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Патент USA US2407475

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y
Sept. l0;1946.l
`
'
E. D. cHAPLlN
IGNITER yFOR ÍNTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed Feb. ' 3.V 1944
4
l l l l um»
-
46'
2,407,474
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407,414
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,474
IGNITER FOR INTERNAL-COÍMBUSTI'ON
ENGINES
Edwin D.A Chaplin, New York, N.. Y., assigner to
Harry
B. Albert, New Yor Y, N. Y.
imputation February s, 1944;, serial No. 520,871
1
1,6 claims.
(c1.l 12s-145)
l
2
This invention relates to igniters ior internal
In the accompanying drawing showing, by way
com ustion engines for controlled timing of ig
of example several of many possible embodiments
of theinvention,
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view, partly in
elevation showing one form of the invention;
Fig.Y 2 is a fragmental side view showing one
ages by means of incandescent heaters of the
high resistance and induced current types though
it is noted that in some of the claims the inven
tion is not limited to heaters utilizing any partic
other form of the-igniter tube; and
ular kind of current n_or even t0 electric heaters.
One object of the invention is to provide an
Fig. 4 is a fragmental longitudinal sectional
view partly in elevation showing another form
form o_f the igniter tube;
Fig. 3 is a fragmental sidev View showing an
'
of the casing.
improved device or apparatus of this kind which
In the drawing al substantially cylindrical sock
retains a blanket of spent gases over a heating
element- to prevent ignition of fresh gases until
et member I0 provided with a bore I I throughout
the latter have been compressed to the degree l5. has. its inner end I2 of reduced diameter and
provided with exterior threads I4 whereby said
inner end may be Ithreaded into a hole in the
necessary for efdoient operation of the engine and
which prevents contact of the gases with any
heater Wires.
cylinder head I5-of an internal combustion en
gine. The exterior of the socket member adja
Other objects of the invention are to provide
an improved device of this kind which requires no
moving parts, eliminates spark gaps and their
cent said inner end is provided with lateral tool
receiving faces I6 for screwing the> inner end in
attending corrosion and pitting, and is effective
over a wide pressure range for a given require- '
ment of electrical energy.
Sincey a large proportion
are due to spark; failure resulting from sliding
ject to provide a device which may _form a. part
of an ignition system having no moving contac-ts
and referred to later in the description.
' Additional objects of the invention are to ef'- h
fect simplicity and efficiency in such apparatus
and to provide an extremely simple and compact
device or apparatus of this> kind which is eco
nomical, durable, and reliable in operation, and
economical to manufacturel and maybe installed
in a conventional cylinder head.
Still other objects of the invention will appear
as the description proceeds; and while herein
details of the invention are described in> thek spec
iñcation and some ofthe. claims, the invention
as described in some of the broader claims is not
limited to these, and many andy various changes
may be made without departing Afrom the scope
of the invention as claimed in the broader claims.
The inventive features ior the accomplishment
of these and other objects are shown herein in
connection with an igniter which brieiiy stated,
`
said cylinder head. The outer end of the bore I I
is surrounded by an annular seat I9 surrounded
by a wall I8 provided with internal threads 20
threadably
receiving a hollow cylinder or thimble
2I of drawn steel or other suitable material in
axial alinement with the socket member to form
a casing, generally designated I‘I the internal di
ameter of the cylinder being greater than that
of the bore II.
