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Патент USA US2407454

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Sept 10,1946.
2,407,453
H. J. RouGiER
oF`1=I PEAK HOT WATER HEATER
Filed nay 18, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
ll
'l
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Il"
Sept -l0, 1946.
H. J. RouGlER
n
2,407,453
oFF PEAK HOT WATER HEATER
Filed may ie,~ 1944
118
/74
2 sheets-sheet@
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,497,453
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
1
2,407,453
OFF-PEAK HOT-WATER HEATER
Harry J. Rougier, Dayton, Ohio
Application May 18, 1944, Serial No. 536,170
19 Claims. (Cl. 219-39)
This invention relates to water heaters and
more particularly to the eflicient operation of
Water heaters.
An object of this invention is to provide an
electric water heater wherein the water may be
heated during an oif~peak load period and the
water supplied to its uses without mixing with
cold Water, so that the water that is supplied
retains the initial temperature less the heat losses.
Another object of this invention is to provide
an electric water heater of the off-peak type,
wherein the source of Water supply is interrupted
after the water in the electric heater has been
heated and the water in the electric heater is
supplied to the consumer by compressed air, so .v
as to prevent the hot water being cooled by cold
water entering the hot water heater,
Another object of this invention is to provide a
tubular partition in the hot water heater, so that
2
of an insulated storage tank, electric heater ele
ment, an intake pipe and a water withdrawing
pipe is broadly old and may be referred to as
substantially standard equipment in olf-peak
electric heaters, with the exception of the posi
tioning of the various elements.
By oil-peak electric water heaters is designated
a system of heating water usually shortly after
midnight when the »demand for electricity is nor
mally 10W and therefore the power companies
are willing to furnish electricity at greatly re
duced rates. For example, where the normal
rate may be on the order of three or four cents
per kilowatt houry the power companies may fur
nish power for heating water during the off-peak
load period for a price on the order of one cent
per kilowatt hour.
The current is automatically turned on and off
by an electric time clock 4U actuating a switch
as the water is heated by the hot water heater, Y. 20 42 by suitable mechanism not shown. When the
the hot Water is immediately conducted to the
off-peak period arrives, the clock 40 automatically
top of the water, so that the upper portion of
closes the switch 4Z. A pair of electric leads 44
the water is heated to a higher temperature,
and 45 are connected in parallel with the heater
thereby permitting the upper portion to be With
element 30. These leads 44 and 46 energize an
drawn as hot water shortly after the heating 25 electromagnet
48, actuating the valve I4, so as
operation is initiated.
to open this valve Whenever the heater element
Another object of this invention is to provide an
30 is energized. The valve I4 is automatically
attachment for water heaters, which attachment
closed immediately upon the. current through the
controls the flow of water into and out of the
heater element being interrupted. This allows
.water heater so as to supply hot water without 30
the cold water to flow into the water heater from
cooling the water in the heater by the addition
the water main only when the heater element 30
of cold water,
is energized. By this arrangement no cold water
Other objects and advantages reside in the con
is added to the tank or reservoir when the heater
struction of parts, the combination thereof and
element 30 is cle-energized.
the mode of operation, as will become more ap 35
The water in the reservoir is maintained under
parent from the following description.
pressure at all times by an automatic air pressure
pump
5G driven by a suitable electric motor 52
Figure 1 discloses an electrical hot water heater
and compressing air in a tank 54 connected by a
of the off-peak type, with the wiring diagram
pipe 56 to the top of the reservoir I0. A suitable
shown schematically.
pressure responsive switch 58 is used for opening
Figure 2 discloses a modification utilizing an
and closing the motor circuit, as is well known to
attachment with the wiring diagram shown only
those skilled in the art, This pressure responsive
in part.
switch may be adjusted to maintain a predeter
In the drawings, the reference character IIl in
mined pressure in the tank 54. For example, the
dicates an insulated hot water storage tank. It 45 upper limit may be 65# and the lower limit 40#,
is filled from a suitable conduit I2 connected by
or any other suitable pressure. The electric motor
a suitable Valve I4 to a water main I 6, as will
52 is normally energized from the lines 32 through
appear more fully later. Water is usually with
suitable leads G0 and 62. An electromagnetic
drawn through a pipe I8, terminating near the
switch 64 open-circuits the lead 62 whenever the
bottom of the tank, so as to fully empty the tank, 50 heater element 30 is energized, in that pressure
and is supplied to the user through a suitable
is then supplied to the tank from the water
valve 22.
