amount of heat tends to increase‘ further the temperature ‘of the burner, for‘ use in any appliancev which is heated‘. by: a whichis an undesirable feature. ItThas also been kerosene‘burner and which operates with a ?ue. di?cultv to" obtain a good seal between the lampV pipe. to convey: the‘ hot products; of combustion glass‘ and the centralising ring of. the boiler ?ue to'the. portion ofthe-apparatusto be heated; but, aszt'ne problems which arise in connection with 50. andv unless this seal isgood the efficiency of'the the heatingof refrigerators are the same: as occur ‘ burner ‘ deteriorates inthe heating“ of other appliances of the‘ type above-mentioned, the invention is described herein primarily in’ relation to the use of the‘ burner- inaa refrigerator, 5,5 4 The'constructionpofthe vkerosene'rburn‘e'r as used up to the :present' is not strong andlrobust enough for the purposes‘ it has to ful?ll in- a refrigerator. as the wholela-mp is- made out of light sheet metal 2,407,426 3 pressings, soldered together. The wick-raising 4 against this surging action, and for this reason mechanism is built into this soldered construc a ventilation pipe has sometimes been used on tion, so that if anything goes wrong with this the side of the burner which releases the fumes wick-raising mechanism the Whole burner is use into the free air. It has proved to be necessary less unless it is returned to the factory where the UK to cover the free opening of this ventilation pipe soldered joints are unsoldered, the gear box re with a wire gauze as otherwise a ?ash-back from paired and put back into place, and the burner resoldered. the flame through the gallery and through the ventilation pipe into the interior of the burner The fact that ‘the burner of the type in use is and the tank can take place. The disadvantage It has 10 with such a ventilation pipe, however, is that by proved on many occasions that if a burner is careless use of the burner the safety gauze re allowed to operate in a dirty condition with kero ferred to above may be damaged and then there a soldered product is its weakest point, sene spilled on the burner, this kerosene evapo exists no protection against a ?ash-back. There rates and mixes with air surrounding the burner and an ignition of these fumes on the surface of the burner may take place by means of a flash“ back through the gallery. When this occurs the is moreover another great disadvantage with surface of the burner is for a short while en-v having such a side ventilation pipe even if properly covered with a gauze and that is that if the burner catches ?re as previously referred to, the ?re on the surface of the burner will be fed veloped in ?ames. This ?re only lasts until the by fumes escaping through this side vent pipe kerosene and dirt on the burner are consumed and when the spilled kerosene and/or dust on but with a soldered burner it has been proved the burner is consumed a ?re still remains on that frequently the solder melts. Once/a soldered top of the gauze in this ventilation pipe and joint melts there is a great risk that fumes will creates so much heat that solder joints in the escape from the tank through the faulty joint. burner will melt. These fumes will be ignited by the ?ame and may 25 With the standard kerosene burner, even if the feed the ?re inde?nitely and under some condi side vent pipe is not intentionally provided a tions a ?ash-back to the tank can take place certain leakage generally takes place at the point which may result in an explosion of the tank. where the wick-raising spindle extends through Another disadvantage with the kerosene burner the burner. As the standard burner is a sheet normally used is that too much heat is carried 30 metal product, this spindle is usually inserted in from the flame by the burner itself through the a light metal tube soldered onto the burner proper burner proper into the tank. Also a considerable amount of heat is conducted back from the fine increase in temperature of the kerosene in the tank that takes place due to these circumstances but it is difiicult to obtain a neat ?t of the spindle into this sheet metal tube and fumes usually escape at this point, particularly if the burner has caught ?re as explained previously. According to the construction shown .in Figures 1-5: is much greater for a lamp used on a refrigerator, hot water ssytem, or the like than is the case if the lamp is used for lighting purposes only. If the temperature of the kerosene in the tank machined, but’ which preferably is die-cast in two parts I and IE, is attached to a lower moulded section 2 of synthetic plastic