Патент USA US2407475код для вставки
y Sept. l0;1946.l ` ' E. D. cHAPLlN IGNITER yFOR ÍNTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Feb. ' 3.V 1944 4 l l l l um» - 46' 2,407,474 Patented Sept. 10, 1946 2,407,414 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,407,474 IGNITER FOR INTERNAL-COÍMBUSTI'ON ENGINES Edwin D.A Chaplin, New York, N.. Y., assigner to Harry B. Albert, New Yor Y, N. Y. imputation February s, 1944;, serial No. 520,871 1 1,6 claims. (c1.l 12s-145) l 2 This invention relates to igniters ior internal In the accompanying drawing showing, by way com ustion engines for controlled timing of ig of example several of many possible embodiments of theinvention, Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view, partly in elevation showing one form of the invention; Fig.Y 2 is a fragmental side view showing one ages by means of incandescent heaters of the high resistance and induced current types though it is noted that in some of the claims the inven tion is not limited to heaters utilizing any partic other form of the-igniter tube; and ular kind of current n_or even t0 electric heaters. One object of the invention is to provide an Fig. 4 is a fragmental longitudinal sectional view partly in elevation showing another form form o_f the igniter tube; Fig. 3 is a fragmental sidev View showing an ' of the casing. improved device or apparatus of this kind which In the drawing al substantially cylindrical sock retains a blanket of spent gases over a heating element- to prevent ignition of fresh gases until et member I0 provided with a bore I I throughout the latter have been compressed to the degree l5. has. its inner end I2 of reduced diameter and provided with exterior threads I4 whereby said inner end may be Ithreaded into a hole in the necessary for efdoient operation of the engine and which prevents contact of the gases with any heater Wires. cylinder head I5-of an internal combustion en gine. The exterior of the socket member adja Other objects of the invention are to provide an improved device of this kind which requires no moving parts, eliminates spark gaps and their cent said inner end is provided with lateral tool receiving faces I6 for screwing the> inner end in attending corrosion and pitting, and is effective over a wide pressure range for a given require- ' ment of electrical energy. Sincey a large proportion are due to spark; failure resulting from sliding ject to provide a device which may _form a. part of an ignition system having no moving contac-ts and referred to later in the description. ' Additional objects of the invention are to ef'- h fect simplicity and efficiency in such apparatus and to provide an extremely simple and compact device or apparatus of this> kind which is eco nomical, durable, and reliable in operation, and economical to manufacturel and maybe installed in a conventional cylinder head. Still other objects of the invention will appear as the description proceeds; and while herein details of the invention are described in> thek spec iñcation and some ofthe. claims, the invention as described in some of the broader claims is not limited to these, and many andy various changes may be made without departing Afrom the scope of the invention as claimed in the broader claims. The inventive features ior the accomplishment of these and other objects are shown herein in connection with an igniter which brieiiy stated, ` said cylinder head. The outer end of the bore I I is surrounded by an annular seat I9 surrounded by a wall I8 provided with internal threads 20 threadably receiving a hollow cylinder or thimble 2I of drawn steel or other suitable material in axial alinement with the socket member to form a casing, generally designated I‘I the internal di ameter of the cylinder being greater than that of the bore II. A cylindrical heating element generally desig nated as 22 comprising a non-fusible and non combustible tube 24 is disposed within the hollow of- the cylinder in axial alinement with the bore II, the internal diameter of the tube preferably being equal to that of the bore. The exterior of the tube is wound with a coil of wire 25, the turns of the coil being electrically insulatedv from each other as by Spacing if the wire is bare or by heat resisting insulation to prevent a short circuit be tween adjacent turns. The en_d portions 26 of the coil may be. anchored in any suitable manner such as by passing them through holes 28 in lugs 29 cast on the tube. The inner end of the tube . is disposed gas-tight against. a packing ring-30 of asbestos or other suitable refractory material in the seat I9 while the outer end similarly en gages a packing washer 3| of similar material urged inwardly by- a plug 32 threaded in the outer end thereof adapted to be screwed into. the cyl-_ 50 end 0f the cylinder b_.y means ci threads 34. The length of the bore l Iy and tube 24 and the thick inder head of a. motor and an igniter tube mount ness and inside diameter of the washer determine ed in the outer end of the casing and spaced from the volume of the space receiving the gases forced the inner walls thereof to leave a dead air space from the outer end of the cylinder and conse asY a heat insulator around the tube. 55 includes a cylindrical casing having thev inner quently the extent to which incoming explosive 2,407,474. 