A cylindrical heating element generally desig
nated as 22 comprising a non-fusible and non
combustible tube 24 is disposed within the hollow
of- the cylinder in axial alinement with the bore
II, the internal diameter of the tube preferably
being equal to that of the bore. The exterior of
the tube is wound with a coil of wire 25, the turns
of the coil being electrically insulatedv from each
other as by Spacing if the wire is bare or by heat
resisting insulation to prevent a short circuit be
tween adjacent turns. The en_d portions 26 of
the coil may be. anchored in any suitable manner
such as by passing them through holes 28 in lugs
29 cast on the tube. The inner end of the tube
. is disposed gas-tight against. a packing ring-30
of asbestos or other suitable refractory material
in the seat I9 while the outer end similarly en
gages a packing washer 3| of similar material
urged inwardly by- a plug 32 threaded in the outer
end thereof adapted to be screwed into. the cyl-_ 50 end 0f the cylinder b_.y means ci threads 34. The
length of the bore l Iy and tube 24 and the thick
inder head of a. motor and an igniter tube mount
ness and inside diameter of the washer determine
ed in the outer end of the casing and spaced from
the volume of the space receiving the gases forced
the inner walls thereof to leave a dead air space
from
the outer end of the cylinder and conse
asY a heat insulator around the tube.
55
includes a cylindrical casing having thev inner
quently the extent to which incoming explosive
2,407,474.
3
mixtures will enter the igniter when they are
compressed. Varying the thickness of the wash
the current can be supplied by alternators hav
ing permanent magnet rotors so that no brushes
are required throughout the entire ignition sys
er adjusts this space.
tem.
For some mixtures better
resultswould be obtained by the use of a thin
a thick one
would serve better. The plug may be provided
witha tool receiving opening or slot 35.
I-Ience with my ignition device it is pos
sible to eliminate all sliding contacts and air
gaps which account for the great majority of
ignition and motor failures. Furthermore my
igniter may be operated at low voltages so that
current leakages due to moisture on insulators,
of holes 38 in its mid-section through which pass 10 or moisture laden air between conductors, while
a serious problem in conventional high tension
bolts 39 having wide heads 40 welded to the wire
The cylinder is preferably provided with a pair
ignition, are practically nil in my system.
The tube substantially prevents circulation of
lil surrounds the shank of the bolt and hard re
gases in the gas space to and from the major
fractory insulating washers 42 at each end en
portion of the bore and the combustion zone so
gage the packing. An outer ynut 44 on the bolt
draws the head and washers tightly against the. 15 that the coil is not subjected to contact with
fresh cool gases andthe gas within the space
packing to expand it against the hole walls and
acts as a heat insulating blanket to keep the
bolt thereby forming a gas-tight fit, the bolts
being insulated from the cylinder. Conducting
heater hot and the thimble il! cool.
The tube 2M may be of silicon carbide or
leads (not shown) may be connected to the
screws in any well known manner. If desired, 20 alumina so as to be highly resistant to heat and
at the same time be mechanically strong to with
one of the ends of the coil may be grounded so
that only one bolt will be required. The plug 32
stand pressure differences set up between the gas
space exterior and interior of the tube. In addi
may be made integral with the cylinder 2l if the
tion alumina acts as a catalyst for the trans
cylinder and socket I0 are separate and the
25
formation of hydrocarbon fuels to forms having a
socket member and cylinder may be integral if
the plug is separate. An annular space 45 is
lesser tendency to knock.
In still another form of the invention as shown
provided between the heater and the internal
in Fig. 4, the casing Ila, is preferably integral
walls of the cylinder both to allow space for the
and provided with only one terminal bolt hole
mounting of the bolts and to insulate the heater
from the cylinder. The gas therein is stagnant 30 38a through which passes the bolt 39 as shown
in Fig. 1. The heater 22 disposed `gas tight
since the packing 30 and 3l and tube are sub
end portions 26. Refractory insulating packing
stantially impervious.
In one form of the invention the tube or sup
port 24 may be of refractory insulating material
such as silicon carbide or fused alumina,> other 35
wise’known to the trade as Carborundum and
Alundum. If desired, the tube, as the 24a (Fig.
2) may be provided with an external helical
groove 4S in which bare high resistance wire
40
25a is wound.
In another form of the invention the support
ing member may comprise a tube 24h (Fig. 3) of
against the ring 3u within the hollow portion of
the casing is similar to that shown in Fig. 1.
A washer Sla of refractory gas tight packing is
disposed against the outer end of the heater fol
lowed by a disk of hard refractory material suchl
as silica, alumina, or silicon carbide.