material by a single pipe by the lamp-glass and the burner proper into the tank. As hereinbefore explained the has reached the flash-point, and if by admixture of the resultant kerosene fumes with air, owing to the necessary ventilation of the tank, an ex An upper metal portion, which may be cast or screw 3. Both the cast metal upper portion and the lower moulded plastic portion may be ma chined after their formation. The low conduc plosive mixture has accumulated in the tank tivity of this lower portion of the burner more underneath the burner, then a ?ash-back from than compensates for the increased heat con the ?ame at the top of the wick down into the ductivity that is due to the greater thickness of tank can take place if the wick does not ?t closely metal of the upper portion of the burner as com and evenly in the burner. Explosion tests car pared with standard constructions. ried out have proved that it is quite possible for 50 The lower portion of the burner is built so that a flash-back to take place past the wick into it constitutes an extension of the wick guide (that the tank, particularly if by carelessness a wick is, of the upper portion of the burner) and is so has been used in the burner that is either too thin constructed that it embodies an arcuate passage or not wide enough. The same thing may happen way 4 of considerable length in comparison with if the vital wick-guiding parts of the burner have 55 the thickness of the wick and of such dimensions been dented or distorted so that air gaps along that the wick ?lls this opening completely or side the wick have resulted. With the normally nearly completely. used construction of kerosene burner (that is a The wick is thus fed through the long arcuate burner made of thin sheet metal) the wick guide ‘ passageway 4, which it ?ts fairly closely, and in particular is easily distorted and there is no thence into a passageway 5 which becomes an doubt that several explosions have occurred due 60 nular at the top. The close ?t of the wick in to this fact. the long passageway 4 has two advantages. The The rick of an explosion taking place through ?rst and most important is that it prevents a ignition past the Wick is increased if the kerosene ?ash-back past the wick into the tank. Even if fumes that have accumulated in the tank are 65 a ?ash-back takes place from the lighted wick being compressed and pushed past the wick. into the upper portion of the burner this ?ash Such a condition exists when the tank is being back cannot pass the wick in the long passage moved, as for instance when it is withdrawn for way in the lower portion of the burner and con re?lling or inserted after re?lling. The move sequently this feature makes the burner explo ment of the kerosene in the tank causes a surg ' sion-proof. The second advantage of this fea ing which presses kerosene fumes out past the 70 ture is‘ that it overcomes the e?ects of surging, wick at one moment and sucks air in past the because as the wick ?ts reasonably tightly into wick at another moment depending on the move this passageway it serves as a barrier against the ment of the kerosene level in the tank. The ?ow of fumes or air through this, passageway. commonly used burner has in itself no prote ‘3151011 75 The wick-raising mechanism comprises a pair 2,4023% 5. oficog wheels 6; the‘ driving wheel of which is slid' onto the squared or other non-circular end of a spindle'l. The/other cog- wheel rotates on av ?xed" spindle 8. The‘ends of these spindles which protrude'beyond' the gear wheels are recessed annularly toform necks E! which are adapted to be engaged by a spring clip iii having'two aper tures ii' and E2“, the» former of which can be‘ passed over‘th'e- end’ of onespindle, after which the clip isdrawn longitudinally to engage the recess-in the spindle, and‘ the latter of which is of'thesame dimensions as the neck of the other spindle but can‘ be enlarged by forcing the arms of theclip open’ to-enabl'e thecliptc-be passed 6 small" ‘flameswill burn'temporarily but theyiw-ill not harm the metal of thedie-cast or machined part i; The» gauze-covered ventilation‘~ openings used- in- standard burners; where the - safety‘ gauze coveringw-as-liable' tobe broken away; are obvi ate'd inthe present construction. The: invention applies mainly to. the-type of wick burner: using a ?at wick which, during its passage-through theL burner, is gradually curved by the shape ofi'thepassageway-until at andad . jacent toits burning end its edges have met and it; thusL has assumed’ a- circular shape but the invention~<is1 not restricted to this type of‘ wick burn-er only». It