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Sept. 10, 1946.
L. a. DANIELS
2,407,539
VALVE SYSTEM Aim CONTROL THEREFOR
Filed May 17, 1943
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Sept. 10, 1946.
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VALVE SYSTEM AND CONTROL THEREFOR
Filéd May 17, 1945
10 Sheets-Sheet 8
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2,407,539
VALVE SYSTEMAND CONTROL THEREFOR
‘ Fil'éd may 17, 19.43
10' Sheets-Sheet 9 v
Sept- 10, 1946- ‘
~ L. G. DANIELS
2,407,539 _
VALVE SYSTEM AND CONTROL THEREFOR
Filed. May 17, ‘1943
10 Sheets-Sheet 10
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Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407,539
UNITED, STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,539
VALVE SYSTEM AND CONTROL THEREFOR,v
Lee G; Daniels, Rockford, Ill.
Application May'17, 1943', Serial No. 487,239
24 Claims. (01. 210-24.)
1
This invention relates to valve systems and
automatic. controls for‘ water treatment. appa
ratus, water softener and the like, such, for ex
ample, as that commonly used for the purpose
of softening water and for other analogous pur
poses; andhas special. reference to: improved‘ ap
paratus for automatically controlling the opera
tion thereof and a. manual control adapted to
be used- in. they eventv the electric current should
go o?? or. for other‘ reasons" when the water.
treating apparatus is: being regenerated.
Among the: objects of: thev invention. are. the
provision: of a valve system for‘ water‘v treatment
apparatus having an improved system of valves
for; controlling the flow‘ throughv the apparatus‘,
improved; means; for controlling? the operation of
the: apparatus from a water meter; and a valve
structure having characteristics adapting the
2
of the hydraulic valves of the softener other
than the brine valve;
Fig. 20 is a section showing the construction
ofthebrine valve;
'
v
Fig. 21 is a side elevational. view of the: brine
control mechanism;
Fig. 22 is a section on the line 22-22 of Fig, 21;
Fig. 23 is: a view on the line 23-23 of Fig, 22;
Fig. 24 is an elevational View of a modi?ed
form of control actuator;
,
Fig. 25 is an elevational' viewv of a still further
modification of the control actuator;
Fig; 26 is a Wiring diagram of a softener em
ploying, the control shown in Fig. 24, and:
Figs; 27 and 28 are views showing controls. for
alternate forms of, brine systems.
The invention is herein shown as embodied in
a zeolite or base-exchangev water‘ softener, but
it? will. be understood that it is; equally applicable
same for cooperation in the novel control system.
A further object of" the invention is the- pro 20 to devices having other'types of‘ water treatment
vision of‘ an improved control d'eviceand an. im
materials: requiring similar or analogous regen
proved actuator therefor.
eration: treatment and which act to-change prop
Other objects and advantages-will; appear from
erties of the liquid‘ in addition to or instead oi
the. following description and, the: accompanying
the’ hardness thereof, such for example, as the
drawings; in which——
.
25 carbonaceous minerals and the like 'now com
Figure 1 is a side- elevational' view? of a water
softener embodying my invention;
Fig. 2 isa- wiring diagram thereof;
Fig‘. 3 is-a front‘ elevation of the-control‘ cabinet
showing the parts in service position", oil the
softener;-
'
Figs; 4, 5_ and 6* are fragmentary sections'on the
lines14-4‘, 5-5, and 6‘—6' of Fig; 3? showing the
monly known in thezart.
This is a. continuation in part of my copend
ing’ application Serial: No; 406,188, ?led August
9‘, 1941:, entitled “Automatic water treating de
v1ce'.”
Referring ?rst to Figure 1', for purposes of
illustration the letter A designates a softener or
a: water treating‘ tank and the letter B a brine
or a reagent tank as: used in‘ the conventional
position of the cams on the control disk;
Fig. '77 is an elevational view of the rear‘ of the 35 type’ of zeolite water softener, the softener tank
control cabinet, certain portions‘ being in‘ sec
tion;
in conformity with the usual practice containing
a bed of base-exchange material for conditioning
Fig. 8 is a section substantially on the line 8>——8
the water passing therethrough, and the brine
tank being adapted to contain brine in the-usual
‘Fig. 9 is a fragmentary section on the line 9'—9 40 manner, utilized for the purpose of regenerating
the base-exchange material. In thisinstance the
of’Fig; 8', parts thereof ’ being in elevation;
of Fig; 7‘;
.
Fig; 10 is a sectional view substantially on the
line' I0‘—l 0 of Fig. 3;
Fig. 11' is a face elevational View‘ of‘ the; pilot
rotor showni'n Fig, l0 ;_
‘
'
hard or raw water enters the system through a
pipe conduit 3! and leaves the. system» through a
service. pipe conduit 3:2‘. The pipe conduit 3| is
45 connectedinear the center’ of a Vertically disposed
conduit)» or piping 33.’ which enters the bottom of
the softener'tank as shown at 34 and the top of
the softener tankv as shown at 35. Interposed in
Fig. 16' is a‘ face elevational view of the rotor
the vertical conduit or piping 33 on opposite sides
shown-in Fig. 12;
’
50 of’ the conduit 3| are hydraulic valves 36 and 31
Figs. 14» through 18', inclusive, are face Views
which may have a structure such as shown in
of the rotors shown in Figs. 11- and. 13. arranged
Fig. 1-9‘ and adapted to control the flow of. incom
according to: their relative: positionscorresponding
ing water to the top and to the bottom of the
Fig. 121s. a sectional View substantially on the
line l-2.—l2. of Fig-3;
~
to, each valvelpositionof» the. softener;
softener, the valve 36 being hereinafter referred
19» is: a section showingthe. construction 55. to asv the backwashvalve by reasonv of its allow
2,407,539
3
ing water to enter the bottom of the softener
tank for the purpose of backwashing, and the
valve 3'! being known as the top valve by reason
of its controlling the iiow of the raw water to the
top of the tank. A valve 38 is disposed in the
- conduit 32 which braches off the vertical conduit
33 between the backwash valve and the lower end
4
has passed through the softener tank, the meter
and control mechanism presently to be described
functions to reposition the valves to cause back
washing of the softener. During the service op
eration, the top valve 37 and the service valve 38
are open and the remainder of the valves are
closed and water ?ows from the conduit 3|
through the valve 31 into the top of the tank,
of the softener, this valve being known as the
thence through the tank and out through the
service valve because it controls the flow of water
bottom connection 34, through the service valve
10
from the tank to service. Conduits 39 and 4|
33 and to service through the conduit 32. When
lead from the vertical conduit 33, the conduit 39
the backwash is started the service valve 38 is
leading therefrom between the top valve and the
closed, the backwash valve 36 and the upper drain
upper end of the tank, and the conduit 4| lead
valve 42 are opened so that raw water flows from
ing therefrom between the backwash valve and
the bottom of the tank, these conduits having 15 the conduit 3| through the conduit 33 and the
backwash valve 36 into the bottom of the tank
Valves 42 and 43, respectively, hereinafter called
emerging from the tank at 35 into the conduit
the upper drain valve and the lower drain valve.
