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Sépt. 10, 1946.
W. R. ‘BARRY
72,407,467
APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS CELESTIALLY
vFiled Sept. 30, 1944
6 Sheets-Sheet 1 _
Sept. l0,' 1946. _
w. R. BARRY
I
2,407,467
.APPARATUS ‘FOR DETERMINING ‘GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS CELESTIALLY
‘Filed Sept. 30, 1944
6 ‘Sheets-Sheet s
//
Sept. 10, 1946. l
w, Rf BARRY
2,407,467 .
APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS CELESTIALLY
Filed Sept. 30, 1944
lilél l il lglég
6‘ Sheets-Sheet 4
Sept. 10, 1946.
w, R, BARRY
'
‘2,407,467
APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS CELESTIIALLY
Filed'Sept. 30, 1944
> 6 Sheets-Sheet 5
sept- lo, 1946. ,
v w.’ R. BARRY I
v2.4<‘w,467
APPARATUS. FOR *DETERMINING'GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS CELESTIALLY
'
’
Filed Sept. 30. 1944
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Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407,467
UNITED STATES. PATENT OFFICE
APPARATUSEFOR; DETERMINING GEO‘
GRAPHIC POSITIONS‘ CELESTIALLY
William’ R- Barry, Valdosta, Ga.;'Mrs. WillieR_..
Dewberry administratrix of said William R‘.
Barry, deceasedv
Application September 30, 1944,. Serial No; 556,622
12 Claims.
'
1
2.
My invention relates to- an apparatus for the
determination of geographicalpositions celestial
ly, to wit, the observer’s latitude and longitude.
The invention has among its objects the. produc
tion of any apparatus of the kind. described en
abling.v one to determine geographic positions- ce
lestially in a manner which will meet the needs
of aerial or other navigation. The invention has
among its further objects an apparatus accurate
enough for‘ aerialuse andiast enough. to be use
ful in emergencies where: speed» of determination
is essential and vital. It has as a particular ob
ject, an apparatus-simple.- enough in‘ theory and
operation so that anyone in the aircraft. could use
it e?ectively and with comparatively little in
struction and which would‘ incorporate a mini
mum of probable errors, either careless or func
tional.
.
(Cl. 88-23)
»
The number of steps involved in the obtaining
of a ?x- and the complexity of the steps has a;
direct bearing on two-things:
( 1) vTime necessary to obtain the ?x.
(2) Number‘ of. possible errors.
The ideal solution to latitude would be the
shooting of ‘ the altitude of a star precisely at a
celestial pole, in which case the altitude of that
star would be latitude without any correction ap
plied, or without the necessity of any computa
tion whatsoever.
By my improved apparatus in which I‘ provide a
a synthetic or simulated sky system, I establish
a" means of making such a direct shot, in‘ spite of
the fact there is no star precisely at either North
or South celestial‘ poles; My improved apparatus
affords’ a rapid means of measuring local hour
angle. In my improved apparatus for determin
Asa simple approach. to the principles in
volved and the discussion of their application in 20 ing the geographical positions celesti'ally I'employ
what may be termed as a synthetic sky or- a star-.
this. apparatus, I. shall. ?rst discuss‘ latitude. and
?eld
or star-overlay. The synthetic sky may be
the: discussion of their application in- this appa
de?ned as a device presenting the appearance of
ratus. The two easiest lines of. position deter
the sky with a celestial pole at its center, so ar
minable by means commonly in. use at present
ranged
that synthetic stars have the same an
are the Polaris correctionshot and the-meridion 25
gular separation from other synthetic stars meas
al shot andboth- are comparisons of the body and ‘
ured at a de?nite focal point that the correspond
the known declination of the body, resulting, in
ing real’ stars maintain. It may present‘the ap
latitude. Both are special types’ of lines of po
sition and can be used only under special con
ditions: and pertain to latitude only.
pearance of any or all of'the celestial sphere. It
may‘also present a distorted image corresponding
30 to the distorted“ image of' the actual sky when
Four steps are necessary, exclusive of timing,
to obtain LOP’s (location of- observer’s positions)
by either means, to wit:
(1) Polaris correction . shot:
(a) Shoot. the altitudeof. the body.v
(b) Approximate LHAilocal hour angle) of
Y
Aries.