also appliesto the type of wick over the. end of the spindle. The spindles ?t 15 burner that: uses a tubular wick which is com pletely closed'iin cross-section. The construction neatly in long cylindrical cavities formed in the shown inFig-ures? and’? ‘is adapted‘ for use with‘ metaliupper portion'of‘thebodya Thelspindle ‘l this-latter type of wick. As the‘wick 35 is a is~rotatable in its cavity; If it is desired to repair tubular structure theinner air supply must pass tl'i'e-wi'ck-raising mechanism, the lower portion 22‘ being pro-v of‘ thegbody is removed by releasing the screw 20 up‘ centrally,v a central air passage This air passage is videdj for thatpurpose; tithe spring clip'is then released, and the cog for-medlby theparts 23, 2s and‘ 25~hereunder men wheels and spindles arearemoved; The removal tionedlv and'thus extends up through theltank 32 and replacement’ of: the wick-raising mechanism andv through the burner. The upper inner por isthus a very simple matter, which can beef-r tion23‘ of!‘ the bodyoffthe burner may be perma fected by means of ascrew-dr-iver without send nently attached to the lower inner portion 24 ing the burner tov the factory for repair. The by- forcing the end of one onto the-other. The spindle ‘t is-adapted- to be turned by a’ knurled lower inner portion 24 is fitted onto the wall5 25 disk 13; and thetwo cog wheels intermesh so of1 the tank which forms the'lower portion of the‘ that onerotates the other. _As the spindles pass air- passage 22’. Theupperouter portion 26 ?ts through a substantial portion of the‘ metalinthe into a’ socketv 21'? on the'lower outer portion 28" mainbody itself, the fit between the spindle and and isconnect‘ed' thereto by a screw- 29.1 The the body can be'made» almost a- plunger ?t which parts ‘24 and 28 are‘made of- plastic, and the will'safés-guard against leakage of'fumes at this parts 23 and 26 are formed of die-cast'metal. point‘. ' The-lower outerportion-?-S' of the body is recessed The inside air'supply. is controlled by; means of atvtti 'toireceive‘ and rest: upon a flange 3| on the a skirting M11 permanently or removably attached tank: 325 As the wick is tubular a single‘ cog to the upperv portion of the burner body, said; wheel-‘~53 can be used» for raising the wick. This skirting ?tting tightly all round the top of the cog wheel may be remcvably attached (by a burner body but being wider than the burner spring clip or other means, not shown) to a spin body at its lower portion. The inner skirting M dle 3d passing through a long cylindrical cavity’ has an arcuate portion IEA and lugs IS on which in the upper outer portion of the body. No inner rests an arcuate portion 15A of an outer skirt skirting is required with the construction shown ing 16 which is extended upwardly at H513 to form a support for the lamp glass IT. The inner sup ply of air thus passes between the inner skirting and the adjacent portion EA of the- outer wall of the body of the burner, and so through a lat eral opening l8 and up through a central pas in Figures 6 and ‘7 because the inner air feed is through the bottom of the tank. Lugs 36 on a substantially arcuate part 38 of the portion 25 of the body engage a substantially arcuate por tion 31 of the skirting and thus ensure uniformity of dimensions of the outer air port similarly to sageway l9 to-the space within the top of the wick. The outer supply of air passes between 50 the construction (shown in Figures 1-5) Where the inner air supply passes in through a side the inner and outer skirtings and up between port and where a flat wick is fed through a pas the lamp glass and the outer edge of the top of sageway which is annular at the top. the burner. The arcuate form of the portion No feature of the present burner will prevent ISA of the outer skirting enables the outer skirt ing with its lamp glass to swivel slightly and thus 55 it from being interchangeable with standard burners of the same ‘capacity used in refrigera automatically to ?nd its correct position in the centralising ring 20A attached to the ?ue pipe tors, hot water systems and like apparatus, and its heat input is at least as good as that of stand 20. Also the dimensions of the skirtings and ard burners. It is constructed as a plain ‘engi the lugs, as hereinbefore mentioned, are such that the size of the air port between the two 60 neering product without any fancy ornamenta skirtings is not altered by the swivelling move tions and is strongly built of heavier metal than ment of the outer skirting. Bleeder holes 2| of previously and without soldered joints and its small size (as, for example, three holes each