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Sept. 10, 1946.
w. OSBORNE
2,407,440
'PISTON FOR INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES
' Filed'Jan. 7, 1944
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INVEN TOR.
IWZi/féf' Osborne
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Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407,440
.’ .UNITE'D l'ST'ATE'S PATENT’ OFFICE
2,407,440
PISTON FOR'INTERNAL-COMBUSTION
.
' ENGINES
Walter Osborne, Glendale, Calif.
_ Application January 7, 1944, Serial'No. 517.447 ‘
12 Claims. 7 (Cl. 309-4)
1
2
,
This invention relates to a piston .for internal
combustion engines.
fragment of the connecting rod is included in
this View.
Among the objects of the invention are: to
provide for the reduction of piston drag; thereby
increasing the power output of theengine; to
vkeep the piston running straight at all times; to
>
Fig. 3 is a transverse section on line 3—3 of
Fig. 1.
Referring‘in detail to the drawing, therein are
shown the piston cylinder 5 of an internal com
bustion engine and a piston 6 therein, said piston
cause the wear upon the piston rings to be equally
.distributed thereby-causing them to direct'more
having its interior cavitated in a conventional
accurately the reciprocatory movement of the
manner and carrying a piston pin 1 to which is
‘piston; to maintain the motor at a cooler tem 10 pivotally connected one end portion of the piston
perature during operation; to cause the motor to
rod 8.
run more freely and quietly; and to improve the
In diametrically opposite sides of the piston 6
oil circulation-through the-motor.
Other objects of ‘the invention pertain to -.the
are formed thrust relief recesses 9, these‘ recesses
nularly recessed portion of the piston for collect
the lower or skirt end of the piston. Each of said
being located one at each thrust side of the pis
provision of a piston structure that will make .it 15 ton vand its pin 1 as shown in Fig, 1. Each of
easier to start the engine; to provide for reduc
these recesses gradually deepens from its upper
ing piston vibration while the engine isrunning;
(as viewed in Fig. 1), side to its opposite side, the
to provide a novel, more ef?cient grooved or an
deepest portion of the recesses being nearest to
ing the carbonsand to keep it from obstructing
recesses tapers as to its width the narrow portion
. the movement of the piston and piston rings; and
of its taper being directed toward the upper end
to provide 'an improved :arrangementof vacuum
relief apertures in the grooved portion of the
6a of the piston. Each recess 9 is shown extend
ing a distance around the compression side of
piston.
the piston and having a circular inner or bottom .
‘
1
‘
'
A morespeci?c object is to provide the piston 25 wall 9a which is curved to the same extent as
with improved oil-containing recesses and
the side surface of the piston. Each of said re
grooves which are so positioned and contoured
asto accelerate the'movement of the oil across
the surfaces‘to be lubricated when the engine is
in operation.
~
30 rected lip ll.
‘The invention further ;relatesto a new article
of ~manufacture .consisting of a. piston . structure
suitable for being used in-engine cylinders already
on the market.
cesses 9 has along'its lower edge or side a groove
or pocket III which results from the formation
along that part of the recess of an upwardly di
‘
' ‘The invention further relates .to a pistonstruc
'turewhich may be provided bymachiningopera
tions performed upon .pistonsralready in use, thus
at small expense,;adapting pistons to function in
Along the upper side of the recess
9 the wallthereof is more steeply inclined there
by forming a downwardly directed shoulder l2 of
a beveled character which tends to roll or force
the oil outwardly from the recess at each in
35 ward movement of the piston.
:
Adjacent to the lower or skirt end of the piston
-' a groove 15 extends therearound which may be
termed an oil elevator groove because, during the
operation of the piston, it tends to lift the oil
the more advantageous manner hereinafter :set
forth.
40 upwardly, that is to say the oil is distributed even
Still other objects, advantages and-features of ' ly along the piston travel within its cylinder away
from the end of the piston from Which the piston
- invention will hereinafter appear.
rod projects. This groove has in its bottom an
Referring‘to the~accompanying drawing,- which
illustrates what is at present deemed to be a
preferred embodiment of the invention, which is
in successful operation.