Referring to the drawings,
The water is heated by means of an electric
mains.
This interrupts the operation of the
motor 52 and the compressor '50. A valve 'I0 is
connected in the pipe line 55. The Valve 'I0 is
heater element 30 connected through suitable
switch mechanism to electric lines 32; The use 55 controlled by an electromagnet 12, normally en
2,407,453
ii
ergized from the leads
and 82. When the elec
tromagnet Ԥ22 is energized, the valve 'I8 connects
the pipe
to the tank ill. Whenever the elec
tromagnet i2 is cle-energized, the valve 'i0 closes
the passage through the pipe 56 and opens an
4
i’ioat valve or a float switch is inserted near the
bottom of the tank or reservoir I8 actuating a
valve, not shown, in the pipe I8. Such an electro~
magnetic valve controlled by a float switch is
shown and will be described in connection with
the description of Figure 2. Such a iioat me
exhaust vent, permitting the air in the tank it)
chanism is preferably so mounted that the water
to escape, thereby releasing the pressure above
level cannot drop below the intake of the conduit
the water in the tank I‘J. This peïmîts the tank
I8. ‘The float mechanism automatically closes
to be filled with cold water without the air pres
sure interi’errfig with the filling operation. In 10 the valve in the conduit I8 before air can escape.
In the modification disclosed in Figure 2, an
order to prevent the tank I8 from overflowing
electric water heater |08 has been shown as rep
through the exhaust valve, a iioat 'I4 closes the
resentative of conventional water heaters. A
valve ‘i5 whenever the water level reaches the top
suitable heater element |02 is used for heating
of the tank or reservoir
If water has been withdrawn from the tank ,1,5 the water, Vwhich heater element is controlled by
a time clock |84. An auxiliary unit III) is pro
when the ori-peak load period arrives, the water
vided with two connections ||12 and |14, adapted
in the tank is chilled by the cold water that is
to be connected to the intake pipe | I6 and the hot
admitted through the intake opening. In the
water lpipe IIS. This unit IIII may be sold for
event water is drawn from the system during this
period, the water would be quite cold, especially 20 attachment to the conventional water heaters.
This unit supplies air pressure and controls the
ii _drawn through the pipe I8, in that the coldest
iiow of water so as to supply hot water during the
water is found near the bottom of the reservoir.
day, without cooling the water with the addition
In order to supply warm water as quickly as pos
of cold water. lThis unit IIíI is provided with a
sible, a frustro~conical member 80, shown` in dot
ted lines in Figure l, is inserted over the heater 25 pipe or conduit |20 adapted to be connected into
the water main for supplying cold water and an
element 30 and terminates in a small opening 82
other ipe |22 adapted to be connected into the
at the top thereof. This results in the: water, as
hot water outlet.
it is being heated, rising to the top of the frustro»
When forcing Vwater from the hot water heater
conical vmember dit. A pipe 8d is mounted in the
opening 82 and is used for withdrawing water 30 by means of compressed air, it is not feasible to
withdraw the water from` the hot water pipe
during the period that the water in the reservoir
found nea-r the top of the hot water heaters, for
is being heated. This takes the place ol' the pipe
the reason that the air would escape through this
I8. lThis has been accomplished by utilizing an
pipe whenever the water falls below the level of
electromagnet 85, normally de-energized and
connected inv parallel with the heater element 3Il, 35 the intake oi the pipe. That being the case, the
hot water pipe found on the conventional hot
so as to be energized whenever the heater ele
water heater is used as an air conduit whenever
ment is energized. This electromagnet 85 closes
water is withdrawn during all times excepting
the valve 22 and opens the valve 88 in the pipe 84,
the orf -peak load period. The water is withdrawn
so that the water that is withdrawn is the warm
est water in the reservoir. The diameter of the 40 through the pipe found in the bottom of the hot
water heater. This same pipe functions as a re
pipe 8i is less than the diameter of the opening 82,
filling pipe when the hot water heater is being
so as to permit circulation oi the water and so as
refilled. The mechanism for accomplishing the
to thereby force the cold water into contact with
reversal of the pipes, together with the compres
the heater element. Whenever the water in the
reservoir reaches the desired temperature, a 45 sor. will now be described.