.
'
(c). Determine. correction. from the Polaris
affected by optical devices employing refraction,
re?ection and similar phenomena. Its charac
teristic feature is that‘ it may bezmade to coin
cide with the re?ection of‘the real sky as viewed
from the focal point at which angular'dimensions
of the synthetic sky are‘ established.
Coinciding‘with. the real sky as in the preced
ing paragraph, it is a means of establishing a
correction table for the appropriate 40 line from the focal point'of the. synthetic sky
through the center of. the synthetic sky to the ce- ~
lestial pole, and it is. further a means of establish
(d) Apply the correction obtained in (c)v to
ing the degree of rotation of. the actual sky about
the altitude of the body determinedin
the celestial pole in relation to the horizon of
(a) .
the earth, any plane parallel to the horizon of . I
This latitude
is the earth, or the plane perpendicular to the hori
(2). Meridional shot:
zon of‘the' earth, in which the central line so es-‘
(a) Shoot the altitude of the body.
tablished
lies,“ or any plane cutting celestial‘ hour
(2)) Determine that. the body is near. enough
circles and meridians; from the‘ sky which it may
to the meridional plane. that it may
be desired to establish the rotational position of
be treatedv as av meridional shot.
50 the sky, using a gravitational leveling device: to
(0) Determine the declination of the body
establish a horizon.
from tables.
,
>
‘
My‘ invention embodies a synthetic‘ sky, incor
((1) Apply altitude of body (a) to declina
porated in or used in conjunction. with a device
tionof body (c).
which’ establishes a horizon or plane parallel. to
This is latitude.
a the plane tangent to the earth’s surface, and
2,407,467
3
Fig. 6 is a vertical section taken on the line
which also establishes an observer’s meridian or
6-—6 of Fig. 3;
a plane perpendicular to the plane tangent to
the earth’s surface, and in which the line of sight
or the line from the focal point of the synthetic
Fig. 7 is a horizontal section taken on the line
1—'l of Fig. 6,, and Fig. 8 is a View of a certain
sky through the center of the synthetic sky lies,
C21
affords a means of directly measuring the obser
ver’s latitude or the altitude of the elevated ce
lestial pole above the plane tangent to the earth’s
bracket and knurled knob looking in the direc
tion of the arrow 8 in Fig. 1.
Y
.
Referring to the drawings, in which an em~
bodiment of the invention is shown, it may be
mentioned that the same consists generally of
surface, and also the observer’s local hour angle _
of Aries (Ll-IA of Aries) or the rotational positionv 10' a housing made up of a number of parts within
which is arrangeda semi transparent re?ecting
of the real sky in relation to the plane perpen
dicular to the plane tangent to the'e‘arth’s surface
mirror constructed to permit the observation by
in which lies the line from the focal point of the _
re?ection of the celestial sky as well as observa
tion through the mirror of the synthetic sky.
synthetic sky through the center of the'synthetic
sky.
'
'
There. is also provided what may be termed a
latitude ring having means for establishing an
'
Since any leveling device dependent upon the
gravitational force may be used‘ to establish a‘ ._ . arti?cial. horizon and a longitude ring carrying
what-may be termed a synthetic sky, the syn
thetic sky being preferably opaque and bearing
upon its face transparent indicia or symbols rep
plane tangent to the earth’s surface, and simul-.
taneously a line perpendicular to the plane tan
gent to the earth’s surface, by employing this line
resenting stars in the celestial sky. Illuminating
in’ conjunction with the line in sight, a plane may
be established which includes both lines. The
plane so established will pass through (1) the
observer’s geographical position, (2) the obser
means is arranged to illuminate the synthetic
sky when viewed through an eye piece along
a line of sight. Suitable means is provided for
varying the relation of the latitude and longi
tude rings relative the housing and horizon.
