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Патент USA US2407528

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Sept 130, 59%‘,
G. N. ALBREE
‘ FIRING MECHANISM FOR FIREARMS
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Filed 001;. 21, 1944
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‘
2,407,526‘
2,407,526
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT
OFFICE '
2,407,526
FIRING MECHANISM FOR FIREARMS
George Norman Albree, Winchester, Mass.
Application October 21, 1944, Serial No. 559,757
6 Claims.
(Cl. 42-3)
1
2
This invention relates to ?rearms and particu
larly to the ignition system, that is, to the ele
ments employed for detonating the chambered
It should be understood, however, that the in
20. The breech closure is herein shown in the
form of a, breech bolt 6 which is movable from
open to closed position as usual in ?rearms, said
bolt being backed by the usual recoil spring, which
however, is not herein shown. The ?rearm illus
trated is a magazine arm, and a portion of the
magazine is shown at 24.
The ?ring pin which is carried by the breech
bolt 6 is shown at 8 and it is provided with the
forwardly extending end H which is adapted to
have a detonating impact against the primer of
the cartridge 2t. Said ?ring pin is carried by a
vention is not limited in its use to ?rearms of the
above type, as certain features of the invention
rocking element 1 which is received within a re
cess 253 with which'the front end of the breech
are equally applicable to arms of other types.
One object of the invention is to provide a ?re~
arm in which the ?ring pin is connected to a
rocking member that is carried by the bolt and
which has rocking engagement with a rocker
bolt is provided, and it operates through an open
ing 28 formed in the face of the bolt and com
cartridge.
In order to give an understanding of the inven
tion I have illustrated it herein as it might be
embodied in an automatic arm of the straight
inertia blowback type, the ‘breech of which is kept
closed while the bullet is in the barrel lby the in
ertia of the heavy bolt coupled with its recoil '
spring.
suppo-rting face with which the breech closure is '
provided, together with means for rocking said
member over said face to produce the detonating
impact of the ?ring pin, the construction being
such that during such rocking motion of the rock
ing member, the lever arm thereof that carries ~
municating with said recess 29. . The ?ring pin 8
is shown as pivotally mounted on the rocking
member '5, said member being slotted at its lower
end to receive the ?ring pin and being provided
with a pivot pin 9 on which the ?ring pin is
mounted. The rocking member i normally rests
loosely against the bottom wall 33 of the recess
29, said wall constituting a, rocker-supporting
face for the rocking movement of the rocking
the ?ring pin has a progressively increasing
member as will be presently described.
length as said rocker is actuated, whereby the
The rocking member 7 has a ?at rear surface
forward impact-producing movement of the ?ring
ill at its lower portion to which the ?ring pin is
pin relative to the bolt is an accelerated move
pivotally connected, and the rear face of the
ment which increases the hammer-blow effect of 30 upper end of said rocking member presents a
the ?ring pin in detonating the primer.
curved surface ‘FR which has a rocking contact
A further object of the invention is to provide
with the face 33 of the recess 29 as will be pres
ently described. The rocking member ‘I is nor
a novel means for cushioning the impact of the
mally held in its retracted position shown in Fig.
bolt against the breech face when the bolt is
closed.
1 by means of a spring In, one end of which is
Further objects of the invention are to provide
received in a recess 3| formed in the front face
a relatively simple ignition system comprising
of the rocking member 1 and the other end of
few and rugged parts and to otherwise improve
which is received in a recess 32 formed in the
the cartridge-detonating means of a ?rearm in
breech bolt.
the particulars hereinafter set forth.
Means are provided for giving the rocking
In the drawing:
member 1 its rocking motion over the face 33 and
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary sectional view showing
while the character of such means may vary in
a ?rearm embodying my invention,
different types of ?rearms, yet in connection with
Fig. 2 is a section on the line 2—-2, Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3-3, Fig. 1.
Inasmuch as the invention relates to the means
for detonating the cartridge, I have not thought
the ?rearm herein illustrated the rocking mem
ber l’ is given its rocking movement during the
?nal closing movement of the breech bolt.‘ Such
rocking motion of the member 1 is a quick rock
ing motion on the face 33 of the recess 29, thereby
it necessary to illustrate herein a complete ?re
arm. but have only shown a suf?cient portion of
projecting the end H of the ?ring pin forwardly
such an arm to permit my invention to be under 50 through the opening 28 and into detonating con
stood. tact with the primer of a cartridge 2| in the
In the drawing 4 indicates the receiver of a
chamber 20.