Compressed air is supplied by an air compres
thermostat sil connected in series with the heater
sor |38 driven by a suitable electric motor |32 that
element
open-circuits the heater element, so as
supplies compressed air to a tank |34 connected
to interrupt the heating of the water. In the
to the pipe IIlI. A valve |38, connected in the
event water is withdrawn from the reservoir or
the w-‘ater in the reservoir cools, due to radiation 50 pipe lit, is normally closed, so that the air from
the compressor |33 will not flow out through the
and other heat losses, previous to the time: that
hot water l„pipe |22. A valve |38, which has been
the ofi-peak load period expires, the thermostat
shown as controlled by a iloat |40, is mounted in
fill may close and again cause the heater element
the pipe I I2. This valve is so arranged that in the
3Q to heat the water.
After the expiration oi the off -peak load period, -55 event the water is drained from. the tank or re
servoir |90, the Valve |38 will be closed, so as to
no heat will be supplied tothe heater element 30,
prevent air from escaping into the hot water
irrespective of the thermostat Si). Whenever the
mains. A valve |42 connects pipe I I2 to pipe |20
circuits through the heater element are de-ener
and is also normally closed, so as to shut off the
gized, for any reason whatsoever, the valve I4
water from the water mains, so that no cold water
will be closed automatically, the switch 64 closed,
enters the reservoir or tank. A valve |44 and a
the valve 22 opened, the valve 88 closed, the valve
val-ve |45 are both open during normal operation,
'III opened to the pipe 58 and the air exhaust
so that hot water is supplied from the reservoir
closed and the compressor motor energized as
or tank |80 through the pipes IIB and ||2
needed. When this condition arises, no water is
valves IM and |46 to the hot water
admitted to the reservoir. The hot water is with» 65 through
pipe |22. By this arrangement, what is normally
drawn through the pipe i8 and the water forced
the intake `pipe in conventional hot water heaters,
out of the tank by air pressure supplied by the
now becomes the hot water outlet pipe.
compressor 58. This results in hot water being
The position of the various valves, as described
supplied without the addition of cold water, there
by supplying hot water of a substantially uniform 70 above, represents the position of these valves
during normal operation when the water in the
Vtemperature throughout the entire day or until
reservoir IUD is not being heated. Whenever the
the hot water is exhausted.
time clock |04 causes the heater element |s2 to
In order to preclude air discharging through
be energized, the valves in the system have to be
the hot water mains when the water level is
slightly below the outlet conduit I8, a suitable 75 opened or closed, as the case may be, so as to
5
¿407,453
supply cold Water through the conventional cold
water pipe and withdraw hot water during the
heating operation lthrough the conventional hot
water outlet pipe. This has been accomplished
in part by electromagnetic valves which are au
tomatically opened whenever the time clock
closes the circuit through the heater element.
The wiring diagram has not been shown, as this
can easily be supplied.
6
trolled by the voltage supplied to the heater
element.
Furthermore, the system has been described in
connection with electric Water heaters. This sys
tem is substantially equally applicable to gas
heaters, oil heaters and other fuel heaters where ,
it may be desirable lto heat a large quantity of
water and then utilize the entire quantity of wa
ter or utilize the water for a deiinite period of
The electromagnet controlling the valves |36
time before again heating the water. At the time
and |46 has its terminals connected in parallel
the water is ready to be heated, the tank or res
across the terminals of the heater element |02.
ervoir would obviously be replenished with a new
This electromagnet opens the valve |36 and
supply of water.
-closes the valve |46. The electromagnet control
All of the valves could be controlled by ther
ling the valve |42 is also connected across the 15 mostatic means including the valves for supply
terminals of the heater element |02 and opens
ing the fuel to the heater. Furthermore, the
the valve |42 when the time clock closes the cir
system could be caused to be energized in re
cuit through -the heater element. This results in
spouse to the water level dropping below a prede
water being supplied to the hot water heater from
termined level, as for example, by a float that
the cold water mains. As this water is usually 20 could actuate a valve, initiating the operation of
under high pressure, it takes only a short period
the heater unit, whatever type of heater unit
of time for the reservoir to be filled with Water.
may be used.