One of the end portions of the coil passes
through small registering holes 5l and 52 in the
washer and disk respectively, thence in a radial
groove 5è in the outer face of the disk from the
hole 52 to the central portion of the disk. Car
borundum cement or other suitable material may
conducting material such as copper or bronze as
a at Fig. 3 and the coil may be of coarse insulated 45 be employed to _prevent gas leakage through the
hole 5l. A cap 32a provided with a central recess
low-resistance wire 25h so that for a given length
of the supporting member the number of ampere
.54 and terminal bolt hole 55 is threaded onto the
turns may be large. Current supplied to this
outer end of the casing by means of threads 34a
form of the coil is preferably alternating or high
so that the disk is urged inwardly to clamp the
frequency current so that eddy currents will be 50 heater between the ring and washer. The cap
is preferably built up with a boss about the hole
induced in the tube 2M) and thereby >cause it to
heat up to ignition temperature. The tube 24h
55 and the latter fitted with a terminal bolt 56
may be of magnetic material such as steel or iron
in the manner described of bolts 39 and the coil
so that heat is developed in the tube not only
end 25a welded thereto.
by means of eddy currents but by hysteresis
In operation when the motor cylinder is cleared
losses in the form of heat when alternating cur
of exhaust gases the purging of gases from the
rent is used. When a tube of conducting mate
bore of the casing is not complete and spent gases
rial is used itis preferable to provide a sheath
remain therein. Consequently when an ignitible
A9 of asbestos or other suitable refractory insu
fuel mixture is drawn or injected into the engine
lating material intermediate of the tube and 60 cylinder the spent gases prevent the combustible
coil for thermal insulation of the wire from the
mixture from coming in contact with the heater
until the fuel gases are compressed during the
conducting tube as well as for electrical insula
tion. The tube 24h serves as a one-turn second
compression stroke and the spent gases are forced
ary of an inductional heater while the coil of
to the outer end portion of the thimble 2l. By
wire wound on the tube but insulated therefrom
varying the capacity of the outer end portion
acts as the primary winding. Alternating cur
of the bore by means of the plug 32 and washer
rent applied to the coil or primary winding in
3l the time of contact between the fuel gas and
duceg a current toñow in the tube 24h so that the
the heater with respect to piston position can be
latter is heated by induction to a temperature
varied to give the best operating position. Igni
sufficient to cause ignition of the fuel mixture.
tion takes place when a fuel mixture of proper
composition is raised to its ignition temperature
Since the tube 241) is of material such as copper
or bronze any heat developed »in it is rapidly
by heat of compression and heat supplied to
conducted to the inner face of the tube to heat
the mixture by the heater tube.
the gases or fuel mixture thereat.
The invention claimed is:
Advantages of alternating current operation
1. An igniter for gaseous mixtures, said igniter
of the device are due in part to the fact that
assaut
comprisingl a casing; a conductiveA secondary» core therein- and adapted toybe
exposed` to the gases;
cnil and. to form-a tubular sas. space between the
the core so that a flow of alternating current in '
coil; and the inner walls of the thimble; and
means at the Qlvlter end of the thimble to sub
a primary coil of wire inductively coupled- with
stantially prevent: Passage of gases to and from
said gas space and the interior of the tube.
core. to, heat the latter; and means for substan
tially preventing the gases from coming in con
tact) with the coil' and> wire.
6,. An igniter comprising a cylindrical casing
10
15
outer end of the heater;
_insulating material in the bore and disposed gas-
tight against the outer face of the packing, the '
contact with the Wire.
disk being - provided
3. In combination, a substantially cylindrical
casing closed at its outer end and provided witha bore, the casing having the inner end thereof
of reduced diameter and provided with exterior
threads whereby said inner end may be threaded
outer’fgace thereof; 'one of the wire end portions
passing gas tight through the outer marginal
into a hole in the cylinder head of an internal
20
with a radial groove in the
portion of the packing and the disk and extend
ing in the radial groove to the center of the disk;
a cap mounted on the outer end of the casing; a
terminal bolt passing gas-tight through the cap
'
the head of the bolt bc
the cap, the in
_
head engaging
against the outer face of the disk and the wire
end portion welded to the head.