?rearm and 5 is the breech end of the barrel
which is mounted in the receiver, said barrel
Such means is in the form of an abutment or
stop member l4 carried by the receiver and hav
having the cartridge-receiving or ?ring chamber ‘e. U: ing'a portion l3 adapted to engage the face I2
2,407,526
3
4
at the outer end of the rocking member ‘I dur
ing the ?nal closing movement of the breech bolt
and just before the bolt is fully closed. The en
gagement of the face :2 with the abutment or
stop member II! will give a counterclockwise
rocking movement to the rocking member ‘I dur
ing which the curved face ‘IR of the rocking mem
member ‘I is such as to give the ?ring pin a
hammer-like impact against the primer-
The
hammer-blow effect of such impact is increased
by reason of the fact that during the rocking mo~
tion of the member ‘I the fulcrum point is rap
idly and progressively moving toward the outer
end of said member.
The detonation of the cartridge will occur
her will have a rocking or rolling motion on the
during the forward movement of the bolt and
?at supporting face 33, such rocking motion ob
viously moving the ?ring pin 8 forwardly rela 10 just before it is fully closed. The gas pressure
developed by the ?ring of the cartridge not only
tive to the bolt.
forces the bullet through the barrel but it also
The rocking motion of the rocking member 1
applies a back pressure to the bolt which is still
is similar to that of a rocking chair when it is
moving forward. By the time the bullet has
being rocked on the ?oor, that is, the curved face
‘IR of the rocking member has a sort of rolling 15 been discharged from the barrel and the bolt has
reached its closed position, the residual pres
motion along the supporting face 33 of the breech
sure will drive the bolt backward to its open po
bolt, during which rolling motion the point or
sition against the action of its recoil spring.
line of contact between the faces 'iR and 33 ad
When the bolt reaches its open position, the next
vances along both faces. The fulcrum about
which the rocking member is turned at any given 20 cartridge ZIM has moved up into position to be
engaged by the bolt during its next forward
instant is the line of contact between said faces
movement, and the operation above described will
‘IR and 33, and during the operative rocking
be repeated.
movement of the rocking member 7 by which
Since the detonation of the cartridge occurs
the end II of the ?ring pin is given its detonat
during the forward movement of the bolt and
ing impact against ‘the primer, such fulcrum pro
just before it is fully closed, the pressure devel
gresses from a point near the center of the rock
oped by such detonation will have a retarding
ing member toward the outer end thereof. The
action on the last increment of the closing move
fulcrum point about which said rocking member
ment of the bolt, thereby producing a cushion
‘I turns during its rocking motion will thus s lift
effect for the bolt.
progressively rapidly toward the outer or upper 30 ingThe
rocking motion which the rocking member
end of said member ‘I as the rocking motion con
‘5 has when it is engaged by the stop member I4
tinues, and because of this the lever arm of the
serves to compress slightly the spring I0, and the
member ‘I which carries the ?ring pin is one
resiliency of this spring together with the pressure
which has a progressively increasing length dur
against the ?ring pin produces a rebound action
ing such rocking motion. This results in giving
of the ?ring pin which restores it to its normal
to the ?ring pin an accelerated operative move
ment relative to the bolt.
The striker abutment or stop member I4 is
shown as occupying a recess 38 with which the re
ceiver is provided and as having rigidly secured
thereto a button element I5 which is of a size to
span the recess 30. In’the construction shown the
recess 30 is somewhat longer than the abutment
or stop element, and said element is backed by a
spring which normally holds it in its operative po
sition shown in Fig. 1. For this purpose, there is
provided a pin i8 operating in a recess I‘! with
which the barrel 5 is provided, said pin having a
duced portion I9 that is ?tted into a recess in the
abutment or stop element It. The pin I8 is
backed by a spring I6 which occupies the recess.
In the operation of the ?rearm when the breech
bolt 6 is in its fully retracted position, the top
cartridge 2| M in the magazine 24 will move up
wardly into a position to. be engaged by the bolt
as it moves forward and during such forward
movement of the bolt it will strip the top car
tridge from the magazine as shown in Fig. l and
carry the cartridge into the chamber 26 of the
position immediately after the ‘detonation takes
place.
The recess 29 in which the rocking member ‘I
is loosely received, may be provided for in various
ways. As herein shown, the breech bolt is made
with a vertically disposed slot in its end face and
the bottom of the slot is permanently closed by a
plug or block member 6a which forms the bottom
4. Q1 of the recess. The front portion of the slot is also
closed by a block 5b which is permanently secured
in the open end of the slot and which has the
opening ZSthrough which the end I I of the ?ring
pinv is projected. This block 82) terminates at a
point below the upper side of the breech bolt
thereby leaving the opening 21 to receive the
portion I3 of the abutment or stop member dur
ing the ?nal closing movement of the breech bolt.