3 mixtures will enter the igniter when they are compressed. Varying the thickness of the wash the current can be supplied by alternators hav ing permanent magnet rotors so that no brushes are required throughout the entire ignition sys er adjusts this space. tem. For some mixtures better resultswould be obtained by the use of a thin a thick one would serve better. The plug may be provided witha tool receiving opening or slot 35. I-Ience with my ignition device it is pos sible to eliminate all sliding contacts and air gaps which account for the great majority of ignition and motor failures. Furthermore my igniter may be operated at low voltages so that current leakages due to moisture on insulators, of holes 38 in its mid-section through which pass 10 or moisture laden air between conductors, while a serious problem in conventional high tension bolts 39 having wide heads 40 welded to the wire The cylinder is preferably provided with a pair ignition, are practically nil in my system. The tube substantially prevents circulation of lil surrounds the shank of the bolt and hard re gases in the gas space to and from the major fractory insulating washers 42 at each end en portion of the bore and the combustion zone so gage the packing. An outer ynut 44 on the bolt draws the head and washers tightly against the. 15 that the coil is not subjected to contact with fresh cool gases andthe gas within the space packing to expand it against the hole walls and acts as a heat insulating blanket to keep the bolt thereby forming a gas-tight fit, the bolts being insulated from the cylinder. Conducting heater hot and the thimble il! cool. The tube 2M may be of silicon carbide or leads (not shown) may be connected to the screws in any well known manner. If desired, 20 alumina so as to be highly resistant to heat and at the same time be mechanically strong to with one of the ends of the coil may be grounded so that only one bolt will be required. The plug 32 stand pressure differences set up between the gas space exterior and interior of the tube. In addi may be made integral with the cylinder 2l if the tion alumina acts as a catalyst for the trans cylinder and socket I0 are separate and the 25 formation of hydrocarbon fuels to forms having a socket member and cylinder may be integral if the plug is separate. An annular space 45 is lesser tendency to knock. In still another form of the invention as shown provided between the heater and the internal in Fig. 4, the casing Ila, is preferably integral walls of the cylinder both to allow space for the and provided with only one terminal bolt hole mounting of the bolts and to insulate the heater from the cylinder. The gas therein is stagnant 30 38a through which passes the bolt 39 as shown in Fig. 1. The heater 22 disposed `gas tight since the packing 30 and 3l and tube are sub end portions 26. Refractory insulating packing stantially impervious. In one form of the invention the tube or sup port 24 may be of refractory insulating material such as silicon carbide or fused alumina,> other 35 wise’known to the trade as Carborundum and Alundum. If desired, the tube, as the 24a (Fig. 2) may be provided with an external helical groove 4S in which bare high resistance wire 40 25a is wound. In another form of the invention the support ing member may comprise a tube 24h (Fig. 3) of against the ring 3u within the hollow portion of the casing is similar to that shown in Fig. 1. A washer Sla of refractory gas tight packing is disposed against the outer end of the heater fol lowed by a disk of hard refractory material suchl as silica, alumina, or silicon carbide. One of the end portions of the coil passes through small registering holes 5l and 52 in the washer and disk respectively, thence in a radial groove 5è in the outer face of the disk from the hole 52 to the central portion of the disk. Car borundum cement or other suitable material may conducting material such as copper or bronze as a at Fig. 3 and the coil may be of coarse insulated 45 be employed to _prevent gas leakage through the hole 5l. A cap 32a provided with a central recess low-resistance wire 25h so that for a given length of the supporting member the number of ampere .54 and terminal bolt hole 55 is threaded onto the turns may be large. Current supplied to this outer end of the casing by means of threads 34a form of the coil is preferably alternating or high so that the disk is urged inwardly to clamp the frequency current so that eddy currents will be 50 heater between the ring and washer. The cap is preferably built up with a boss about the hole induced in the tube 2M) and thereby >cause it to heat up to ignition temperature. The tube 24h 55 and the latter fitted with a terminal bolt 56 may be of magnetic material such as steel or iron in the manner described of bolts 39 and the coil so that heat is developed in the tube not only end 25a welded thereto. by means of eddy currents but by hysteresis In operation when the motor cylinder is cleared losses in the form of heat when alternating cur of exhaust gases the purging of gases from the rent is used. When a tube of conducting mate bore of the casing is not complete and spent gases rial is used itis preferable to provide a sheath remain therein. Consequently when an ignitible A9 of asbestos or other suitable refractory insu fuel mixture is drawn or injected into the engine lating material intermediate of the tube and 60 cylinder the spent gases prevent the combustible coil for thermal insulation of the wire from the mixture from coming in contact with the heater until the fuel gases are compressed during the conducting tube as well as for electrical insula tion. The tube 24h serves as a one-turn second compression stroke and the spent gases are forced ary of an inductional heater while the coil of to the outer end portion of the thimble 2l. By wire wound on the tube but insulated therefrom varying the capacity of the outer end portion acts as the primary winding. Alternating cur of the bore by means of the plug 32 and washer