33 and thence passing through the conduit 39 and
The conduits 39 and 4| merge into a single con
the upper drain valve 42 into the drain conduit
duit 44 intermediate the upper and lower drain
or waste valves so as to provide a single conduit 20 44, the remainder of the valves being closed ex
cept the hard service valve 51 which is simul
to drain or waste. The raw water conduit 3|
taneously opened to allow water to flow from the
has a meter 45 disposed therein, and between
raw water conduit 3| into the service line 32 to
the meter and the vertical conduit 33, a conduit
provide water to the service line during the re
v46 branches therefrom within which is disposed
generation interval. At the conclusion of the
25
an injector valve 41. The conduit 46 terminates
backwash step of the regeneration cycle the con
in a pipe ?tting 48 in the form of a cross within
trol mechanism, indicated generally by numeral
which is disposed an injector which discharges
62, operates to introduced brine into the top of
through a conduit 49 into the vertical conduit 33
the softener tank, the hard service valve 51 re
above the top valve 31. Also connected to the
?tting 48 is a conduit 5| connected to the bottom 30 maining open but the injection valve 41, the
lower drain valve 43 and the brine valve 52 open
of the brine tank B and within which a brine
ing
so that raw Water passes from the conduit 3|
valve 52 is disposed, the brine valve 52 con
through the injection valve 41 into the ?tting
veniently having the structure shown in Fig. 20.
48 and through the injector contained therein
' Connected into the conduit 5| is a conduit 53, the
and the conduit 49 into the upper end of conduit
35
opposite end of which is, in this instance, con
33 and thence to the top of the softener tank,
nected into the raw water conduit 3| as indicated
emerging at 34 and passing into the lower end of
at 54, the conduit 53 having a valve 55 herein
conduit 33 through the conduit 4| and the lower
after referred to as the fast wash valve, this
drain valve 43 into the drain line 44. During
valve serving in the rinse step of regeneration to
supply a, ?ow of water through the conduit 5| 40 this step of the regeneration, the fast wash valve
55, the brine re?ll valve 59, the top valve 31, the
to the ?tting 48. Whereas the conduit 53 is
bottom
valve 35, the service valve 38 and the
herein shown as connected into conduit 5|, it
upper drain valve 42 are closed. This movement
may instead be connected into conduit 33 above
of the water through the injector causes brine to
the valve 31 or may be connected directly into
be drawn through the conduit 5! and the brine
tank A above the mineral bed. In order to sup
valve 52 into the ?tting 48 from which it passes
ply water to the service conduit 32 during the
into the top of the softener admixed with the
interval in which the softener is being regen
water from the conduit 46. When the level of
erated, a conduit 53 is provided interconnecting
the brine in the brine tank B drops to a prede
the raw water conduit 3| and the service conduit
termined level as determined by a float 63 pres
32 and having a hard service valve 5'! for con
ently to be more fully described, the control
trolling the fiow therethrough. A conduit 58 is
mechanism operates to reposition the valves for
connected into the conduit 53 between the valve
the rinsing out of the brine from the softener
55 and the junction of this conduit with the con
tank.
In this operation all of the valves except
duit 5| and terminates at the top of the brine
tank as shown in Figure 1, the conduit 58 having -, the brine valve 52 retain their previous position,
but the brine valve is closed to prevent further
a valve 59 hereinafter referred to as the brine
flow of brine from the tank to the injector in
re?ll valve and serving to control the ?ow of
the fitting 48. Raw water thus continues to flow
water to the brine tank for the purpose of re
to drain through the path heretofore described
?lling the same after regeneration. The conduit
until a sui?cient amount of rinse water has passed
58 also has a flow regulating valve Bl adapted to
through
the softener to accomplish a major part
be manually set to control the rate of flow
of the rinse operation. ‘I’hereupon the control
through the conduit 58.
mechanism acts to open the valves 55 and 59
The valves 33, 31, 3B, 42, 43, 41, 55, 51 and 59
allowing water to ?ow from the raw water con
areall of the general structure shown in Fig. 19,
duit 3| through the conduit 53 and into the con
the valves being actuated by hydraulic means, the
duit 5| through which it flows to the ?tting 48
details of which will presently be described. These
augmenting the supply of rinse water which is
valves together with the brine valve 52 serve to
coincidentally ?owing therethrough through the
control the flow through the softener during the
injector valve 41. Opening of the brine re?ll
service and regeneration steps. These valves are
valve 53 allows water to flow through conduit 58
pressure operated and other mediums besides
into the brine tank B to re?ll the same, the rate
water could’ be used to operate them, and they
of flow being determined by the setting of the
could also be operated by electric or other power
valve 6|. When the brine tank has been re?lled
means with the control arranged for electrically
to its previous level the ?oat 63 operates to actu
operated valves or other types of power operated
valves. Thus when the requisite amount oi water 75 ate the control mechanism whereby the valves
Monaco
5
are all returned tolthe service position. ?rst above
6
described to‘ complete the regeneration cycleof
respect to the. gear.’ 88 by relative movement,v in
the clutch. elements 9-2 and 93. A plurality of
the softener.
switch operators or earns, 96, 97, 9,8‘, 99' and I0I '
.