In Fig. 3 the parts are oriented with the re
ver’s zenith, (3) the observer’s ' nadir, (4) the
center of the earth, (5,) the celestial pole‘ (when
synthetic sky is in coincidence with the real‘sky),
?ecting mirror exposed in the general direction
toward the zenith, and showing the bubble level
30 adjusted to a level position. When the re?ect
ing mirror is directed toward the celestial pole
server’s hour circle is the in?nite projection of his
the latitude ring and therewith the bubble level
meridian. This plane so established as passing
must ‘be adjusted to bring the bubble level into
through the line from the observer’s zenith to his
a level position.
‘
nadir and the line of sight will hereafter be des
(6)'the earth’s pole, and is, therefore, the plane
which cuts’ the observer’s meridian and simulta
neously the observer’s hour circle, since the ob
ignated as the planeof sight. N
The housing consists of a boX 4 having an
opening at either end along the line of sight and
'
Byjestablishing a rotational scale of ‘the syn
thetic sky and by using the plane of sight as an
a further opening at one side 4a to permit the
celestial sky to be seen through its re?ection on
a suitable mirror. The box 4 is attached to an
end plate of a barrel plate Ii! having an open
index for the rotational scale, it may be seen that
a direct reading of LHA of Aries is obtained. The
measurement of the elevation of the line of sight
of the synthetic sky above the horizon affords
adirect reading of latitude.
My improved device is designed to permit ob
servation of the celestial sky simultaneously with
observation of the synthetic sky and by properly
setting the instrument to determine immediate
ly the .latitude and, longitude of the observer up
.on reference to the tables or local hour angles,
thus; it requires only the few moments time for
a navigator to determine his exact latitude and ;
longitude.
The importance of the instrument
for aerial navigation is obvious.
v
The invention has among its other objects the
production of ‘a compact, lightrweight, e?icient,
inexpensive and simple device of the kind dej- r
scribed which may be held in the hands or suit
ably mounted on a plane or any other moving
craft from which it may be desired to quickly
ascertain latitude and longitude.
~
v
To this end my invention consists of the novel
method herein described and in the construc
tion, combination and arrangement of parts here
ing therethrough to correspond or register with
the adjacent opening in the box 4 along the line
of sight of the instrument. The barrel H] is
mounted in what may be termed a barrel lati
tude segment 12 which carries a latitude ring
II. The barrel latitude segment and the barrel
plate 10 are suitably secured together, main
taining the latitude ring il in place. There is
‘a similar barrel longitude section M which car
ries a longitude ring i5 which is maintained in
place between the barrel segment I 4 and a lock
ring l1 secured to the barrel segment [4. Seg
ments l2 and M are adjustably secured together
by a range adjuster [3, having a right and left
thread engaging threads in the segments. Lon
gitude ring 15 carries an adjustable ring I8 which
carries the synthetic sky field H), which is prefer
ably an opaque sheet upon which is depicted by
transparent dots a representation of a celestial
sky showing stars in proper angular relation to
each other. At the end of the instrument and
enclosing the same is a plate 21 providing a light
housing.
’
I‘
in shown in the accompanying drawings. .
As shown, particularly in Fig.‘3, the box 4 is
Referring to the drawings:
'
(35 adjustable in slide ways Illa on the barrel. and
.Fig. .1 is an eye piece or near end elevation
plate I0, beingr slidable so that it may be ad‘
of'my improved device;
'
"
'
‘
justed in the instrument.
'
The adjustment is
' Fig.- 2 is a side elevation thereof looking in the
‘brought. about by means of a screw 1 carried
direction of the arrow 2 in Fig. 1;
by a bracket 9 on ‘the barrel plate Ill, 8 being
i Fig; 37 is a horizontal section taken on the line
3-3 of Fig. 1;
V
v _,Fig. 4 is a View looking in the direction'of the
arrow 4 in Fig. 2;
a knurled knob and set'screw locked to ‘I.