rent applied to the coil or primary winding in 3l the time of contact between the fuel gas and duceg a current toñow in the tube 24h so that the the heater with respect to piston position can be latter is heated by induction to a temperature varied to give the best operating position. Igni sufficient to cause ignition of the fuel mixture. tion takes place when a fuel mixture of proper composition is raised to its ignition temperature Since the tube 241) is of material such as copper or bronze any heat developed »in it is rapidly by heat of compression and heat supplied to conducted to the inner face of the tube to heat the mixture by the heater tube. the gases or fuel mixture thereat. The invention claimed is: Advantages of alternating current operation 1. An igniter for gaseous mixtures, said igniter of the device are due in part to the fact that assaut comprisingl a casing; a conductiveA secondary» core therein- and adapted toybe exposed` to the gases; cnil and. to form-a tubular sas. space between the the core so that a flow of alternating current in ' coil; and the inner walls of the thimble; and means at the Qlvlter end of the thimble to sub a primary coil of wire inductively coupled- with stantially prevent: Passage of gases to and from said gas space and the interior of the tube. core. to, heat the latter; and means for substan tially preventing the gases from coming in con tact) with the coil' and> wire. 6,. An igniter comprising a cylindrical casing 10 15 outer end of the heater; _insulating material in the bore and disposed gas- tight against the outer face of the packing, the ' contact with the Wire. disk being - provided 3. In combination, a substantially cylindrical casing closed at its outer end and provided witha bore, the casing having the inner end thereof of reduced diameter and provided with exterior threads whereby said inner end may be threaded outer’fgace thereof; 'one of the wire end portions passing gas tight through the outer marginal into a hole in the cylinder head of an internal 20 with a radial groove in the portion of the packing and the disk and extend ing in the radial groove to the center of the disk; a cap mounted on the outer end of the casing; a terminal bolt passing gas-tight through the cap ' the head of the bolt bc the cap, the in _ head engaging against the outer face of the disk and the wire end portion welded to the head. , ’7. An ignition device comprising a substantial~ -30 ly cylindrical socket member provided with a bore throughout, said bore being of increased diam-l eter toward- the outer end the bore of the casing being of further diameter to receive said tube and to form a tubu 35 threaded into said seat andv provided with radial holes; packing in the seat; a tube of yrefractory lar gas space between the tube and the inner insulating material in the thimble and axially Walls of the casing; and gas-tight means between alined with the bore. and engaging the packing the outer end of the tube and the interior wall in. the seat; a coil of wire wound on said tube; of' the closed end of the casing to substantially prevent passage of gases to and from the gas 40 the internal diameter of the thirnble being of ' space. sufficient diameter to receive said coil and to form 4. An igniter comprising a substantially cylin a tubular gas space between the coil and the in drical socket member provided with a bore throughout, said bore being of increased diameter l ner walls of the thirnble; conducting bolts in said end portions of said wire; packing between said bolts and the walls of said ' engaging the washer. 8. A device as in claim ‘7 and having a metallic central portion of the seat; a coil of high resist eter -to receive said coil and to form a tubular gas tube Within( said tube of refractory insulating material. 9. An `ignition device comprising, in combina-r space between the coil and the inner'walls of the ` tion, a substantially cylindrical casing provided holes; conducting bolts in said holes and welded to the end portions of said wire; packing» between inner end thereof of reduced diameter and pro ance wire wound on said tube; the internal di-r ameter of the thimble being of sufñcient diam thimble; the thimble being provided with radial with a bore throughout, the casing having t'he vided with exterior threads whereby said inner endmay be threaded into a hole in the cylinder head of an internal combustion engine; said bore beingU ofA increased diameter toward the 'outer end of the casing to form an annular seat; a hollow said bolts and the walls of said hole,- >a washer of refractory insulating material disposed. gas-tight ¿against the outer end of said tube; and a plug I threaded into the outermost end portion of the thimble and engaging the washer. cylindrical heating element Within the bore in axial alinement with the casing and engaging gas-tight against said seat; a tube of refractory insulating material and engaging said ledge; a UU coil of wire wound on said tube; the outer por tion of the bore of the casing being of suil‘icient tion of the seat; substantially continuous with the inner end of the bore; a coil of high resistance wire wound on said tube; the internal diameter of the thim diameter to receive said coil and to form a tubu lar gas space between the coil and the inner walls ofthe casing; a washer in the outer end of the casing and disposed gas-tight against the outer end of the tube and a hard refractory disk there against, one end portion of said wire passing . through the outer marginal portion of the disk ble being of sufliclent diameter to receive said 75 and washer; a plug threadedin said bore to close the outer end of the casing. Y 2,407,474" 7 10. An ignition device comprising in combina tion, a substantially cylindrical casing provided hole in the cylinder head of an internal combus-tion engine; an electrical heating element within with a bore throughout, the casing having the inner end thereof of reduced -diameter and pro vided Ywith exterior threads whereby said inner end may be threaded into a hole in the cylinder head of an internal combustion engine; said bore being of increased diameter toward the outer end -of the casing to form an annular seat outer of the outer end of the bore; said heating element comprising, a supporting member of refractory silicon carbide and a coil of wire wound thereon; and closure means on the outer end of the casing for closing oir” the bore from the atmosphere ex terioi` of the engine cylinder and ignition device. 