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Патент USA US2407520

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Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407,519 »
INSERTED Toorn amori
7v_viifrea slater, Quinton, Birmingham, England. l
Application september 16, iaiaseriazmn. .states
(Cl. Bil-1.05)
Tl'l'ris invention relates 'to metal working 'tools
such as hubs, breaches., taps, andthe like, .of 'the
kindincluding a' supporting body .and a plurality
of .cutting elements mounted thereon.
' grinding wheeror ineiikeasuepicied in .the .righi
-Theobject of theinventionis ya process .and/or
means for forming or grinding cutting elements
or teeth 'in a simple rapid manner which yields
the desired form or allows "1t to be subsequently
realised by a simple operation; which elïects a
considerable saving in labour and machine time.; 10
and which lengthens the effective working life of .
the velementsand consequently'the tool jinto which
they are built.
Having 'the aforesaid and other objects in View
half -of Figure l. In this position andduringsuch
process, the »rearedge .5 »of- eac-h element is farther
from the eentrefofithe .body than it is when placed
in :a cutting .or working positionsuch .as shown in
the left half :of Figurel so that when reassembled
in the Working position for use as acutterzbyvre»
versal .or displacement through 180°J the .newpo
sitionrelative to or :measured from the body ,cen
tre .provides the »desired relief :away rfrom the .eut
ting edge, the effect .being to yexchange .the posi-r
tion of :the iront »and rear edges. The dotted
line yat the top .of Figure ,1. shows the working
position .of .a segment .superposed .on its making
as will Aappearin ,the Iollowing description, the 15 position.
>Cutters Ymamita.ctur'ed .in the manner described
by .collective yfabrication .can be reassembled .in
ting >elements of inserted'tooth tools which Vis so
either` of two ways; one, .on a body of normal .type
shaped and constructed that the peripheral .sur
preferably modified; .the other, on the same body
faces of the elements when assembled .on the body
can be machined„ground, or similarly processed 20 as is used .for making the cutters. In the latter
case,.the >,leading face .of .the .cutting .element „is
as segments of .a `common circle which when the
tangential unless modified i.. «.e. rit has :negative
elements are reassembled in working or Vcutting
rake, but this can be ground to an anglewhi-ch
position, Vprovide relief away .from the cutting
provides Vpositive .rake .as `indicated at 5 in '.Fig
edge. zIn'this way, a simple turning, grinding, or
invention Yconsists in a bodyor holderfor the cnt
like roperation which can .be Vcarried out on a
standard kind ,o'f'machine 'tool is substituted for
the 'more numerous and complex operations „pre
viously needed.
VFurther features vofthe invention .are more par
ticularly described inthe annexed .speciiicationV
andy pointed out .in the appended claims.
.l ure 1.
A Suitable blank for cutting .elements in minar
manufacture .consists :of a length .of .tour-sided
bar with .anat 'base 2, two sides converging at an
. appropriate .angle which vis determined by 'the
number of elements insay a rotaryhob, .or other
wise .according .to «the Aparticular application of
the tool, .and a „dat or .curved periphery which is'
Reference may be 'had -to 'the .accompanying
operated upon as aforesaid .and .finishes as aseg
drawings ‘in which
'Figure l ¿is an end view _partly in section„par.tly
ment ,of ya circle.
inelevation o'f.a‘tool^according tothe invention., "10 1A 1n .one arrangement .o' and .element »where
the same .body is .used .formaking v.the -.elements
Figure 2 -is a .half sectionalelevation at vright
angles to “Figure .1.
. and .for .manufacturing -use, the `.door .or .base of
eachseatinggroove 2 is atright angles to a radial
Figures 3 and ’4 illustrate other lapplications .of
line ,from .the corner which leads whenfcu-tting,
cutting _elements .made in .accordance with the
40 when said corner 'l is in position for making, the
blank .sides diverge isogenically, and .the leading
Figures ‘5 and '6 depict the .improved cutting
elements mountedin Workingposition on amodi
ñed body.
face B of ythe element .makes .an .angle with the
radial line il .one-.half of >that _included bythe
,In an embodiment .QI `.the .invention shown in
two sides -.8„ lib.A The peripheral longitudinal
Figures 1 .and 2, the '.bod-y l .is provided with .a
grooves .2 are .of , sawtooth fconñguration _the long
number .of longitudinal `.seating .surfaces „or
limb of which constitutes .the seat A2 and the .short
limb il of which =»defines 'the .circumferential po
grooves 2 each .of whichis shaped .and .inclined
or Vcurved to suit the under .tace of .a .cutting Aele»
ment '3 ¿Lwhich `said .tace is .preîerably flat.) .and
tilt .or .hold »the .element -so .that its periphery V4
becomes a segment of a circle or is .susceptible
of taking such a curve when the body is rotated
sition .of the ,relevant element. The several -ele'- ì
ments are adapted to be .assembled in such a
, manner that .each one abnts and >is abutted by
its neighbours so that they behave as a .solid
cutter. úAny .appropriate .means may be v.adopted
for I gripping -and -holding the elements .in situton
aboutfitslongitudinal `aids and the peripheral sur
the body, and one such convenient means will
faces of the several cutting elements are in con
tact with and are operated upon by a cutting tool, 55 now be described.