“ Fig. _1 is partly sectionaland partly elevational
view of the piston.
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the piston, separate
ly shown, the view point being at a right angle
to that of Fig. ,1 ‘showing it vcontained withinthe
annular pocket I6 which is produced by provid
45 ing an upwardly directed lip l1 aroundthe lower
portion of the groove. Adjacent to the upper end
of the piston there extends therearound a carbon
collector groove 20 which is contoured, as viewed
in cross section, like the groove 15 which has
already been described, having a bottom recess
or pocket 2| surrounded by an outwardly directed
lip 22.
cylinder of an internal combustion engine, said
Between the groove 20 ‘and. the relief recess 9
cylinder being shown "in section with parts
the piston is surrounded by a series of compres
broken away in order to contract the view. .A 55 sion ring grooves .23, and between said grooves 23
2,407,440
3
and said relief recesses 9 intervenes the oil ring
groove 25.
In the operation of the device the fact that the
mouth of the oil elevator groove 15 is directed
outwardly and is beveled as shown above its
deepest portion, facilitates the feeding of the oil
from the oil pan formed by the groove into the
larger recesses 9 during piston down-strokes.
Said larger recessesin turn, at ‘each ‘downward
4
ton, said piston having in at least one of its faces
a thrust relief recess, said recess gradually deep
ening from one side to its opposite side, the deep
est portion of said recess being nearest to that
end of the piston from which said rod projects.
2. The subject matter of claim 1, and said
recess tapering as to its width from the side
thereof which is deepest toward its opposite
side.
’3. A piston having a piston rod connected to
it, said rod projecting from one end of said piston,
‘said piston having in at least one of its faces a
spreading it over the surfaces most in need of
recess, said recess tapering as to its width, the
lubrication. Also the oil when thus controlled
Tnarrow portion of its taper being directed away
and directed aids in maintaining the piston in
axial alinement within the cylinder wherein it 15 from the side of the piston from which said rod
stroke of the “piston, by virtue of ~their inclined
bottoms 9a, roll or force the oil outwardly
operates.
In the operation of the device the plentiful
circulation of oil continuously provided over the
thrust sides of the piston will produce a rolling
‘projects.
> 4. In a piston for an internal combustion en
gine, a carbon collecting groove around that end
portion of the piston which is directed toward
e?ect and not a drag. The piston will directly 20 the combustion chamber, said groove being
vdeeper along one side than the other and‘being
contact with the cylinder walls only ‘when at
encircled along said deepest side with ‘acarbon
rest or until the motor is started and the 'oil
retaining lip which is directed ‘toward the afore
circulation is in operation.
mentioned end‘ of the ‘piston.
In the present invention it has been found that
5. An internal combustion engine, ‘a set of‘pis
the “ping” caused by thepis'ton rocking vor slip 25
tons in said engine having inner chambers lead
ping Within its cylinder, noticed mostly'in auto
ing to the inner chamber of said engine, com
mobileimotors, will be eliminated to a minimum.
pression ring grooves around saidpistons, and
Oil‘consumption has been reduced to a minimum
?uid passage means passing between the com
at all times as the piston rings do not have to
pression ring grooves and the inner portions of
guide the piston travel anymore, all they have
the pistons, and thrust relief oil cavity means
to do is to check the oil and compression, as vthe
formed in the thrust sides of saidpistons.
oil depressions in the piston will guide the piston.