~
The valve.- shown, in
119 is of: a: construc
tion well known,
the art,_.and per. se. forms.- no
aredisposed: in spaced‘ relation along the periph
cry of the disk 95,4 and located against the ledge
part of‘ the; present invention, this. valve. is hy
95c and the offset cams 96 and 91 being in dif
draulically operated and comprises a. body por
ferent planes than the flat face earns 88, 99' and
tion 64 having, an; inlet chamber. 65 and. an; outs
IOI as shown in. Figs. 4-,v 5i and 6. Disposed ad
let chamber 66 separated by av partition 61 hav
jacent the periphery of the disk and attached. to
ing, a, port; surroundedby- a. seat 68. The body 1.0 the enclosure-are switches I62, I93 and I04‘, each!
portion hast: a cap 69 and a- diaphragm. ‘II dis.
of these switches having enclosed operating
posed between the body and the cap, the cap be
switch. mechanism enclosing a spring that is
ing shaped‘; to provide a. chamber 12. into which
compressed. to av closed position and when re.
hydraulic pressure: may be applied through. a
leased is spring pressed. to' an open position; and
‘tube or conduit 13' connecting with tubes. from 15 ar lea-f actuating spring. such as: shown at I05
the; pilots» as. will presently be described. The
adapted whendepressed to- close the switch. the
diaphragm, ‘II; carries. a- valve. disk. 14 adapted‘; to
switch being self opening upon’release of, the.
register with, the seat 68:, the valve disk‘ and dia
actuating spring. The switch IE2 is located in
phragm having a. stem: 15 adapted to guide the
a‘ plane such’, that. the leaf spring I05 is engaged
valve disk in its: opening and closing movements. 2.0, and operated by the operators 98, 99' and I01, the
It will be seen‘, that. this arrangementv is such‘ that
switch I03. is- positioned so that the spring actua-v
when the: hydraulic. pres-sure. is absent. in the
top will be engaged by the operator 9'! and. the
chamber 1.2, pressure of the ?uid in the. inlet
switch L54 is positioned so that the leaf spring
chamber 65.- causes the. valve to open, whereas
thereof. will be actuated by the operator 96,. as
the application of- pressure in the. chamber, ‘I2. 25 will-be seen from Figs. ‘l, 5 and 6. The-switches
through the conduit. _'I3- moves the’ valve. disk to
I82,‘ I03» and, PM are of the so-called snap-acting
close the valve.
I
precision type such as those: manufactured‘ and
They various valves of the system are controlled
sold by'Microv Switch Corporation, Freeport, Illi
from. the control unit 62 shown morein detail in
noi-s,and being characterized bybeing operable
Figs. 3 through 13 which in this instance is 3.0V by very small‘ pressure and with‘ a small move_
mountedand carried on themeter 45. The con
trol. mechanism is in this instance housed in a
cabinet. indicated. generally by the numeral ‘I6
ment differential.
These switches each have a
spring contact arm arranged to» be- connected at
one end to an electrical conductor, and a. sta
tionary contact. arranged for a connection to the
panel. 11 (Fig. 8.). retained, in position by guides 36 opposite conductor. The contacts are closed
‘I8 which‘; permit. the. panel to be removed for- ac
when the. spring arm is compressed to a closed
cess to. the-enclosed mechanism. Various phases
position» and when. released; said arm. is‘ spring
of. the. operation are controlled from the‘ meter
pressed to‘: an open position in which the con
45. which. has. mounted thereon a so-called meter
tacts are open_..
clock having an. enclosing case, 1.0. and reduction 410..
These switches- are. arranged in a circuit as
which. in. this instance includes a glass front.
gearing disposed therein.
The meter. has. the
conventionaldriying, stem 7.9 which drives an up»
standing shaft 8.I projecting. into the, meter clock
casing. (Fig- 3); through primary changeable. gears
82,, the stem. 81 serving to. drive the. gearing of
the. meter clock. This reduction. gearing. will
vary somewhat. dependent upon the amount of.
gear reduction necessary for the particular in
stallation, andlin. this instance comprises a bevel‘
gear 83a, ?xed on the. shaft. 8| anda bevel; gear
83b ?xed On a shaft 830. Aspur gear 84 is also,
?xed on the shaft 830 and meshes with a gear
85 .on a shaft 85a. A spur‘ gear 85b is also ?xed
on the. shaft 85a and is, in mesh with a gear 86
‘ shown- inFig. 2. in. which the numeral. H0 indi—
cates a. solenoidv actuated valve presently to be
described more- in detail, and the numeral I06‘
indicates a, brine level control such’v as shown
more in. detail in Figs. 21 through 23, the numer
als It]. and I E18» identifying Micro switches of the
type heretofore described; Thus rotation of the
disk 951 serves to» close the switches I52, I63 and
it'd inapresclected sequenceto energize the sole
noid valve Ho which in turn operates the, con-v
trol mechanism for the various valves.
The solenoid valve; II-G is in this instance 10.
cated-with'inthe control enclosure as best shown
in. Fig.
and forms. one,- element of a control
operator which also includes a hydraulic actu
shaft 8611 by a pair of secondary" changeable
ator I159 best shown in Fig. 8. Water under. pres
gears 81 and 88, the gear 81 being ?xed on' the: '
sure for the operation of the control mechanism
shaft 86a and‘ the gear‘ 88 being carriedon the
enters the enclosure by way of a conduit III and
shaft 89'. The shaft 89 has bearing support in a
passes into. a four-way ?tting I I2. The solenoid
frame 91 (Fig. 8) attached’ tov the top-and the 60 ‘ valye I Ul- is connected to the fitting: and controlsv
side of the meter clock'case' ‘Ill. The change gear‘
the ?ow through a pipe H3‘ and a conduit I I4
88 serves to drive the shaft 89 througha friction
connected tothe actuator through an opening I I5
clutch comprising a friction disk‘ 92‘ of leather or
(Fig. 8).’. The pipe Mills- also connected, to a
on a shaft 86a: The shaft 39 is driven from the I.
the like and a metal plate 93, theplate 93' being;
attachedv to the shaft 89 and: the dislc 92‘ being
attached’ to the gear 88, the gear'otherwise' being
free to turn- onv the shaft 89 as to: provide a slip
connection. The friction elements. are held in
_ frictional engagement by a spring 94 disposed.
on the shaft 89. Positioned on and pinned to the
shaft 89 adjacent the front. panel. ‘I1 is. a. meter
disk 95, the edge of which is shown in. Fig. 8’ and.
the face in..Fig.. 3.. Thus it will be seen that, the:
four-way ?tting H5: through a bleeder ori?ce
ill, the. four-way ?tting H6 being connected, to a
drain line. H8. through which the water used in
the control mechanism is drained therefrom.
