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_ Sept. 10, 1946. - A, G, DEAN 2,407,480 AIRCRAFT FUSELAGE AND WING CONSTRUCTION I Filed Sept. 13, 1944 3‘Sheets-Sheet l I‘PIG. IN VEN TOR. Albert G. Dean n BY Wm Pfmw' ATZfQR/VEY Sept. 10, 1946. . _ A__ G, DEAN I 2,407,480 ; AIRCRAFT FUSELAGE AND WING fCONSTBUC'I'JéON ' I Filed Sept. 13,‘ 1944 s Sheéts-Sheét_ _2 ‘ p‘ 2. IINVENTOR Albert G. Dean BY > ‘ , ‘ ATTORNEY v. ~ Sept. 10, 1946. 2,407,480 - A. ca. DEAN AIRCRAFT FUSELAGE AND ,wme co?swrtuc?on SSheeis-Sheet 5 > Filed-Se?. 1a, 1944 p m. >w INVENTOR Albert G. Dean BY 41516.5 . FIG. 6 I - ATTORNEY 2,407,480 Patented Sept. 10, 1946 ‘UNITED’ STAT Es‘, PATENT OFFICE _ 2,407,480 AIRCRAFT FUSELAGE AND WING Y CONSTRUCTION v' Q - " Albert G. Dean, Narberth, Pa., assignor tov’The ' Budd Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corpora tion of Pennsylvania 7 Application September 13, 1944; Serial No. 553,890 '2 4 Claims. (01. 244-419) 1. in this art. on the line ‘l0—l0 ofFigure 1. they are secured to the side‘bulkheads 3 which constitute parts of a strong girdle surrounding an open cargo compartment 4. ‘The girdle also com ment upon that disclosed in the copending appli ' prises an upper or roof girder 5 and a lower or ?oor girder 6. skin blankets ‘I, 8 and Srespectively. The string ers of the top and bottom-blakets are through which constitute the full sides of body girdles and 2 are secured. There the bulkheads are formed each by a ?at sheet of metal together with ?anges and stiffening struts which» are welded thereto; in thepresent construction the bulk heads are formed by one or a laminated pair of pressed full-size elements which include inte gral ?anges and stiffening struts. There the .spar web was secured to the bulkhead web by a splice plate; here the spar web isdirectly over The, top, sides,‘ and bottom of 10 the fuselage are covered by stringer-reinforced In the present, asin the former construction, there are a number of ‘bulkheads ‘(?ve shown) to which the spars and skin blankets of the wings _ secured to the sides of a fuselage 2v. Speci?cally ‘ tion. - The , airfoils or wings I of the aircraft are The presentinvention constitutes an imp-rove- v cation of Michael Watter and Albert G. Dean, Serial Number 492,494, ?led June 28, 1943, and assigned to the assignee of the present applica 2 Figure 10 is an enlarged vertical section taken . ''This invention relates to aircraft; particularly ‘to airfoil-to-body connections for aircraft,jand has for an object the provision of improvements running, while those "of the sides are intercostal between the several bulkheads. The ?oor is des ignated by the numeral W. The fuselage sections are reinforced and joined by pairs of .mating longerons II on the corners. ' ,- ' The wings comprise spars [2 each including a sheet web 13, chords or cap strips l4 and sti?en ing struts [5. The wings are covered ‘by stressed’ '20 stringer-reinforced skin blanketsl? which be tween the spars are directly connected through certain stringer ends or splicers to the interme diate bulkheads. These projecting stringers or lapped with the ,web or webs of the, bukhead. There the upper and lower ends of the‘bulkhead 25stringer splicers correspond to and are connected like the spar cap strips illustrated and described were connected by splicing gussets'to the girdle girders; here the ends of the monolithic bulkhead ‘ herein, hence'the, stringer connections need not be described in detail. This analogy is evident are'extended to overlapfthe ends of the girders fronr the copending application. referred to. to which they are secured. ‘ ' .7 Over and above these speci?c improvements 30 Upper fairing strips l1 and- lower fairing strips [8 close the space between wing and fuselage the present invention provides various other improvements in detail which will be evident The upper girder ,5 (Figure 3) comprises a plate from the following description ofan exemplary web‘ I9 and cap strips 20 and may be formed as a embodiment thereof, reference‘ being made to channel-section member with integral web and the accompanying drawings, wherein: cap strips or ?anges. ~ Figure l is a transverse section through The bottom girder ,(Figure 10) comprises a aircraft fuselage and wings'in the connecting plate web 2| andcap strips 22. ' , ‘ ‘ bulkhead region, one of the wings being shown Each‘ bulkhead comprises a monolithic pressed in preassembly position; 7 p ‘ r '1 plate having a plate web 23‘ and'edge ?anges 24. ‘Figure 2 is a side elevation of a single pressed 40 Preferably‘ two mating plates are provided and bulkhead sub-assembly alone; welded together. The edge flanges are discon Figure 3 is an enlarged vertical section taken tinued where the spar cap strips Ill overlap and on the line 3—3 of Figure 1; at the upper and lower laterally projecting ends Figure 4 is an enlarged inclined section taken 25, 26 respectively, where the ends of girders 5 on the line 4-4 of Figure 1; 45 and 6, respectively, overlap. Figure 5 is an enlarged inclined section taken On the outeror tension side the bulkhead on the line 5-5 of Figure 1; plates may be left ?at within the edge ?anges,» Figure 6 is an enlarged vertical section taken but on the compression side they are preferably on the line 6—6 of Figure 1; ‘ Figure 7 is an enlarged horizontal section 50 pressed out to form wales or ridges. 