,
’7. An ignition device comprising a substantial~
-30 ly cylindrical socket member provided with a bore
throughout, said bore being of increased diam-l
eter toward- the outer end
the bore of the casing being of further
diameter to receive said tube and to form a tubu 35 threaded into said seat andv provided with radial
holes; packing in the seat; a tube of yrefractory
lar gas space between the tube and the inner
insulating material in the thimble and axially
Walls of the casing; and gas-tight means between
alined with the bore. and engaging the packing
the outer end of the tube and the interior wall
in. the seat; a coil of wire wound on said tube;
of' the closed end of the casing to substantially
prevent passage of gases to and from the gas 40 the internal diameter of the thirnble being of
'
space.
sufficient diameter to receive said coil and to form
4. An igniter comprising a substantially cylin
a tubular gas space between the coil and the in
drical socket member provided with a bore
throughout, said bore being of increased diameter l
ner walls of the thirnble; conducting bolts in said
end portions of said wire;
packing between said bolts and the walls of said
' engaging the washer.
8. A device as in claim ‘7 and having a metallic
central portion of the seat; a coil of high resist
eter -to receive said coil and to form a tubular gas
tube Within( said tube of refractory insulating
material.
9. An `ignition device comprising, in combina-r
space between the coil and the inner'walls of the
` tion, a substantially cylindrical casing provided
holes; conducting bolts in said holes and welded
to the end portions of said wire; packing» between
inner end thereof of reduced diameter and pro
ance wire wound on said tube; the internal di-r
ameter of the thimble being of sufñcient diam
thimble; the thimble being provided with radial
with a bore throughout, the casing having t'he
vided with exterior threads whereby said inner
endmay be threaded into a hole in the cylinder
head of an internal combustion engine; said bore
beingU ofA increased diameter toward the 'outer end
of the casing to form an annular seat; a hollow
said bolts and the walls of said hole,- >a washer of
refractory insulating material disposed. gas-tight
¿against the outer end of
said tube; and a plug
I threaded into the outermost end portion of the
thimble and engaging the washer.
cylindrical heating element Within the bore in
axial alinement with the casing and engaging
gas-tight against said seat; a tube of refractory
insulating material and engaging said ledge; a
UU
coil of wire wound on said tube; the outer por
tion of the bore of the casing being of suil‘icient
tion of the seat;
substantially continuous with the inner end of
the bore; a coil of high resistance wire wound
on said tube; the internal diameter of the thim
diameter to receive said coil and to form a tubu
lar gas space between the coil and the inner walls
ofthe casing; a washer in the outer end of the
casing and disposed gas-tight against the outer
end of the tube and a hard refractory disk there
against, one end portion of said wire passing
. through the outer marginal portion of the disk
ble being of sufliclent diameter to receive said 75 and washer; a plug threadedin said bore to close
the outer end of the casing.
Y
2,407,474"
7
10. An ignition device comprising in combina
tion, a substantially cylindrical casing provided
hole in the cylinder head of an internal combus-tion engine; an electrical heating element within
with a bore throughout, the casing having the
inner end thereof of reduced -diameter and pro
vided Ywith exterior threads whereby said inner
end may be threaded into a hole in the cylinder
head of an internal combustion engine; said bore
being of increased diameter toward the outer end
-of the casing to form an annular seat
outer of
the outer end of the bore; said heating element
comprising, a supporting member of refractory
silicon carbide and a coil of wire wound thereon;
and closure means on the outer end of the casing
for closing oir” the bore from the atmosphere ex
terioi` of the engine cylinder and ignition device.