On the box is an eye piece I and a suitable
lens carried by an eye piece adjuster 2. The line
‘of sight through the eye piece is’ from A to B,
' .'Fig._ 5. is a vertical‘ cross section taken onthe
B being the celestiali'pole of the synthetic sky
ling 5'_5.Qf.'51ig;.2;,
as depicted on IS. A light 20 is arranged in the
:
r
_,
1
i.
.
'
.
.7
2,407,467
5
line. of sight and provided with suitable. means
provided‘. with. gradations- Adjustably mounted
for illuminatingthe. same, such as an electric
in the longitude ring. as by screwsv I821‘ is a frame
light. and‘ battery which isnot shown‘ Arranged
I8 which carries the synthetic sky l9 and"- per
mits proper adjustment thereof-within the ring.
.The light 20 is at the rear side of the. synthetic
sky, as shown in Fig. 3, 22 being av re?ecting
in the. box 4'. is the mirror previously described
which‘ box‘ has an open. side as most clearly
shown: inFigs- 2 and 3.. The re?ector or mirror
is adjusted within the box at an angle. intercept
ing the optical. axis or- line of sight at approxi
mately forty-?ve degrees. measured along the
plane of‘ elevation. As mentioned before, this
surface.
Assuming the device to be constructed sub
stantially as shown, in using the instrument to
determine latitude and longitude, for example,
inthe. northern hemisphere, the synthetic sky
re?ecting surface is suchthat the re?ection of ‘
the celestial sky may be seen through the; eye
simulating the celestial sky as seen in the north‘;
piece! and the; synthetic. sky may also be seen
ern. hemisphere, the observer would face the‘ gen
from l1 through the re?ecting surface. Thei?el'd
eral direction of east (or west depending on'the
of sight of: the instrument runs: fromfocal; point 15 location of they openiside of the box) and, hold
A withan optical axis-A—l3~v and range of vision
ing the instrument, bring‘ the. open side of» the
ofapproximately sixteen degrees in each direc
box. 4 to. face. the celestial sky, so‘ that: thesceles
tion from: the optical axis Aer-B, giving a maxi
' tial sky would be re?ected by the-mirror 5 to: the
mum line of sight A-C‘ and A.—-D. Correspond
focal point. Looking through the sight from vA,
ing angles of sight of the re?ected. image. of 20 the observer would see ‘the re?ectedv Polaris in
the sky on the mirroring surface 5 is represented
the mirror and at the'same time observe the oc
by‘ the dotted lines E—l, intercepting the optical
lestial. pole and Polaris on the synthetic sky.
axisv A--B at point- E at: an angle of‘ ninety‘de
When Polaris in boththe celestial‘ sky» andsyn
grees, and lines F—H and G-J intercepting
thetic. sky ‘coincide. the user knows that the ce
A—DI and A-C',.respectively;.
'
25
The barrel segment l2 and the latitude ring ll
are. operatively connectedby a. Worm. gear‘ mech
anism in which the ring is provided'with teeth
on the same. meshing with the teeth on a. worm
lestial. poleson the celestial sky and the synthetic
sky‘ coincide in the line of sight. The instru
ment should be maintained sothat the level! bub
ble. is in its central position, assuringthat the
instrument. is level and not tilted in anyway,
ISA. The latitude ring is provided with indicia 30 thereby establishing the horizon. The. observer
45 (see Fig. 2”) which. may be. observed. through
then- manipulates the knob 28B; thereby adjust
an. opening 35-A- inthe barrel, the indicia repre
ing the relative relation- of the barrel‘i ll and lati
senting degrees. or fractions. thereof. There: is
tude- ring ll. Whilethe latitude ring is‘ con
also provided. a knurled. knob 28A on. the worm
trolled by the knob, actually the» relative move
shaft. 21A for manipulating the worm and there 35 ment between the barrel and ring is brought about
is also provided an adjustable; knurled knob‘ 2.833
by the tilting of-ythe- barrel‘ or housing since the
which maybe secured on the; shaft through: the
level is carried by the ‘ring and the ring is» main
knob 28A which is provided with indiciaindicat
tained in proper relation to the horizon. The
ing minutes or fractions." thereof and. which co:
relative movement of the barrel in angles and
operates with. the pointer ‘30A. on the, bracket‘ at 40 minutes is indicated in angles in degrees» through
the side ,of the. instrument.