21 which form a hollow box section between them. If the side taken on the line ‘l---'! of Figure 2; edges are left in spaced relation they may be Figure 8 is an enlarged horizontal section taken connected by an edge cover plate 28, which itself on the line 8-8 of Figure 2; may be corrugated, as at 29. ' Figure 9 is an enlarged horizontal section taken The bulkhead plates are; strengthened and on the line 9-9 of Flame 1; and blankets. > c -> ' 2,407,480‘ 3 4 stiffened by forming transverse pressed strut like wales or ridges 30 in them, the matching wales of the paired plates forming box sections between them. been illustrated by Way of example, it is to be understood that there may be various embodi ments within the limits of the prior art and the If desired, the metal may be cut out between the wales for lightness, leaving a scope of the subjoined claims. 5 triangulated skeleton between the tension and What is claimed is: 1. An airplane comprising a generally triangu lar pressed metal bulkhead element with edge re compression sides. At places where the wales are omitted from the strut-like connections the inforcing portions and intermediate triangu angle strips, such as the spar cap strips I4, which lated reinforcing hollow rib portions, the edge re are welded in overlapping relation to the strut 10 inforcing portion being omitted at certain places, connections serve the same purpose as the wales. and wing and girder elements connected in shear Figure 3 shows the connection between the pro to said bulkhead element, said wing and girder jecting end 25 of the bulkhead plates 23 and the elements being overlapped with the sides of said web I9 of the top girder. The edge ?anges 24 bulkhead element where the edge reinforcing are omitted at the top of the bulkhead plates and portions are omitted and some of the overlapped the upper spar (or wing blanket stringer, as the elements constituting part of the triangulated case may be) chord i4 is run through along the reinforcing portions of said bulkhead. upper edge of the bulkhead and overlaps the end 2. An airplane comprising a‘body girdle formed of the girder. -. of top and bottom girders and side bulkheads, Figure 4 shows the connection between the end 20 said bulkheads being formed of mating ?anged of the spar web [3 and the bulkhead plates, the and ribbed plates secured together to form box web being sandwiched between the plates where section ribbed reinforcement. on one side edge of spread apart at joggles and welded to them. the bulkhead and at intervals across its width Figure 5 shows a typical bulkhead strut Wale and also oppositely directed lateral edge ?anges, N) UK certain of said body girders being overlapped with plate material. This bulkhead shape is quite clearly shown in Figure 2. Figure 10 shows the connection of the bulkhead to the bottom girder, the web 2| and cap strips‘ 40 22 being overlapped and welded to the webs 23 of the bulkhead plates. The girder end extends well back of the laterally protruding end portion and also oppositely directed lateral edge ?anges, certain of said body girders being overlapped with ments and triangulated integral strut elements and also oppositely directed lateral edge ?anges, certain of said body girders being overlapped with section. ' Figure 6 shows the connection between the and secured in shear to said bulkhead, wing cap lower spar (or blanket) chord l4 and the webs strips overlapped with and secured in shear to of the bulkhead plates. Here the chord I4 is said bulkhead, and a wing spar web plate over strengthened by a nesting angle-section splice lapped with and secured in shear to said bulk strip which may be considered as part of it. > 30 head. Figures '7 and 8 are typical transverse sections 3. An airplane comprising a body girdle formed through the bulkhead. of .top and bottom girders and side bulkheads, Figure 9 shows the bulkhead in section just said bulkheads being formed of mating, ?anged above its lower end, indicating how the wales on and ribbed plates secured together to form bOX~ the compression side and .the corrugation in the section ribbed reinforcement on one side edge of edge cover strip 28 have run out to leave ?at the bulkhead and at intervals across its width and secured in shear to said bulkhead, wing cap ‘strips overlapped with and secured» in shear to said bulkhead, and a wing spar web plate over lappedv with and secured in shear to said bulk head, said spar web plate being sandwiched be 26 to form a connection with the main body of tween the webs of the mating bulkhead plates. the bulkhead web. This is well illustrated inwfs. , 4. An airplane comprising a body girdle formed Figures 1 and 9. of top and bottom girders and side bulkheads, It is thus seen that the invention provides a said bulkheads being formed of mating, ?anged very simple and light but strong and dependable and ribbed plates secured together to form box wing-to-body construction. The one-piece tri section ribbed reinforcement on- one side edge angular bulkheads with integral edge reinforce 50 of the bulkhead and at intervals across its width provide a very rigid connection. The structure of the bulkhead and its connection with the spar chords and web and with the ends of the girders are also of a simple but highly e?icient charac ter. In a light airplane construction a single bulkhead plate may be used, or lighter laminated plates, but in larger airplanes the laminated con struction with oppositely ?anged and box section elements is very e?‘ioient. so While one embodiment of the invention has and secured in shear to said bulkhead, wing cap strips overlapped With and secured in shear to said bulkhead, and a wing spar web plate over lapped with and secured in shear to said bulk head, said bulkhead also including an edge cover plate secured to the ?anges on the side having the ribbed reinforcement. ALBERT G. DEAN.