14. An ignition device for internal combustion engines comprising structure forming a chamber- and having an open end portion adapted to be mounted in a hole in the cylinder head of the en gine; an electrical transformer inductional heat er mounted within said chamber, said heater tight against said seat, said heating element com comprising a primary inductive winding for pro prising, a tube of refractory insulating material; a coil of wire wound on said tube; electrically 15 ducing a magnetic field and having terminal ends adapted to be connected to a source of alternat conducting means connected to the ends of said ing current, a closed secondary exposed to the coil the outer portion oi the bore oi the casing the engine cylinder; a tubular cylindrical heating element within the outer end of the bore in axial alinement with the casing and engaging `gas being of increased diameter to receive said coil gases in the chamber and associated with the pri outer end of the casing and disposed gas-tight against the outer end oi the tube; and closure in the closed secondary thereby producing heat mary winding so that the building up and decay and to form a tubular gas space between the coil and the inner walls of the casing; a washer in the 20 of said field will induce an electric current to flow means on the outer end of the casing engaging in the secondary. l5. An ignition device comprising in combina tion, a substantially cylindrical casing provided against the outer face of the washer for closing off the hollow of the tube from the atmosphere 25 with a bore throughout, the casing having the inner end thereof of reduced diameter and pro exterior of the engine cylinder and ignition device. il. >An ignition device comprising in combina~ tion, a substantially cylindrical casing provided vided with exterio-r threads whereby said inner end may be threaded into a hole in the cylinder head of an exterior combustion engine; said bore with a bore throughout, the casing having the 30 being of increased diameter toward the outer end of the casing to form an annular seat outer of the inner end thereof adapted to be mounted in a engine cylinder; a tubular cylindrical heating hole in the cylinder head of an internal com element within the outer end of the bore in bustion engine; a hollow cylindrical electrical axial alinement with the casing and engaging heating element within the outer end of the bore the bore thereby providing a deep pocket Where spent gases tend to remain stagnant during oper ation of the engine; the outer portion of the bore gas tight against said seat, said heating element comprising, a tube of refractory insulating mate rial; a coil of wire wound on said tube; electri casing being of increased diameter to re-' `cally conducting nieans connected to the ends of of the said coil, the outer portion of the bore of the ceive said element and toy form a tubular gas space between the element and the inner walls 40 casing being of increased diameter to receive said of the casing; and closure means on the outer end of the casing for closing olf the bore from coil and to form a vtubular gas space between the coil and the inner walls of the casing; a washer the'atmosphere exterior of the engine cylinder and ignition device. l2. An ignition device comprising in combina tion, a substantially cylindrical casing provided in the outer end of the casing and disposed gas tight against the outer end of the tube; and clo sure means on the outer end of the casing engag ing against the outer face of the washer for clos ing oii the hollow of the tube from the atmos engine cylinder and ignition` phere exterior of the device, the hollow of said tubular element and tion engine; an electrical heating‘element within 50 bore being much longer than the diameter there of to provide a deep narrow recess in which spent the outer end of the bore; said heating element gases remain after an exhaust vstroke in normal comprising a support of fused alumina and a coil with a bore throughout, the casing having the inner end thereof adapted to be mounted into a hole in the cylinder head of an internal combus of wire wound on said support, the support being exposed to the fuel gases in the engine, and clo sure means on the outer end of the casing for closing off the bore from the atmosphere exterior of the engine cylinder and ignition device. 13.'An ignition device comprising in combina tion, a substantially cylindrical casing provided with a bore throughout, the casing having the 60 inner end thereof adapted to be mounted in a operation of said engine, said gases substantially covering the inner surface of tubular element un til they are compressed into the outer end of the tube by compression of an air-fuel mixture and expose said surface to said mixture. 16. An igniter as in claim l, said core being of magnetic material. EDWIN D. CHAPLIN.