The compressor motor circuit is open-circuited
In the preferred embodiment, instead of using
-whenever the heater element is energized, as the
two pip-es within the tank, one for withdrawing
air pressure over the water in the tank is not then 25 hot water under normal operations and the other
needed. Instead, the air pressure must be re
for withdrawing hot ‘water when the water is
leased to permit the tank to be ñlled with water.
being heated, a ilexible conduit member could be
A valve |50, also controlled by an electromag
utilized in association with a noat, which iiexible
net, is opened. This valve |50 is connected to the
conduit member has its opening a very short dis
air tank |34 and releases .the air pressure. The 30 tance below the top of the water level.
electromagnet controlling this valve is connected
Although the preferred embodiment of the de
across the terminals of the heater element. A
vice has been described, it will be understood that
valve |52, shown schematically, is controlled by a
within the purview of this invention various
iloat |54 and closes the air passage to the tank
changes may be made in the form, details, pro
|34 whenever water iiows through the pipe ||4. 35 portion and arrangement of parts, the combina
This condition is attained when enough water
tion thereof and mode of operation, which gen
has been supplied to the system from the supply
erally stated consist in a device capable of carry
main to raise the water level above the intake of
ing out the objects set forth, as disclosed and
the pipe ||4. The closing of the valve |52 by the
dei-ined in the appended claims.
float |54 is to prevent water entering into the 40
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
tank |34 and into the compressor |30.
When
l. A hot water heater system including a
the water reaches the level of this pipe and there
reservoir, a heater element for heating the water
is a demand for hot water, the hot water is sup
in the reservoir, means for periodically iilling
plied from the pipe ||4. The pressure is then
the reservoir with water, means responsive to
supplied from the water mains. Whenever the 45 the periodic means for causing the heater ele
electricity through the heater element |02 is in
ment to heat the water, a conduit extending
terrupted for any reason whatsoever, the valves
from the reservoir for supplying hot water, and
|36 and |50 are closed and the valves |42 and
pressure means acting on the water independent
|46 are opened. This causes the hot water to be
of gravity for forcing ithe hot water out of the
drained from the reservoir through'the pipe H6, 50 reservoir through said conduit without replenish
The valve
ing the water supply.
up through the valves |44 and |46.
|44 is controlled by a float |40 actuating a mer
2. A hot water heater system including a
reservoir, a heater element for heating the water
be closed in the event the ñoat |40 is allowed to
in the reservoir, a conduit for supplying the water
drop, d`ue to the absence of water in the pipe. 55 from the Water mains to the reservoir, an outlet
This ñoat |40 actuates the mercury type switch
conduit for supplying hot water from the reser
|38 so as to close the valve |44 when the water
voir, valve means in the iirst conduit, control
in the tank |00 is exhausted, to thereby prevent
means for periodically opening the valve means
air from escaping through the spigots instead of
to replenish the water in the reservoir and for
water. The valve |44 closes the hot water pipe 60 causing the heater element to heat the water
when the water in the reservoir has been utilized.
in the reservoir, and means independent of grav
The float |54 could also be connected to a mer
ity for causing the hot water to now from the
cury type switch and this used in energizing an
reservoir through the outlet conduit so as to sup
electromagnet controlling a. valve. Such con
ply hot water without replenishing the hot water
duit and iioat may be made of such size and shape 65 with cold water.
3. A hot water heater system including a reser
as to be inserted through the opening in the tank
voir, a heater element for heating the water in
|00 normally occupied by pipe | |8.
the reservoir, a conduit for supplying the water
In the preferred embodiment and in the modi
:from the water mains to the reservoir, an outlet
iication electromagnetic valves have been dis
closed and described. Instead of electromagnetic 70 conduit for supplying hot water from the reser
voir, a normally closed valve in the first conduit,
valves, any other suitable valve mechanism
means for periodically opening the valve in the
could be used. For example, a one revolution mo
ñrst conduit to replenish the water in the reser
tor could be used in actua-ting the valves from
voir and for causing the heater element to heat
one position to another, this motor being con 75 the water in the reservoir, and means for sup
cury type of switch |38, causing .the valve |44 to
2,407,453
7
8
10. An'attachment for an electric hot water
heater of the oiT-peak load typeWherein an elec
tric clock mechanism is used for closing> the elec
tric circuit through the heater element during
cold water.
the off-peak electric load demand period, said
4. A- hot Water heater system including a reser
attachment including a conduit attached to the
voir, a heater element for heating the water in
cold water intake of the» hot water heater, valve
the reservoir, means for periodically supplying
means for using said conduit in supplying water
water to be heated to the reservoir, an outlet
to the reservoir to be heated when. the heater
conduit for the hot water, and means for supply
ing compressed air to the reservoir to maintain 10 element is energized, a second Valve means for
converting said conduit from a cold Water supply
the water in the reservoir under pressure as it
means to a` hot water outlet, said second valve
is withdrawn from the reservoir to the` outlet
means opening the conduit from the reservoir
conduit without replenishing the water supply in
to the hot water outlet whenever the heater ele
the reservoir.