I claim:
1. A ?re arm comprising a barrel having a ?ring
chamber, a breech closure movable from open to
closed position and having a rocker-supporting
face extending transversely to the direction of
movement thereof and facing toward the ?ring
barrel. During this movement, the rounded end 60 chamber, a rocking member, one face of which
has a convexly curved section adjacent one end
of the bullet 22 is guided into the chamber by the
thereof, a ?ring pin carried. by the other end of
usual bevel portion 23 of the barrel. Fig. 1 shows
the rocking member, said breech closure having
the cartridge just entering the chamber 25'}, and
provision for supporting the rocking member with
it also shows the ?ring pin in its retracted posi
tion. Just before the breech bolt reaches its 65 its said face loosely resting against and for rolling
contact over said rocker-supporting face, and
closed position, the portion 63 of the abutment
means to engage the ?rst named end of said
rocking member and to rock said member over
the rocker-supporting face with a rolling as dis
movement, the rocking member ‘I will be turned
.by its engagement with said abutment member 70 tinguished from a sliding contact therewith and
member I4 will engage the face I2 of the rock
ing member 7 and during the very ?nal closing
I4, thereby projecting the ?ring pin forward
thus impart to the ?ring pin an accelerating deto
through the opening 28 and into contact with
nating movement.
the primer in the cartridge 2 I. The bolt is moved
2. A ?re arm comprising a barrel having a ?ring
rapidly forward by its recoil spring, and the ima
chamber, a breech bolt movable from open to
pact of the stop member I4 against the rocking 75 closed position and having a rocker-supporting
2,407,526
5
face extending transversely to the direction of
movement thereof and facing toward the ?ring
chamber, a rocking member having a face which
is convexly curved at one end thereof, said breech
bolt having provision to support the rocking mem
ber with its said face loosely resting against and
6
at one end, a ?ring pin carried by the rocking
member, means operative during the ?nal closing
movement of the breech bolt to engage the rock
ing member at a point spaced from the ?ring
pin and to give the rocking member a rolling
motion over said supporting face with the con
for rolling contact over said rocker-supporting
vexly curved section of the rocking member hav
ing a rolling, as distinguished from a sliding, con
face, a ?ring pin carried by the other end of the
tact with said supporting face.
rocking member, and means to deliver a hammer
like blow to the ?rst named end of the rocking 10
5. A ?re arm comprising a receiver, a barrel
member and to give said member a rolling motion
having a ?ring chamber, a breech bolt movable
over said supporting face, during which rolling
from open to closed position and having a recess
motion the line of contact between said convexly
adjacent its front end, one wall of which recess
curved face of the rocking member and the sup
constitutes a rocker-supporting face which ex
porting face, which line of contact constitutes the
tends transversely of the direction of movement
of said breech bolt and faces toward the ?ring
fulcrum about which the rocking member turns,
advances progressively toward the ?rst named
chamber, a rocking member loosely received in
said recess and resting against said supporting
end thereof and the length of the lever arm of
said member which carries the ?ring pin is cor
face, the face of said rocking member which con
tacts said supporting face having a convexly
respondingly progressively increased,
3. A ?re arm comprising a barrel having a ?ring
curved portion, a stop member carried'by the
receiver and adapted to engage said rocking mem
chamber, a breech bolt movable from open to
closed position and having a rocker-supporting
her during the ?nal closing movement of the bolt,
face extending transversely to the lengthwise di
and give said member a rolling as distinguished
mension of the bolt and facing toward the ?ring 25 from a sliding motion over said supporting face,
and a firing pin actuated by such rolling motion.
chamber, a rocking member, said bolt having pro
vision for supporting the rocking member loosely
6. A ?re arm comprising a receiver, a barrel
against said face, a ?ring pin carried by the
having a cartridge chamber, a breech bolt mov
able from open to closed position and provided
rocking member, one of the contacting faces of
the breech bolt and rocking member being a flat - adjacent its front end with a recess, the bottom
face and the other having a convexly curved por
wall of which extends transversely of the direc
tion, and means operative during the ?nal closing
tion of movement and faces toward the cartridge
movement of the breech bolt to engage the rock
chamber, a rocking member in said recess resting
ing member and to give the latter a rolling move
loosely against said bottom wall, the face of the
ment over said rocker-supporting face, during 35 rocking member which engages said bottom Wall
being convexly curved adjacent one end thereof,
which there is a rolling contact between the con
vexly curved face and the flat face and the ?ring
a ?ring pin at the other end of the rocking mem
pin is given an accelerated detonating movement.
her, a yielding stop member carried by the receiver
4. A ?re arm comprising a barrel having a ?ring
in position to engage the ?rst named end of the
chamber, a breech bolt movable from open to 40 rocking member during the ?nal closing move
closed position and having a rocker-supporting
ment of the bolt, and to give the rocking member
face extending transversely thereof and facing
a rolling motion over the bottom face of the re
cess and thus impart to the ?ring pin a primer
toward the ?ring chamber, a rocking member
detonating impact.
loosely resting against said face, the face of said
rocking member which contacts with said rocker 45
supporting face having a convexly curved portion
GEORGE NORMAN ALBRE-E.
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