solenoid valve best. shown. in Fig. '7 com
prises. a valve body H49‘ havirg, a valve seat. I2I
avalverplunger' 5125a
ted to open and close
communication, through the valve seat, the valve»
plunger having a- resilient gasket I22 adapted to
engage'the seat. The valve plunger is adapted for
disk is driven fromthe meter throughthe change,
longitudinal movement inv a cylinder I23 and has
gears‘. 81 and.88 but. is capable of. movement with. 75 channels: I24 and I~2.5:-for communication between‘
2,407,539
7
the top of the piston and the inlet side of the
valve body. It also has a central channel I26 for
communication between the outlet side of the
valve body and the top of the plunger, The out
let passage I26 is larger than the inlet passage
I25. The solenoid indicated generally by the nu
meral I21 has an armature provided with a needle
I28 adapted to seat across the upper end of the
channel I26 to close communication therethrough,
thus forming a needle valve. When the solenoid 10
I21 is deenergized the armature and needle I28
move downward sealing communication through
the channel I26, and simultaneously pressure wa
ter flows through the channels I24 and I25 to
the upper end of the plunger and with the action
of the spring I30 forces the valve to close. On
the other hand, when the solenoid is energized,
the needle I28 moves upwardly into the position
shown in Fig. '1, reducing the pressure on top of
the plunger and the pressure of the water on the 20
inlet side of the valve forces the plunger upwardly
to unseat the valve. The solenoid I21 is energized
in response to operation of the switches, as will
be apparent from Fig. 2, and when thus energized
the parts of the valve are brought into the posi 25
tion shown in Fig. 7 to open the valve and permit
the flow of pressure water into the pipe II3 and
through the tube II4 into the actuator I09 (Fig.
8). Upon the deenergization of the circuit and
of the solenoid I21, the valve I I0 is caused to 30
close and ?uid is allowed to drain out of the
actuator through the bleeder ori?ce II1 into the
drain,
8
the solenoid is deenergized and the valve IIO
closes, the bleeder ori?ce I I1 ‘permits water to
?ow slowly out of the chamber I35 through the
tube I I4 during which time the spring I41 acts to
return the lever and the diaphragm to its pre
vious position. This movement of the diaphragm
and of the lever I4I serves to operate a ratchet
mechanism, which in turn acts to rotate the shafts
of a pair of rotary pilot valves or pilot means or
control means, which in turn control the operat
ing positions of the various valves of the softener.
Positioned on the frame bracket I00 are up
wardly disposed arms I43 and I54 within which
a rotary pilot shaft I55 is journaled. Rotatably
positioned on the pilot shaft I55 is a ratchet
means or arm I56 having a spring-pressed pawl
I51 adapted to bear against the periphery of a
ratchet disk or gear I58, the ratchet arm being
supported on the shaft I55 and having the lower
end of the arm pivotally connected to a rod I59
pivotally connecting the upper end of the arm
946 of lever I4I, as will appear from Fig. 8, The
ratchet disk or gear I 58 has a plurality of notches
as shown at I6! adapted for engagement by the
pawl I51, and the disk is ?xedly supported on
the pilot shaft I55. It will therefore be seen that
as the lever I4! moves toward the right facing
Fig. 8, the ratchet lever will be rotated back in a
counter-clockwise direction a sufficient distance
for he pawl to engage the next notch of the
ratchet disk, and when the lever moves toward the
left upon the introduction of fluid into the cham
ber 635, the ratchet lever moves forward in a
clockwise direction carrying with it the ratchet
The actuator I09 comprises a body I3I and a
cover I32 disposed thereagainst and attached 35 disk and the pilot shaft, thus indexing the pilot
shaft through a predetermined angularity, in this
thereto by screws I33, a resilient diaphragm I34
instance, one-?fth of a revolution. In order to
being disposed between the body and the cover
locate the pilot disk and prevent its being rotated
and forming one wall of a chamber I35 between
through friction of the parts, a spring-pressed
the body and the cover. Attached to the dia
phragm I34 is a stem I36, the stem being affixed 40 latch or locating pin I62 is positioned on the arm
I54 adapted to engage in recesses I63 suitably
to the diaphragm through fastening blocks I31
to effect a seal therebetween, and the stem hav
ing an end disposed in a guide I38 in the cover.
The stem extends through a bearing and guide I39
in the body and has a forked lever I4I pivotally
attached thereto intermediate the ends of the
lever. One end of the lever is pivotally attached
to a link I42 which is in turn pivotally attached
to a locating and adjusting ‘screw I43 anchored
located on the ratchet disk as best shown in Fig.
9 to locate and releasably hold the disk and the
pilot shaft in the required angular positions. At
tached to opposite ends of the pilot shaft I55 are
yokes I64 and I65 having pins I66 and I61 pass
ing through stems I 68 and I69 of pilot valves des
ignated generally by the numerals HI and I12.
These pilot valves are supported on arms I13 and
on the actuator body as indicated at I44. The 50 I14 of the bracket I00 and are of the general form
best shown in Fig. 9.
opposite or upper end of the lever has two arms
I45 and I46, and a coiled tension spring I41 is
attached at one end to the upper end of the arm
Pilot valves
I45, the opposite end of the tension spring being
The pilot valves are identical except for the
connected to a stationary part of the control 55 port arrangement, the valve I1I being shown in
Figs. 9, 10 and 11 and the valve 112 being shown
mechanism, in this instance a bracket I00, at
in Figs. 12 and 13. Each of the pilots comprises
tached to the frame 9|. The spring is tensioned
two body members I15 and I16 having a gasket
so that in the absence of pressure in the chamber
I35 and against the diaphragm, the spring draws
the upper end of the lever I4! to the right facing
Fig. 8 until an adjustable stop screw I43 bears
against a stop I49 on the actuator body. In this
instance the actuator is secured to the housing
or enclosure by a support I5I and a rod I52, the
I11 interposed therebetween, the body members
being suitably secured together as by means of
screws to provide a ?uid-tight seal. The body
member I15‘ has a chamber I18 and an opening
for the stem, as for example the stem I68 of Fig. 9.
the stem having an enlargement as shown at I19
adapted to bear against the inner side of the
chamber. This enlargement carries pins I8I en
gaging a ported pilot rotor I82 which seats
against a stator I83 ?xed against the face of the
I35 moving the diaphragm into the position shown '
body member I16. Thus upon rotation of the
in Fig. 8 simultaneously rotating the lever I4I to 70 stems I68 and I59 the pins I8! cause rotation of
the rotors I82 to change communication with
the position shown in this ?gure against the ten
ports in the stators I83 and thus control the ?ow
sion of the spring I41. A small part of this pres
through the pilots. The port arrangement of the
sure water will also flow through the bleeder ori
pilot MI is shown in Figs. 9 through 11 in which
?ce II1, but this is insu?icient to materially re
the body member I15 has a channel I84 leading
_ duce the pressure in the system. However, when
latter being secured to the bracket I00 as will be
apparent from Fig. 8. Thus when the solenoid
I21 is energized, pressure water flows through
the pipe H3 and the tube II4 into the chamber
to the chamber I18 and communicating through
a tube 1785 to a source of pressure fluid to supply
pressure ?uid to the top of the pilot disk ‘I82.