vital parts should withstand rough handling with 0.8 mm. diameter, two of which are shown in out being dented or otherwise distorted. Figure 1) may be provided so that if for any rea Not only is the burner more rugged and more son over-pressure be built up in the tank, the readily assembled than standard burners of the fumes will escape through these bleeder holes. same size but it ensures a correct supply of air The fumes will then be carried by the air stream to the inner edge of the wick and also to the outer through the centre of the burner up to the ?ame. edge of the wick and is more reliable than stand They will normally be so diluted by the air pass 70 ard burners of the same size. ing through the centre of the burner body that When the burner is inserted in the refrigerator they will be safe from ignition but should an or other apparatus the top of the lamp glass ignition take place, a ?ash-back into the tank is is self-aligning and seeks its correct position in impossible because of the small size of the bleeder holes and if the fumes are ignited the resultant 75 relation to the ?ue pipe. This does not interfere 2,407,426 with the air ports which feed ‘the outer and inner air supplies to the ?ame. Another advantage of this burner is that it is more draught~proo|f than standard burners. This invention also obviates interference with the air supply and the throwing of the inner and 8 of the tank, said wick guiding body including a.‘ lower portion consisting of a plastic of low heat conductivity and extending from the interior of the tank to a level a short distance above the top of the tank, and an upper thick-walled cast metal portion seated on said lower portion. 2. A wick type kerosene burner, as claimed in claim 1, in which said lower portion of said wick outer air supplies out of balance, which occurs with standard types of burner owing to obstruc tion of the small holes in the outside and inside guiding body is formed with a wick guilding pas galleries by dust, ?u? or the like. 10 sageway which is of considerable length in com A further very important advantage of the parison with the thickness of the wick and so invention is that the outside and inside skirtings dimensioned that it is substantially completely can be lifted away from the burner which en ?lled by the wick, and said upper portion is ables the user always to keep his burner clean. formed with a wick guilding passageway forming As the lamp glass is attached to the outside skirt an extension of said wick guilding passageway in ing, it is removable therewith. This obviates the said lower portion. ‘ trouble of removing the lamp glass from its sup 3. A wick type kerosene burner, as claimed in port as, was necessary in prior standard con claim 1, in which said upper portion is provided structions and which led to numerous breakages of the lamp glasses. The fact that the skirtings . have no perforations also facilitates greatly the cleaning of the burner. The construction of the skirtings is such that when crust from the wick or soot from the chimney falls into the burner it does not accumulate in the burner itself as is the ‘case with normal existing burners, but usu ally ifalls straight out through the air ports. With this new construction the risk of a burner catching ?re due to a dirty condition and spilled kerosene will be greatly reduced, and if it does catch ?re this ?re will be shorter lived and, due to the construction in general of the burner, will be unlikely to cause harm. I claim: 1. In a wick type kerosene burner, the com bination with a kerosene tank of a composite body for guiding the wick from the interior of the tank upwardly to a level considerably above the top with a cavity to receive at least one wick raising cog wheel and with at least one bore of sub stantial length passing from said cavity through the material forming a thick wall of said upper portion to the outside to accommodate the spin dle of said wick raising cog wheel with a neat ?t. 4. A wick type kerosene burner, as claimed in claim 1, in which said lower portion and the lower part of said upper portion are provided with registering wick guiding passageways of an arcu ate cross-section corresponding to between about 300 and 320° of a circle and merging in the upper part of the upper portion into a wick guiding passageway of completely circular cross-section, the upper part of said upper portion being fur ther provided with an axial air duct and the lower part of said upper portion being provided with a radial air duct communicating at its inner end with the lower end of said axial air duct. GEORG ELIS J ODELL.