the opening 35A and on the indicated ‘angles or
The latitude. ring. ll: carries a leveling. device
minutes-on. the knob. At the same‘- time the ob
which as: shown is a bubble. level 32: (see Fig. 3
server may turn knob 29A until the synthetic-sky
as: well as. Figs. Grand. 7).. This level. provides
is rotated with. the longitude, ring L5 in the bar.
for the horizon withinthe instrument. In order
rel l4, bringing the stars in- the synthetic sky
that. the. bubble may bev read. from the eyepiece
as seen through the re?ecting surface 5 to‘ co
at. l', atransparent mirror 34“ is arranged within
incide with. the celestial‘ stars» as re?ected on
the, latitude ring. and carried thereby-with the
the mirror‘5. The observer may then read‘ the
leveling. device. I have‘ shown. in Fig. 3. how‘ the
scales on they latitude ring H and longitude ring
bubble may be illuminated. so that it may be '
14' and knobs 28B and 29A, which gives him
the‘ angles’ in degrees and minutes‘ for latitude
and longitude. Of course, in making his adjust
ments of the instrument, it is necessary for him
readily read when the instrument is. in, use. As
shown in this figure, 32.‘ represents. the level. which
carries an. arm 34A to which. a mirror 3.4 is se
cured, this mirror also being such» that: it. may
be. usedto re?ect the bubble. as wellas to‘ permit .
observation through the: same alongv the, line. of
sight. A simple illuminating’ device: is shown in
which, 36 designates a hollow block carrying: the
bubble. level, and in. which is secured a smallélec
tric lamp 40, which transmits light through, the
bubble level to themirror 34. Any suitable means
may be: employed for energizing the laminae for
example, an electric circuit suitably connected
to contacts 42 and 43 so that contact is main
tained- Of course, if the source of energy is
within the housing and carried by the latitude
to watch the bubble so that the instrument may
be maintainedv in proper relation. to. the horizon.
The observer may then refer to his» tables show
ing the local hour angles, and from the tables
know immediately his latitude and longitude,
which gives him his position geographically.
Instead. of re?ecting the celestial sky the eye
piece may be placed on the box opposite the side
opening so that the celestial sky may be seen
through it with the synthetic sky re?ected. by
thesemitransparent mirror.
,
‘
r
The foregoing description sets forth generally
the construction and operation of one embodi
ment. of the invention and the methodof tak
The longitude ring I5 is likewise rotated in
ing readings; The apparatus is susceptible to
the. housing by means of a worm 16B engaging
many‘ changes and may be'greatly simpli?ed or
teeth in the periphery of the ring. Knobs and 70 made more complicated, the particular instruindicating means are provided similar to that
ment shown being a desirable form, however:
described for the. latitude ring. This ring is also
Having thus described my invention, it is ob
provided with indicia 45 displayed through an
. vious that various immaterial modi?cations may
opening in the barrel and graduated in angles or
‘be. made in the same without departing'from'the
ring. H, the connections may bedirect.
,
portions .th?reof, the knob 293 being similarly 75 spirit of. my invention; hence, I do. not..;wish
2,407,467
7
8
to be understood as limiting myself to the. exact
position to re?ect the image of the bubble level
method, form, construction, arrangement and
to the eye opening, and individual means to sepa
rately rotate the latitude and longitude rings.
4. In a locating device of the kind described,
combination of parts herein shown and described,
or uses mentioned.