The body member ‘I ‘Hi has a channel I86 ‘com
municating ‘with a central port I81 of the stator
I83 and connected to a tube ‘I88 leading to a
drain, a channel I89 communicating with a port
I91 and connected to a tube I 92 leading to a
source of pressure fluid, a ‘channel I93 communi
eating with a ‘port ='I 94 in the vstator and connected
tofa tube I95 leading to the pressure chambers
of injector valve 4-1 ‘and lower drain valve 43 (Fig
ure '1) and a channel I '96 ‘communicating with a
10
valve the port 72013 ‘of the rotor I812 is in register
with the port I'9I ~of the stator-I83 and port 204
of the’ rotor is in registration With ‘port _I 94 so that
pressure liquid flows from the pipe ‘I 92 to the'pipe
I95 maintainingrpressure in the chamber of main
valves 4’! and 4-3 holding these valves closed.
Likewise the ‘port 206 -'of_ the disk is in ‘registration
with ‘port =19’! of the plate so that pressure fluid
flows from the chamber of the pilot into the tube
I 98 maintaining pressure in the chamber of hard
service valve '5'! to maintain this ‘valve closed.
The port 202 is ‘out of registration with any port
in the stator and consequently no how occurs to
port I91 of vthe stator and connected to a tube
drain. ‘on the ‘other hand, the ports 2'28, 23 I, 233
I98 leading to the pressure chamber of the hard 15 and 234' ofthe rotor 226 are in registration with
service valve '51. The pilot rotor ‘I82 of pilot I-TI
ports 224, 22], 2'44 and '21 I-, respectively, of the
is shown in Fig. 11 (which shows the contacting
Stator in pilot I152 ‘while port 232 Of the rotor
face of the rotor) and has a central port I99
is out of registration with any ‘port in the stator.
communicating through “a cross channel 20] with
This permits pressure liquid to flow to drain ‘from
a port 202, the ports I99 and 202 ‘extending only
the pressure chamber of the service valve 38 and
partway through the disk su?i’cient to intersect
the top valve 31,‘ permitting these valves to be
the cross channel 201-. ‘The disk also has radial
open, "and pressure ?uid l?ows from the chamber
ports 203 and 204 extending partway through the
of the pilot through the registering ports through
port ‘206 extending completely through the disk.
The ports 1202, 203, ‘204 and 206 are located on
tube 222 to the pressure chamber of the fast wash
valve 55 and the brine re?ll valve 59, through the
tube 2I’5 to the 'pressurechamber of the brine
the same radius so as to register with the ports
valve and through tube 2 I 2 to the pressure ‘cham
disk connected by a cross channel 205 and has a
I'9l, 1-94 and 19'! in the stratOr H53 in various po
ber of the backwash valve '35 and the upper drain
Valve 42 maintaining these ‘valves closed. Thus
The port arrangement of the pilot I12 is shown 30' in this position of the pilots all of the valves ‘of
in Figs. 12 and 113 and has a tube 201 connected
the softener are ‘closed except the top valve '31
sitions of the pilot, as will be later described.
to a source of pressure ?uid which communicates
and the service valve 38 so that raw ‘water enter
ing through the pipe ~3I :?ow's through the top
valve 31 into the top ‘of the tank A and out
channel 208 in the body member I15 thereof.
The body member I76 has a channel 209 com 35 through the bottom, of the tank A through 'pipe
municating with a port 2“ of the stator I83 and
33, service valve 38 "and pipe 32 to deliver soft
with the chamber I78 of pilot I ‘II through a
connected by a tube 2i'2 to the pressure chamber
of‘ both the backwash valve 36 and the upper
drain Valve 42; a channel 2I3 communicating
With a port 2I4 of the plate and connected-by a
tube M5 to the brine valve 52 presently to be
more fully described‘; a channel 2I6 communicat
ing with the central port ‘2i 1 of the statoraand to
a drainthrough tube :2I‘8; a channel 2I0com
municating with a port 232i of the stator and con
nected by a tube 222- to the pressure chamber of
the
59;
224
the
fast wash valve‘55 and the brine re?ll valve
and a channel 7223 communicating with a port
of the stator and connected by a tube 225 to
water to service.
Operation
As water flows to service the meter 45 oper
ates to rotate the meter disk 95 in a clockwise
direction facing Fig. 3. ‘the ‘disk being shown in
this ?gurerin the position occupied thereby di
rectly at the start of the service run, the disk
continuing to rotate until the ?nger IOI engages
the spring leaf I05 of switch I02 to close the
switch and start the regeneration cycle. The
primary changeable gears and the seconclaiisr
changeable gears 81 and 88 are so selected as to
pressure chamberof the service valve 38 and 50 cause-a, predetermined number of gallons of Wa
ter to bring about this movement of the meter
ofAthe top valve 31. The rotor of the pilot valve
disk, the number of gallons being made to corre
I12 shown in Fig. 13 which will hereinafter be
spond to the capacity of the softener or slightly
referred to by the number 226 has a central port
under the capacity so that the disk will have
221 and a radially ‘disposed port 220 connected
completed its movement toward the switch I02
by a channel 229, the ports passing only partway
through the disk to provide a flow from the port
229 through the channel and the port 227. The
disk also has ports 23I to 234 disposed radially
around thecentral port 221 at a uniform radius
with respect thereto to establish communication
with the ports 2i I., 2I'4, 22I and 224 of the stator
as the pilot rotor is driven, as heretofore de
scribed.
_
The pilot rotors I82 and 226 being driven di
rectly from the pilot shaft I55 move together be
tween their various positions, and these positions
corresponding to the different ‘operated positions
of‘ the main valves are diagrammatically shown
in Figs. 14 through 18, in which the shaded ports
represent open ports extending completely 70
through the rotor and registering with ports in
the stator of the pilots. Thus Fig. 14 'shows'the
positions of the pilot rotors and the ?ow of pres-_
sure liquid therethrough in the service position of
the main valves. Thus in this position of the 75
when a gallonage of water slightly less than that
required to exhaust the mineral in the softener
has passed therethro‘ugh. In this instance the
structure is such that the gears 82, 8‘! and 08
may be easily changed to gears of a different
ratio to adapt the control mechanism to different
sizes of softeners and for waters of different hard
ness. It will be seen from Fig. 2 that when the
switch I02 is closed a circuit will be closed be
tween the leads 236 of the power supply and the
solenoid I 21 by way of the switch I02, conduc
tors 231‘ and 238, contact 239 of switch I03, con
ductor 24!, ‘contact 242 of switch I04, conductor
243 and conductor 244, it being understood that
the wiring diagram of Fig. 2 shows the position
of the switches immediately after the completion
of ‘the regeneration cycle, and that ‘switch I04
is ‘moved to close circuit to contact 242 during
the initial part of the service-run. " Completion
of the circuit to the solenoid I21 opens the valve
2,407,539
11
H0 as shown in Fig. 7, moving the diaphragm
of the actuator to the position shown in Fig. 8,
12
port I9I, but since both ports communicate with
a ?uid pressure supply line, no functional result
8 and causing the shaft I55 to rotate to move
follows. In this position of pilot rotor 226, port
228 is in communication with port 2I_4 of the
stator of pilot I12 relieving pressure from the
the pilot rotors to the position shown in Fig. 15.