5. „A hot water heater system including a reser 15 ment is de-energized, both of said Valve means
being controlled by theY electric clock mechanism
voir, a heater element for heating the water in
so as to cause the opening and the closing of
the reservoir, means for periodically supplying
the valves in predetermined time relation with
water to be heated to the reservo-ir', an outlet
respect tothe energization, of the heater element.
conduit for the hot water, air compressor means
plying compressed air to the reservoir so as to
supply hot water under pressure to the hot water
conduit without replenishing the reservoir with
operating automatically to supply compressed air
to the reservoir so as to maintain a predetermined
pressure head on the water in the reservoir with
out replenishing the water in the reservoir with
cold-water.
l1. An attachment for an electric hot water
heater of the ofE-peakload type wherein an elec
tric clock mechanism is used for closing the elec
tric circuit through the heater element during the
off-peak electric load demand period, said at
tachment including a conduit attached to the
cold water intake of the hot water heater, Valve
means for using said conduit in supplying water
to the reservoir to be heated when the heater ele
ment is energized, a second valve means for con
ing said valve, said time clock causing the heater 30 verting said conduit from a cold water supply
means to a hot water outlet, said second valve
element to heat the water supplied to the reser
means opening the conduit from the reservoir to
voir through said conduit, an outlet conduit, and
the hot water outlet whenever the heater element
means for supplying compressed air to the hot
is de-energized, both of said valve means being
water in the reservoir to force the water through
controlled by the electric clock mechanism so as
said outlet conduit asneeded.
to-cause the opening and the closing of the Valves
7'. A hot water heater system including a reser
in predetermined time relation with respect to
voir, a heater element for heating the water in
the energization of the heater element, and means
the reservoir, means for supplying cold water to
for supplying compressed air to the hot water
the reservoir, said means including a normally
closed Valve, a time clock for periodically open 40 reservoir when the heater element is deenergized.
12. An attachment for an electric hot water
ing said Valve, said time clock causing the heater
heater ofthe oil-peak load type wherein an elec
element to heat the water supplied to the reser
6. A hot water heater system including a
reservoir, a heater element for heating the Water
in the reservoir, means for supplying cold water
to the reservoir, said means including a normally
closed valve, a time clock for periodically open
voir through said conduit, an outlet conduit, and
means for supplying compressed air to the hot
water in the reservoir to force the water through
said outlet conduit as needed.
8. Any electric hot `water heater of the oil-peak
load type wherein an electric clock mechanism
is used in actuating a switch for closing the elec
tric circuit through the heater element during
the oil-peak of the electric load demand, said
electric water heater system including means for
periodically supplying water to the reservoir of
the water heater, said means being controlled
tric clock mechanism is used for closing the elec
tric circuit through the heater element during
the off-peak electric load demand period, said
attachment including a conduit attached to the
cold water intake of the hot water heater, Valve
means for using said conduit in supplying water
to the reservoir to be heated when the heater
element is energized, a second valve means for
converting said conduit from a cold water supply
means to a hot water outlet, said second valve
means opening the conduit from the reservoir to
the hot water outlet whenever the heater element
by the electric clock so as to replenish'the water 55 is de-energized, lboth of said valve means being
controlled by the electric clock mechanism so as
in the reservoir to be heated during the oiT~peak
to cause the opening> and the closing of the Valves
load period, and means for forcing the hot water
in predetermined time' relation with respect t0
from the hot water heater during the period
the energization of the heater element, means
when the current of the heater element is in
for supplying compressed air to the hot Water
terrupted so as to supply hot water without the
reservoir when the heater element is de-energizedl
addition of cold water.
and a relief valve for releasing the air pressure
9. An electric hot water heater of the off-peak
supplied to the water in the reservoir when the
load type wherein an electric clock mechanism
water in the reservoir is being replenished with
is used in actuating a switch for closing the
Coldwater.
electric circuit through the heater element` dur~
1B. An attachment for an electric hot water
ing the ofi-peak of the electric load demand,
heater oi the orf-peak load type wherein an
said electric water heater system including means
electric clock mechanism is usedl for closing` the
for periodically supplying water to the reservoir
electric circuit through the heater element dur
of the water heater, said means being controlled
by the electric clock so as to replenish the water 70 ing the off-peak electric load demand period,
said attachment including a conduit attached
in the reservoir to be heated during the off-«peak
to the cold» water intake of the hot water heater,
load period, and air compressor means for sup
meansv for interconnecting said conduit to the
plying pressure to the water in the reservoir> so
cold water main when replenishing the water in
as to supply hot water under pressure without
75 the heater-inreadiness to be heated and forv con
adding» cold Water in the reservoir.