'
What I claim as new and, desire to secure by
Letters Patent is:
1. In a locating device of the kind described,
the combination of a box open at one side and
having an eye'opening disposed in the longitudi
nal ‘axis of the device, in one end, an extensible
and contractible casing secured to said box, an
combination of an ‘enclosure having an open
illuminated plate in the other end of the casing
in one side and an eye opening disposed in
longitudinal axis of the device, in an end of 10 disposed at right angles to the longitudinal axis
of the device and having indicating marks there
enclosure, an illuminated plate in the other
on simulating the stars observed in taking ob
end of the enclosure disposed at right angles to
servations, a, semi-transparent celestial sky re
the longitudinal axis of the device and having
?ector in said box disposed at an angle of forty
indicating marks thereon simulating the stars
?ve degrees to the line of sight from the eye open
from which observations are made, a semi-trans
ing to the center of the plate for re?ecting to the
parent re?ector located adjacent said side open
‘eye opening the celestial sky as seen through the
ing, in the enclosure and extending at an angle
opening in said enclosure, a rotatable graduated
of forty-?ve degrees to the line of sight from
latitude ring and a rotatable graduated longitude
said eye opening to the center of said illuminated
plate for re?ecting to the eye opening the celes 20 ring both rotatably mounted in said casing on the
longitudinal axis of the device, a bubble level
tial sky as seen through the opening in said en
mounted on said latitude ring, a re?ector carried
closure, a circular graduated latitude indicator
by said latitude ring for re?ecting the image of
and a circular graduated longitude indicator both
said bubble level to the eye opening, and individ
rotatably mounted in said enclosure on the lon
gitudinal axis thereof, level means for establish 25 ual means to independently rotate said latitude
and longitude rings.
ing a horizon, carried by said latitude indicator,
5. In a locating device of the kind described,
and said illuminated plate being carried by said
the combination of a'box open at one side and
longitude indicator, and independent actuating
having an eye opening disposed in the longi
means for separately adjusting said latitude and
tudinal axis of the device, in one end, an exten
longitude indicators.
sible and contractible casing secured .to said box,
2. In a locating device of the kind described,
an illuminated plate in the other end of the eas
the combination of a box having an open side
ing disposed at right angles to the axis of the de
and an eye opening disposed in the longitudinal
vice and having indicating marks thereon simu
axis of the device, in one end, a casing secured
to said box, an opaque synthetic sky supported 35 lating the stars to be observed in taking observa
tions, a semi-transparent re?ector in said box
in said casing and visible through said eye open
disposed at an angle of forty-?ve degrees to the
ing, said synthetic sky being disposed at right
line of sight from the eye opening to the center
angles to the longitudinal axis of the device, a
of the plate for re?ecting to the eye opening the
partially transparent re?ector secured in said
box at an angle of forty-?ve degrees to a line 40 celestial sky as seen through the open side of the
box, a rotatable graduated latitude ring and a
of sight from said eye opening to said synthetic
the
ing
the
the
sky for re?ecting to the eye, opening the celes
rotatable graduated longitude ring both rotatably
tial sky as seen through the open side of the
mounted in said casing on the longitudinal axis
thereof, a bubble‘ level mounted on said latitude
ring, a re?ector carried by ‘said latitude ring for
re?ecting the image of said bubble level .to the
eye opening, and individual means to separately
box, the latter having indicating marks there
on disposed in simulation of the stars from L.
which observations are made, a light source
behind said synthetic sky, a rotatable graduated
latitude ring and a rotatable graduated longi
tude ring, both rotatably mounted in said casing
rotate said latitude and longitude rings, including
graduated discs having graduations thereon sub
on the longitudinal axis thereof with the syn- “1
dividing the graduations on the latitude and
thetic sky secured to the longitude ring, a bubble
level secured to said latitude ring and individual
means to independently rotate the latitude and
longitude ‘rings.
longitude rings.