In this position of the rotor I82 the port 202
of the rotor comes into registration with the port
in registration with ports 2I I, 224 and 22I apply
which in turn moves the lever IM to rotate the
ratchet mechanism to the position shown in Fig.
pressure chamber of brine valve 52 and allowing
this valve to open. Ports 23I, 232 and 233 are
ing pressure in the pressure chambers of back
I 91 of the stator relieving pressure from the pres
sure chamber of the hard service valve 51 10 wash valve 38 and upper 'drain valve 42 through
tube 2I2, to the service valve 38 and the top
through tube I98 allowing this valve to open and
valve 31 through pipe 225 and to fast wash valve
by-pass hard water into the service line 32 to
55 and brine re?ll valve 59 through pipe 222, thus
provide water to service during the regeneration
keeping these valves in the closed position. Wa
cycle. Also port 209 of the rotor comes into reg
istration with port I94 admitting pressure to the 1,5 ter then flows from the supply pipe 3I through
injector valve 41 and into the injector 4B and
pressure chambers of the injector valve 41 and
thence into the top of the tank A, causing brine
the lower drain valve 43 to maintain these valves
or regenerating solution to be drawn from the
closed. Likewise the pilot rotor 225 is moved to
tank 13 through brine valve 52 and pipe 5| into
bring the port 23I into registration with the port
224 of pilot I12 to apply pressure through the 20 the pipe 49 and thence passed to the top of the
tank A, ?uid ?owing out of the tank through
the pipe 33, the lower drain valve 43 and the
and top valve 31 to close these valves; port 232
drain pipe 44.
is brought into registration withport 22I to main
tube 225 to the chambers of the service valve 38
When the level of the reagent in the tank 13
tain pressure in the chambers of the fast wash
, reaches a preselected lo-wer point as determined
valve 55 and the brine re?ll valve 59 to maintain
by a liquid level control shown in Figs. 1, 2 and
these valves closed; port 234 is brought into reg
21 through 23, and presently to be more fully de
istration with port 214 to maintain pressure in
scribed, the low level switch I08 is closed thereby
the chamber of the brine valve 52 and maintain
completing a circuit to the solenoid I21 by way
this valve closed, and port 228 is brought into
registration with port 2II to relieve pressure in 30 of conductors 245 and 246a, switch I08, switch
‘ contact 239a, conductor 24I, switch contact 242,
the chambers of backwash valve 39 and in the
and conductors 243 and 244, causing operation of
chamber of upper drain valve 42 to permit these
the valve H0 and the actuator I09 to move the
valves to open, whereupon raw water flows
pilot rotors to the next succeeding position shown
through the backwash valve 36 and the pipe 33
in Fig. 17 and called the slow wash position.
to the bottom 0f tank A and out of the top of
In this position of the ‘pilot rotor I82 the port
the tank through the upper drain valve 42 to
292 is in communication with the port I9I of the
the drain line 44 to effectuate backwashing of
stator, but since this connects the pressure tube
the softener.
1
I92 to drain, no functional result is produced.
As water ?ows through the meter to effectuate
the backwashing, the meter disk 95 continues to 40 In this position of the pilot rotor 226 the ports
23 I, 232, 233 and 234 register respectively with the
rotate, and as the ?nger IOI moves off the leaf
various ports of the stator of .pilot I12 to apply
I05 of the switch I02, this switch opens, deener
pressure through the tubes 2I5, 2I2, 225 and 222
gizing the solenoid I21 and permitting the valve
to the pressure chambers of the brine valve 52, the
III] to close. Thereupon water flows out of the
backwash valve 38, the upper drain valve 42, the
actuator chamber I35 and the diaphragm returns
service valve 38, the top valve 31, the fast wash
to its initial position under the action of the
valve 55 and the brine re?ll valve 59, the injector
spring- I41, the water bleeding out through the
valve 91 remaining in the open. position upon ro
bleeder ori?ce II'I. This repositions the ratchet
tation of the pilot rotor I82 to the position of Fig.
arm I56 for a subsequent operation bringing the
latch I51 into the next succeeding notch of the 50 17. Thus the effective operation of this move
ment of the pilots is to close the brine valve 52.
ratchet disk I58 (Fig. 8).
The ?ow of water through the meter and
As water ?ows to the tank during the back
through the tank A in the brining step and the
wash step the meter disk 95 continues to turn
flow after the brine Valve is closed causes con
and to close the backwash step, the cam 99 en
gages the lever I05 of switch I02 to operate the 55 tinued rotation of the meter disk 95, and when
the :cam 93 of the disk closes switch I02 the valve
switch thereby again completing the circuit to
III} is opened and the actuator I09 operates to
' the solenoid I21 opening the valve H0 and caus
move the pilot disks to the next position shown
in Fig. 18 initiating the fast wash step of the re
rotors to the position shown in Fig. 16 in which 60 generation cycle. It will be seen that prior to
this point in the movement of the meter disk 95
reagent is introduced into the tank A. At or
the cam 91 will have passed off the switch I03 to
shortly after the cam 99 closes the switch I02,
shift the switch back to the position shown in
the cam 91 engages the switch I 03 to actuate the
Fig. 2, which may be called the normal unactu
same so as to move the contacts thereof from
ated position of the switch. This closing of the
contact 239 to a contact 239a (see Fig. 2), the
switch I02 completes the circuit to solenoid I21
cam 91 acting to hold the switch I03 in this posi
through the previously described ‘circuit. In this
tion until after introduction of reagent into the
position of the pilot rotor I82 no new communi
tank A has been completed. In this position of >
cation is established and consequently the in
the pilot rotors the port 202 of rotor I82 comes
into registration with port I94 of the‘ stator of 70 jector valve 41, the lower drain valve 43, and the
hard service valve 51 remain open. On the other
pilot I1I allowing water to ?ow from the pres
hand, in this position of the pilot disk 226 the
sure chamber of injector valve 41 and from the
port 228 comes into registration with the port 22I
pressure chamber of lower drain valve 43, per
of pilot I12 relieving the pressure in the pressure
mitting these two valves to open. Simultaneous
ing the actuator to rotate the pilot shaft I55 to
the next succeeding position bringing the pilot
ly the port 208‘ comes into communication with
7.5
chamber of fast wash'valve 55 and brine re?ll
2,401,539
13‘
valve 59 by way'of tube 222. Also the ports 232.,‘
233 and 234 come into registration with ports 2I4,
2I‘I and 224 maintaining pressure through tubes
2 I 5, 2 I2 and 225 in the pressure chambers of brine
valve 52, backwash valve 36, upper drain valve 42,
service valve 38 and top valve 31 so that raw
water flows through the injector valve 41 and
injector 48 to the top of the softener and raw
pilots, a plurality of ?nger tabs 249 are provided
on the cam member 246 equal in number to the ‘
positions of; the pilots, each bearing letters or
symbols as shown in Fig. 3 to identify the post-i.