2,407,453
necting the conduit to the hot water outlet, said
means responding to the clock mechanism, and
means for supplying compressed air through the
10
maintaining pressure on the hot water so that
the water in the reservoir may be withdrawn
conduit normally used as a hot Water outlet con
when the heater element is de«energized without
drawn when the heater element is de-energized
water in the reservoir is being replenished.
duit for maintaining pressure on the hot water 5 the addition of cold water, and means for releas
ing the air pressure in the reservoir when the
so that the water in the reservoir may be with
17. An attachment for an electric hot water
without the addition of cold- water.
heater of the oil-peak load type wherein an elec
14. An attachment for an electric hot water
heater of the off-peak load type wherein an 10 tric clock mechanism is used for closing the elec
tric circuit through the heater element during
electric clock mechanism is used for closing the
the oli-peak electric load demand period, said at
tachment including a conduit attached to the
cold water intake of the hot water heater, valve
cold water intake of the hot water heater, means 15 means for using said conduit in supplying water
to the reservo-ir to be heated when the heater
for interconnecting said conduit to the cold water
element is energized, a second valve means for
main when replenishing the water in the heater
converting
said conduit from a cold water supply
in readiness to be heated and for connecting the
electric circuit through the heater element dur
ing the OIT-peak electric load demand period, said
attachment including a conduit attached to the
conduit to the hot water outlet, said means re
means to a hot Water outlet, said second valve
sponding to the clock mechanism, and air com 20 means opening the conduit from the reservoir to
the hot water outlet whenever the heater element
pressor means for supplying compressed air to the
is de-energized, both of said valve means being
reservoir when the heater element is de-energized
controlled by the electric clock mechanism so as
to thereby permit the withdrawal of hot water
to cause the opening and the closing of the valves
without the addition of cold Water to the reser
in predetermined time relation with respect to
voir.
25 the energization of the heater element, and means
15. An attachment for an electric hot water
for closing the hot water outlet pipe when the
heater of the oil-peak load type wherein an elec
water
supply in the reservoir has been exhausted
tric clock mechanism is used for closing the elec
so as to prevent the compressed air from escap
tric circuit through the heater element during
the off-peak electric load demand period, said 30 ing through the hot water mains.
18. A hot water heater system including a
attachment including a conduit attached to the
reservoir, a heater element for heating the water
cold water intake of the hot Water heater, means
in the reservoir, means for periodically ñlling the
for interconnecting said conduit to the cold Water
reservoir with water, means responsive to the
main when replenishing the Water in the heater
periodic
means for causing the heater element to
in readiness to be heated and for connecting the 35
heat the water, a conduit extending from the
conduit to the hot water outlet, said means re
reservoir for supplying hot Water, said conduit
sponding to the clock mechanism, air compressor
having a pair of branches within the reservoir,
means for supplying compressed air to the reser~
one of which extends to a point near the top
voir when the heater element is de-energized to
thereby permit the withdrawal of hot water with 40 of the reservoir for withdrawing Water during the
period that the heater element is energized, and
out the addition of cold water to the reservoir,
the other extending to a point near the bottom
and means for releasing the air pressure in the
of the reservoir for withdrawing Water during the
reservoir when the water in the reservoir is being
replenished.
period that the heater element is de-energized,
and valve means for selecting the branch to be
16. An attachment for an electric hot water 45 used.
heater of the oil-peak load type wherein an elec
19. A hot water heater system including a
tric clock mechanism is used for closing the elec
reservoir, a heater element for heating the Water
tric circuit through the heater element during
in the reservoir, means for periodically iilling
the oft-peak electric load demand period, said
attachment including a conduit attached to the 50 the reservoir with water, means responsive to
the periodic means for causing the heater ele
cold Water intake of the hot Water heater, means
ment
_to heat the water, a conduit extending
for interconnecting said conduit to the cold water
from the reservoir for supplying hot water, and
main when replenishing the water in the heater
means for forcing the hot water out of the
in readiness to be heated and for connecting the
reservoir
through said conduit without replenish
conduit to the hot water outlet, said means re 55
ing the water supply, said last mentioned means
sponding to the clock mechanism, means for
being capable of forcing the Water to a higher
supplying compressed air through the conduit
level than the water supply in the reservoir.
normally used as a hot water outlet conduit for
HARRY J. ROUGIER.
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