'
'
3. In a locating device of the kind described, ;_1
the combination of a box open at one side, and
having an eye opening disposed in the longitudi
nal axis of the device in one end, a casing secured
7
i
6. An apparatus of the kind described compris
ing a housing having an eye piece at one end and
a synthetic sky at the other end in the line of
sight through the housing, the axes of both the
eye piece and the synthetic sky being disposed in
the longitudinal axis of the device, and the syn
thetic sky being disposed at right angles .to said
- axis, a member having a re?ecting surface dis
to said box, a plate disposed at right angles to
the longitudinal axis of the device supported in GO posed in the housing and cutting the line of sight
between the eye piece and said synthetic sky at
said casing and visible through said eye opening,
van angle of forty-?ve degrees, said housing pro
a partially transparent reflector secured in said
vided with an opening at one side so disposed as
box at an angle of forty-?ve degrees to a line of
to permit observation along the sight of re?ection
sight from the eye opening to the center of said
plate for re?ecting to the eye opening the celes- r, 'of the celestial sky through the eye piece, said
re?ecting surface constructed to re?ect the celes
tial sky as seen through the opening in said en
closure, the latter having indicating marks there
on disposed in simulation of the stars from which
observations are made, a light source behind said
-plate,'a rotatable graduated latitude ring, and a
rotatable graduated longitude ring both rotatably
mounted in said casing disposed at right angles
to the longitudinal axis thereof with the plate
secured to the longitude ring, a bubble level. se
cured to said latitude ring, a re?ector carried in
tial sky and to permit observation through the
surface of the synthetic sky, said apparatus pro
vided with level means for establishing a hori~
zon, a latitude ring arranged Within the housing
having indicia thereon indicating angles for de
termining relative movements of the housing and
latitude ring, said level means being carried by
said ring, and a longitude ring also provided with
‘indicia indicating angles of rotation of the ring
‘2,407,467
i19-
,
within the‘ housing, said longitude ring "carrying
said synthetic’ sky, and‘ individual means for ro
tating said vrings independently of each other.
. 7. In-anHa-pparatus of the kind described, a
housing» having ‘an opening therein, ' a latitude
ring arranged‘ within the housing, and rotatable
upon the longitudinal axis of the-device; said
housing and latitude ring being relatively ‘ad-just;
able, said latitude ring provided with indicia in
dicating angles, alongitude ring rotatably mount
107
a graduated rotatable latitude ring rotatably
mounted'in said casing with ‘its center disposed
in the longitudinal axis of the ‘housing, an illumi
nated bubble level carried by said latitude ring, a
graduated rotatable longitude‘ ring rotatably
mounted in said casing with its center disposed
in the longitudinal axis of the housing, *and's'aid
illuminated plate'being mounted 'on the longitudi
nal vring, and independent" means'for ‘rotating the
10 latitude ‘and longitude‘rin'gs; ”
ed in the housing on the longitudinal axis of the
device and provided with indicia indicating an
gles of rotation, a synthetic sky carried by said
10. An apparatus of the kind described com
prising in combination a housing comprising a
box open at one side and at one end and having
longitude ring provided with indicia thereon
an eye opening at its opposite end, a casing hav
simulating a view of the celestial sky, an eye 15 ing an open end secured with its open end to the
piece, said synthetic sky and eye piece being dis
open end of the box, an illuminated plate in the
posed upon the longitudinal axis of the device
other end of the casing disposed at right angles
to the longitudinal axis of the housing with its
thereto, a re?ector arranged within the housing
center disposed in said axis, and having indicia
at an angle of forty-?ve degrees to the line of 20 marks thereon simulating the stars observed in
sight between the eye piece and a determined
taking observations, a semi-transparent re?ector
point on the synthetic Sky for re?ecting to the
mounted in said box at an angle of 45 degrees to
eye piece the celestial sky as seen through the
the longitudinal axis of the housing, and func
opening in said housing, a leveling device carried
tioning to re?ect the celestial sky as it appears
by said latitude ring for establishing a horizon
through said side opening to said eye opening,
in the apparatus, and manually operable means
a graduated rotatable latitude ring rotatably
for‘ controlling the relative positions of the lati
mounted in said casing with its center disposed
tude and longitude rings within the housing.
in the longitudinal axis of the housing, an illumi
8. In an apparatus of the kind described and
nated bubble level carried by said latitude ring, a
in combination a housing having an eye piece iii) graduated rotatable longitude ring rotatably
at one end and a plate constituting a synthetic
mounted in said casing with its center disposed
sky simulating the celestial sky at the other end
in the longitudinal axis of the housing, and said
in the line of sight through the housing, the axes
illuminated plate being mounted on the longitudi
of the eye piece and synthetic sky being coinci
nal ring, two shafts journaled in said casing, each
dent with the longitudinal axis of the device, a\
having a knob thereon, and worm pinions and
member having a re?ecting surface disposed in
worm gear connections between said shafts and
the housing and cutting the line of sight between
the latitude ring and longitude ring respectively.