6. An internal combustion engine, a set of pis
Easier vstarting ‘will be caused by the draining of
tons in said engine having inner'chambers lead
all oil through the vacuum ‘release holes'in the
ring grooves, when the engine is in a stopped 35 ing to the inner chamber of said engine, thrust
relief 'oil cavity means-formed in the thrust sides
position. ‘The oil cannot congeal behind the
of said pistons and oil control lips positioned
rings in cold temperatures when the engine is
along the edges of/said thrust relief oil cavity
stopped. With the oil circulation between the
means.
cylinder ‘walls and pistons, “freezing” or scoring
'7. An internal combustion engine, a set of pis
of pistons ~or bores will be eliminated, by pro 40
tons'in said engine having inner chambers lead
viding an oil ?lrn to completely separate the pis
ing to the inner chamber of said engine, oil
ton ‘and cylinder wall when'the engine is in oper
cushion cavities vformed in the thrust :sides of
ation, thus reducing friction and piston drag to
said pistons and oil elevator grooves spaced ‘be
a minimum, and to reduce the carbon ‘from col
lecting’ behind the piston rings.
The successful operation 'o’f'the device appears
to vbe due in part, at least, to the spacious char
acter 60f ‘the ‘recesses Q both as vto length and
breadth. Each recess, as viewed from the side
of the piston which it occupies, vis seen‘to have 1
a length extending more than half ‘way across
the width of the piston, and to have ‘a breadth
which is more ‘than half 'itsflength.
‘All compression ring grooves ~23 are also pro
vided with vacuum relief holes 26 which lead ,
into the inner chamber of the ‘piston, and thence
' tween said oil cushion cavities and the, lower ends
of saidpistons.
8. A piston of the ‘character referred to .hav
ing formed in its opposite surface faces two in
dependent ‘depressed areas forming ‘oil il'xolding
recesses completely surrounded by marginal
shoulders and forming an oil film abutment
means carried 'by said piston surface, ‘the-lower
portion of said areas being deeper and tapering
to less depth toward the upper porti'onstthereof.
9. A piston of the character referred to having
formed in its opposite surface faces depreseed
to the crank case chamber 'of the engine, not '
areas forming oil holding recesses compl‘etelyisur
shown. An oil drain is ‘also provided through
the holes 26, to crank case, when the engine is
rounded by marginal ‘shoulders and forming oil
not in operation, thus, after the engine is not 7
running, and the oil being warm, all oil accumu
lated behind the rings 25 will drain back into
the crank case and thereby provide free move
ment of the pistons in their cylinders, thus'pro
viding easier starting after the engine'cylinders
become cold. Better circulation'of air and oil
between the grooves 23 and the "crank case of
the engine Will also reduce 'carbon'accumulati'on
behind the compression rings 21, and'a balanced
air pressure is provided by fairip'assing through
?lm abutment ‘means carried ‘by said-piston sur
face, said recesses gradually deepening from one
side to the opposite side thereof.
10. A piston for internal combustion engines
having pistonpin andpiston rod connected there
with and which piston has formedin its surface
faces, at opposite sides of the axis of said piston
pin, depressed areas forming oil‘holding recesses
surrounded by marginal shoulders to form on
abutment means between the 'piston'surfaces and
the wall of a cylinder into which vsaid piston is
inserted.
'
71-1. A cylindrical piston for an internal com
bustion engine, having a thrust relief ‘recess in
inner chamber of the piston S.
at least one of its sides, said recess having an
I claim:
inner bottom surface which is 'convexed ‘to ‘sub
1.1A piston having a pistonrod connected to
it, said-rodprojecting from oneiendrof ‘said pis 75 stantially the same extent ‘as ‘the side ‘surf ace ‘of
said holes 25 between the grooves 23 and the
2,407,440
5
6
the piston; said recess as to its length extending
12. A piston for internal combustion engines
having at its opposite sides, continuous areas,
each bounded by a marginal continuous shoulder
more than half way across the width of the pis
ton as observed from the side of the piston which
it occupies, the width of said recess being more
than half its length, said recess gradually deep
ening from one side to its opposite side, ‘that
end of the piston which is nearest to the deepest
part of said recess being connectible to a piston
rod.
and forming a shallow oil-containing area in
which a ?lm of'oil is con?ned as a cushioning
area between the piston on opposite sides and
the cylinder wall, substantially as shown.
WALTER OSBORNE.
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