At each of the two ends of the body is situated
a clamping plate I2 of disc shape inset into a re
cess partly in the insert element and partly in the
body end, these being pressed home by screws,
porting independent tooth tools for simultaneous
shaping into cutting elements and subsequently
supporting said cutting elements in cutting posi
tion, said body being peripherally formed with
preferably countersunk.
immediately successive recesses to present flat
Such endwise and also
a radial movement is transmitted to each ele
ment by the agency of inclined planes conven
iently in the form of a cone-ended vscrew I4 in
the disc and a complementarily-shaped cavity I5
in each end face of each element, the arrange
ment being such that the thrust from the screw
ends is translated into resultants acting at an
angle to the end faces. To ensure this action,
a slight clearance (shown exaggerated) is pro
seats and tooth tools having ñat bases to seat in
said recesses and bear throughout on the iiat
seats, the extended lengths of the‘tools beyond
the recesses> being in relatively mutua1 contact
throughout the circumferential length of the
body to present the free ends of the tools remote
from the body as relatively rigid segments of a
common circle to permit desired shaping of the
ends of-the‘tools in a single operation under ro
vided in the cavities. By clamping the end plates 15 tation of the body, the formation of the seats, the
in position, the elements are collectively and in-_
cooperating ends of the tools and of the tools be
dividually located and gripped so that they func
yond the seats providing for a movement of the
tion as a solid body.
When the elements are displaced through an
formed tools throughout 180° to arrange the tools
in cutting position on the body with the tools hav
angle of 180° to bring them into cutting position, 20 ing a Vsubstantially identical cooperationwith the
the rake or angle of the leading face is, as before
mentioned, of a negative order which is appro-_
priate for some metals; grinding of the faces to
provide positive rake can be effected by conven
tional tools and methods preferably when the ele
ments are disassembled, though they can be
'ground in situ.
As the cutting edges of the elements become
seats and with each other beyondthe seats in the
cutting position as in the forming position.
2. Means for supporting -independent tooth
tools comprising a body peripherally formed with
recesses having flat seats and tooth tools to co
operate with the seats, each of the tools having
sides converging toward the seats and a flat end
to engage the fiat seat of a recess with such ñat
worn,- they can be sharpened and restored time _ end, the converging sides of the tools being in
after l"time by regrinding until they are almost 30 mutual contact beyond the seats in all positions
worn away, since they are buttressed by the ad
of the tools relative to the body, the tools'having
jacent face of the proximate element which gives
two relatively reversed positions with respect to
solid and adequate support; therein the improved
the body, one to dispose the tools for making the
elements differ from known cutters in which the
cutters and the other to dispose the tools as cut-~
members are separated by spaces. This continu 35 ting elements with respect to the body, the tools
ity characteristic of tools according to the in
in either position having a flat bearing on the flat
vention provides a smoother cutting action and
surfaces ofthe recesses and a mutual contact be
assists in obtaining greater accuracy.
yond the flat surfaces throughout the peripheral
The contour of the periphery of the cutting ele
length of the body.
' '
ments is adaptable to the form required e. g, 40
3. A construction as defined in claim 2 wherein
straight, formed (an example‘being indicated by
in either position of the tools relative to the body,
dotted lines I6 Figure 2) threaded for -thread
the tools extend beyond the body in mutual con
tact to deñne a continuous ring of metal com
milling, etc.
Cutting elements manufactured as described
posed solely of the cutters in either of said posi
tions, whereby to establish a regiditive position, a
may, as adumbrated, be assembled on and used
with a normal type body the periphery of which
continuity of function and an extreme accuracy
has a number of longitudinal flats which form
in operation.
seats for the bases of the cutters. Thus a body
4. Means for supporting independent tooth
tools comprising a body peripherally formed with
isillustrated in Figures 5 and 6 wherein the ends
of the cutters are frustroconoidal in shape, to en
50 recesses having flat seats and tooth tools to co
operate with the seats, each of the tools having
gage with similarly coned collars I1, I3 one of
which is screwed on the end of the body and the
other is pressed by a nut I9 at the other end. To
sides converging toward the seats and a flat end
to engage the iiat seat of a recess with such iiat
improve location of the several cutters, I propose
end, the converging sides of the tools being in
to add an upstanding ring 20 at or about the 55 mutual contact beyond the seats throughout the
middle of the body and groove the underface of
each insert to fit closely thereon. In this modifi
cation, the leading face 8 of the cutting elements
is radial, as is a line drawn through the centre
of each cutter.
Cutters made according to the invention are
obviously capable of utilisation in diverse forms
circumferential length of the body to present the
free ends of the tools remote from the body -as
relatively rigid segments of a common circle t0
permit the desired shaping of the ends of the
60 tools in a single operation under rotation of the
body, and means for supporting the shaped tools
comprising an independent body peripherally
formed with flat seats to cooperate with -the
formed tools, the sides of the tools converging to
employed. Figure 3 shows a cutting element 3 65 wards the seats and the iiat ends of the toolsl
engaging the flat seats with such flat ends pre
fixed in the tool post 2| of, say, a lathe, while Fig
senting an equal angle to each of the converging
ure 4 illustrates a broach the body 22 of which
sides of' the tools, the converging sides of the
carries in series several cutters. Other applica
of tools in which a series of cutting elements is
secured to a body, and also when a single tool is
tions will be self-evident.A
tools being in Amutual contact beyond the seats
_Having thus described my invention, what I 70 throughout the peripheral length of such inde
claim is:
pendent body.
y 1. Means for supporting independent tooth
tools comprising a circular body formed for sup
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