tions occupied by the pilots. These tabs are em~
ployecl as indexing devices for manually rotating
the shaft through the ratchet mechanism and for
indicating to the operator the position of the
valve mechanism during regeneration.
water also ?ows through the fast wash valve 55,
‘Attention is now directed to the structure of
pipe 53, pipe 5I and the injector tube of injector
the brine‘ valve 52 which is shown in detail in
48 to. the top of the softener, giving an accelerated
Fig. 20. This valve has a body portion 25I' simi
volume of rinse water to the top of the softener,
lar to the valve of Fig. 19, a cap 252 disposed
water ?owing out of the bottom through the pipe
thereon with a diaphragm 253 interposed theree
33, the lower drain valve 43 and the drain pipe
44. Simultaneously water ?ows from the pipe 53 15 between. A Casing 254 is positioned above and
against the cap 252, the housing cap and body
through the brine re?ll valve 59 and pipe 58 to
being secured together by cap screws‘ 255 or the
the brine tank causing the level of the liquid in
the brine tank to rise. During this flow of water
like. The valve has a stem 256 secured to the
diaphragm 253 and carrying a valve disk 251
the meter continues to rotate the meter disk 95
bringing the cam 96 into engagement with the 20 adapted to cooperate with the valve seat 258 to
switch I94, causing this switch to move from the
control communication between an inlet cham
normal unactuated position engaging contact 242
ber259 and an outlet chamber 26I. The cap‘ 252
(Fig. 2) into engagement with a contact 2420..
has a chamber 262 and a channel 263 connects
When the level in the brine tank has reached
the chamber 262 with the outlet side of the valve.
a predetermined upper point the liquid level con 25 A second channel 264 connects the chamber with
trol mechanism functions to operate high level
the interior of the casing 254. The body 25I has
switch I91 to close the circuit to solenoid I21 by
a guide 265 for the stem and the stem is also
way of conductor 245, switch I91, contact 242a
guided in a portion 266 of the cap. A compres~
of switch I94 and conductors 243 and 244 to open
sion spring 251 is disposed on the stem within the
the valve H9 and supply pressure water to the
casing 254 and acts between the guide 266 and a
actuator which functions to index the pilot shaft
shoulder 258 adjacent the upper end of the stem,
I55 and the pilot rotors back to the service posi
the spring normally urging the stem to the open
tion shown in Fig. ‘PL-thereby completing the re
position of the valve. Disposed against the upper
generation cycle of the softener. The cam 96 and
end of the casing 254 is a secondary valve body
, the leaf spring of switch I94. are so set that the
259 having a chamber 21I connected to a source‘
rotation of the disk 95 caused by the ?ow of'water
through the operating valves while the valves are
moving to the new positions is su?icient to cause
the ?nger to release the switch. Although offset
cams 91 and 99 are arrangedto close switches
of ?uid pressure by a tube 212. Disposed across
the upper end of the secondary valve body 269 is‘
a secondary diaphragm 213 and a cap 214 having
a chamber 215 into which the tube 2I5 heretofore
described communicates. The secondary dia
phragm 213 carries a stem 216 which in turn car
ries a valve disk 211 positioned to seat against‘
a valve seat 218 on the secondary valve body, the
stem haVing a guide 219 passing through an open
I93 and I 94, respectively, before the low and high
level switches I99 and I91 are closed, cams 91 and
95 can be arranged so that the low and high level
switches I98 and I91 will be closed lbefore the
cams ‘close switches I93 and I94.
-
‘Means are provided for operating the pilots
manually when desired, such as might be required
45 ing in the secondary valve body and providing
channels 28I which permit communication be
tween the chamber 21I and the interior of the
in the‘ case of a powerfailure or the like, which
casing 254.
means also serves to reposition the disk 95 after
vThe tube 2I5 is connected to the port 2I4 of
the introduction of brine and at the end of the 50 pilot I 12 as shown in Fig. 12 and the chamber
fast wash before starting of the service step. This
215 constitutes the pressure contro1 of the valve.
includes a cam member 246 ?xed on the shaft I55
having peripherally arranged cam faces 246aand
24517 (Figs. 3, 7 and 8). Positioned on the periph
ery of the disk 95 are adjustable holders 241 and
248'having pins 241a and 248a disposed in‘the
path of the cam faces 246a and 2461). The cam
faces and the pins are so positioned that as the
The tube 212 is connected directly to the back
side of ?tting 54 (Fig. 1) so as to cause constant
supply of the ?uid to the chamber 21I and the
tube 212 and channels 28I are of such size as to
provide a substantially greater flow of ?uid into
the chamber 262 than can pass therethrough
through the channel 263. It will thus be seen
shaft I55 rotates to change the pilots to terminate
. that when the pilot I12 is set to supply pressure
the ?ow of brine to the softener tank, the cam 60 ?uid to'the chamber 215 the parts occupy the‘
race 246a engages the pin 241a. to move the disk
position shown in Fig. 20 and the member of the
forward to a de?nite position, and when the shaft
valve is unseated, under which circumstances
I55. rotates to change the pilots to the service
pressure fluid is supplied to the interior of the‘
position the camiace 24Gb engages pin 248a to
casing 254 and to the chamber 262 to exert pres
move the disk forward to a preselected starting
sure on the diaphragm 253 and keep the valve
position for the service run. This readjustment
member 251 seated. However, when the pilot
of the disk 95 servesto correct for inequalities in
shifts so as to bring the tube 2I5 in communica
the amount of water passing through the meter
tion with drain, the pressure in the chamber 215
during regeneration cycles of brining and fast
drops off and the pressure of the fluid in cham
wash, such as result, for example, from differ 70 ber 21I moves the secondary diaphragm 213 and
ences in pressure in the water mains or di?erences
the valve member 211 upward into contact with
in the rate of flow of brine which might result
the seat 218 to close communication between the
chamber 21I and the interior of the casing 254.,
This position of the pilot occurs during the in
In 'order'to‘ permit of manual operation of; the 75 terval in which water ?ows through injector valve
from variations‘in theldensity of the salt bed in
the brinetank.