14. An ignition device for internal combustion
engines comprising structure forming a chamber-
and having an open end portion adapted to be
mounted in a hole in the cylinder head of the en
gine; an electrical transformer inductional heat
er mounted within said chamber, said heater
tight against said seat, said heating element com
comprising a primary inductive winding for pro
prising, a tube of refractory insulating material;
a coil of wire wound on said tube; electrically 15 ducing a magnetic field and having terminal ends
adapted to be connected to a source of alternat
conducting means connected to the ends of said
ing current, a closed secondary exposed to the
coil the outer portion oi the bore oi the casing
the engine cylinder; a tubular cylindrical heating
element within the outer end of the bore in axial
alinement with the casing and engaging `gas
being of increased diameter to receive said coil
gases in the chamber and associated with the pri
outer end of the casing and disposed gas-tight
against the outer end oi the tube; and closure
in the closed secondary thereby producing heat
mary winding so that the building up and decay
and to form a tubular gas space between the coil
and the inner walls of the casing; a washer in the 20 of said field will induce an electric current to flow
means on the outer end of the casing engaging
in the secondary.
l5. An ignition device comprising in combina
tion, a substantially cylindrical casing provided
against the outer face of the washer for closing
off the hollow of the tube from the atmosphere 25 with a bore throughout, the casing having the
inner end thereof of reduced diameter and pro
exterior of the engine cylinder and ignition
device.
il. >An ignition device comprising in combina~
tion, a substantially cylindrical casing provided
vided with exterio-r threads whereby said inner
end may be threaded into a hole in the cylinder
head of an exterior combustion engine; said bore
with a bore throughout, the casing having the 30 being of increased diameter toward the outer end
of the casing to form an annular seat outer of the
inner end thereof adapted to be mounted in a
engine cylinder; a tubular cylindrical heating
hole in the cylinder head of an internal com
element within the outer end of the bore in
bustion engine; a hollow cylindrical electrical
axial alinement with the casing and engaging
heating element within the outer end of the bore
the bore thereby providing a deep pocket Where
spent gases tend to remain stagnant during oper
ation of the engine; the outer portion of the bore
gas tight against said seat, said heating element
comprising, a tube of refractory insulating mate
rial; a coil of wire wound on said tube; electri
casing being of increased diameter to re-'
`cally
conducting nieans connected to the ends of
of the
said coil, the outer portion of the bore of the
ceive said element and toy form a tubular gas
space between the element and the inner walls 40 casing being of increased diameter to receive said
of the casing; and closure means on the outer
end of the casing for closing olf the bore from
coil and to form a vtubular gas space between the
coil and the inner walls of the casing; a washer
the'atmosphere exterior of the engine cylinder
and ignition device.
l2. An ignition device comprising in combina
tion, a substantially cylindrical casing provided
in the outer end of the casing and disposed gas
tight against the outer end of the tube; and clo
sure means on the outer end of the casing engag
ing against the outer face of the washer for clos
ing oii the hollow of the tube from the atmos
engine cylinder and ignition`
phere exterior of the
device, the hollow of said tubular element and
tion engine; an electrical heating‘element within 50 bore being much longer than the diameter there
of to provide a deep narrow recess in which spent
the outer end of the bore; said heating element
gases remain after an exhaust vstroke in normal
comprising a support of fused alumina and a coil
with a bore throughout, the casing having the
inner end thereof adapted to be mounted into a
hole in the cylinder head of an internal combus
of wire wound on said support, the support being
exposed to the fuel gases in the engine, and clo
sure means on the outer end of the casing for
closing off the bore from the atmosphere exterior
of the engine cylinder and ignition device.
13.'An ignition device comprising in combina
tion, a substantially cylindrical casing provided
with a bore throughout, the casing having the 60
inner end thereof adapted to be mounted in a
operation of said engine, said gases substantially
covering the inner surface of tubular element un
til they are compressed into the outer end of the
tube by compression of an air-fuel mixture and
expose said surface to said mixture.
16. An igniter as in claim l, said core being of
magnetic material.
EDWIN D. CHAPLIN.
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