the eye piece ‘and said synthetic sky at an angle
11. An apparatus of the kind described com
of forty-?ve degrees, said housing provided with
prising in combination a housing, comprising a
with the synthetic sky arranged at right angles
an opening at one side so disposed as to permit
observation along the sight of re?ection of the
celestial sky through the eye piece, said re?ecting
surface constructed to re?ect the celestial sky
and permit observation through the surface of
the synthetic sky, said apparatus provided with
leveling means for establishing an arti?cial hori
mm, a latitude ring rotatable on the longitudinal
axis of the device and arranged Within the hous
ing having indicia thereon indicating angles for
determining relative movements of the housing
and latitude ring, said leveling means being car
ried by said latitude ring and a longitude ring
rotatably mounted on the longitudinal axis of the
device and also provided with indicia indicating
angles of rotation of the ring within the housing,
said longitude ring carrying said synthetic sky,
means for illuminating the synthetic sky at the
back face thereof, and independent means oper
atively engaging said rings for rotating the same
box open at one side and at one end and having
an eye opening at its opposite end, a casing hav
ingvan open end secured with its open end to the
open end of the box, an illuminated plate in the
other end of the casing disposed at right angles
to the longitudinal axis of the housing with its
center disposed in said axis, and having indicia
marks thereon simulating the stars observed in
taking observations, a semi-transparent re?ector
mounted in said box at an angle of 45 degrees
to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and func
tioning to re?ect the celestial sky as it appears
through said side opening to said eye opening, a
graduated rotatable latitude ring rotatably
mounted in said casing with its center disposed
in the longitudinal axis of, the housing, a bubble
level carried by said latitude ring, a semi-trans
parent re?ector mounted on said bubble level to
stand at an angle of 45 degrees to the longitudinal
axis of the housing with its center disposed sub
in the device.
,
(ii) stantially in said longitudinal axis, a graduated
9. An apparatus of the kind described compris
rotatable longitude ring rotatably mounted in said
ing in combination a housing comprising a box
casing with its center disposed in the longitudi
open at one side and at one end and having an
nal axis of the housing, and said illuminated plate
eye opening at its opposite end, a casing having
being mounted on said longitudinal ring, means
an open end secured with'its open end to the 1' for rotating said latitude ring and other means for
rotating said longitude ring.
open end of the box, an illuminated plate in the
other end of the casing disposed at right angles
12. In a locating device of the kind described,
to the longitudinal axis of the housing with its
the combination of an enclosure having an open
center disposed in said axis, and having indicia
ing therein, an illuminated plate in the enclosure,
marks thereon simulating the stars observed in
disposed at right angles to an axis of the device,
taking observations, a semi-transparent re?ector
and having indicating marks therein simulating
mounted in said box at an angle of 45 degrees
the stars from which observations are made, a
to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and func
semi-transparent re?ector located adjacent said
tioning to re?ect the celestial sky as it appears
opening in the enclosure and extending at an
through said side opening to said eye opening,
angle of forty-?ve degrees to and intersecting
2,407,467
11
said axis, whereby light from the celestial stars
as seen through said opening and the simulated
stars will strike the re?ector at the same angle,
an eye opening in said enclosure optically aligned
12
eratively related to said re?ector and said means
for indicating the angular relation about said first
mentioned axis between said re?ector and said
horizon, said illuminated plate being carried by
with said re?ector for simultaneously receiving, Ca said longitude indicator, and independent actu
ating means for separately rotating said latitude
on a common axis, both re?ected and unre?ected
and longitude indicators relative to said enclosure,
light striking said re?ector, a graduated latitude
indicator and a graduated longitude indicator ro
tatably carried by said enclosure, means for estab
lishing a horizon, said latitude indicator being op- 10
about said ?rst mentioned axis.
WILLIAM R. BARRY.
'
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