‘
' I
2,407,539
15
16
41, consequently producing a reduced pressure
in the brine pipe 5! and consequently in the
upwardly as heretofore described, the pin SM is
chamber 26!. This causes ?ow of pressure ?uid
from the chamber 262 through channel 263, and
when this pressure is reduced to a preselected
point the diaphragm 253 moves upward under the
action of the spring 26'! carrying the valve mem
ber 25‘! and opening communication between the
brought into contact with the leaf of switch l0’!
causing the closing of this switch as shown in
Fig. 2. On the other hand,‘ when the rod 298 is
moved downwardly by action of the ?oat, the pin
3!4 is brought out of contact with the leaf of
switch I9‘! permitting this switch to open and
ultimately into contact with the leaf of switch
“18, causing this switch to be closed. In order
valve chambers 259 and 26!, whereby brine is
drawn through the valve from the down pipe 282 10 to avoid excessive freedom of movement a com
pression spring 3l5 is provided between a washer
in the brine tank into the pipe 5!. When the
292 on the shaft 29! and the lever 3!3 to provide
pilot moves to a position to reestablish pressure
a drag on the rotation of the shaft 29!. The
in the chamber 215, the secondary valve mem
weight 304 can be adjusted to counterbalance the
ber 21'! again moves away from its seat and pres
sure from the pipe 212 is communicated to the 15 rod 298 so as to give a greater sensitivity than
would otherwise be possible.
chamber 262 at a more rapid rate than the water
In Fig. 24 I have shown a modi?ed form of
can ?ow through the channel 263, thereby build
actuating mechanism for causing the operation
ing up sufficient pressure to actuate the dia
phragm 253 and close off communication between
of the ratchet mechanism. In this embodiment
the chambers 259 and 26!.
20 the lower end of the ratchet arm !56 is pivotally
connected to a lever 32! which is in turn pivotally
The brine level control mechanism is shown
in detail in Figs. 21 through 23, and this com
connected to a disk 322 by a crank pin 323 eccen
prises .an upstanding arm 234 having a bracket
tric on the disk, the disk and lever forming a
285 disposed thereon and overhanging the liquid
crank such that when the disk is rotated through
in the tank. The bracket has a chamber 286 25 360° the ratchet arm !56 is carried through a
complete reciprocation; The disk 322 is carried
formed by cylindrical walls 28'! on the bracket,
on a shaft 324 projecting from the housing 325
the chamber being covered by a closure plate 288
secured in place as by screws 289 and having a
of a program switch motor mechanism 326 such
conduit connection 290 for attachment of conduit
as that manufactured by the Barber-Colman
to carry the necessary wiring. Extending trans 30 Company of Rockford, Illinois.
versely of the chamber 288 is a shaft 29! jour
The program switch is placed in the circuit of
naled in the plate in a bearing 293. The outer
the control mechanism in the manner shown in
surface of the plate has upstanding shoulders
Fig. 26 wherein the numeral 32'! designates the
motor of the program switch, the switch having
bearing 296 for support of the shaft 29!. The 35 switch operating cams 328 and 329 disposed on
294 bridged by a plate 295 which also carries a
shaft has pinned thereto in the space between
the shoulders 234 a leverl29'l having a forked end
for the pivotal reception of a depending rod 298,
the rod being of such length as to depend well
into the liquid in the tank. The bracket 285 has
2. depending ear 299 upon which a bearing pin
39! is positioned and upon which a lever 392 is
journaled intermediate its ends. One end of the
lever has a fork 393 pivoted to the rod 298 and
the opposite end of the lever is arranged for
longitudinal adjustment of a weight 384 having
a set screw 395 adapted to locate the weight on
the lever so as to counterbalance the weight of
the shaft 324 or its equivalent, the surfaces of
the cams being so arranged that one of the
switches 33! and 332 is made before the other
opens. In this instance a double throw switch
333 is substituted for the single throw switch
!02 of Figs. 2 and 3. As shown in Fig. 26, the
parts are shown in the position occupied there
by when the disk 95 of Fig. 3 is in the position
shown in this ?gure and just prior to release
of the switch I84. When the cam 96 releases
the switch I04, the switch moves into contact
with'contact 242 completing a circuit to the motor
32‘! through conductor 231, switch 333 and con
the rod 298 and associated mechanism. Also
tact 334 thereof, switch !03 and contact 239
attached to the lever is a yoke 396 having ears 50 thereof, switch !04 and contact ‘ 242 thereof,
39'! adapted to contact a pin 358 to act as a stop
switch 332 and a conductor 335 to the motor,
thence through conductor 336 to the power sup
in determining the limit of rotation of the lever
ply. The motor 327 will operate until the switch
302. rI‘he rod 298 has spaced collars 399 and 3!!
332 is opened by action of the cam 329. Just
and carries the ?oat 93 disposed between these
prior to opening of the switch 332, the switch
collars, the ?oat comprising a ball having a tubu
lar bearing 3!2 disposed therethrough for the
' 33! wil1 close by operation of cam 328 but since
the circuit in which this switch is disposed is
reception of the rod 298 so that the ball will ?oat
open, the motor will stop when the cams have
up and down on the rod 298 between the limits
been turned 180° completing the regeneration
set by the collars 369 and 31 l. Thus as the level
‘of the. liquid in the tank 13 falls, the ?oat 63 will 60 cycle of the softener. When the meter disk 95
has moved, during service operation of the
drop with respect to the rod 298 until it strikes
against collar 3!! and with continued lowering
softener, a suf?cient distance to bring the ?nger
!9! into contact with the switch 333, the regen
of the level the float and the rod will be carried
eration cycle will be started, the switch 333 being
down to actuate the switch mechanism. Likewise
when the level of liquid in the tank rises, the ?oat 65 moved to close circuit between conductor 23'!
and contact 33‘! of switch 333, current ?owing
through conductor 338 to switch 33! which is
now closed, thence’ through conductor 335 to
rod 288 upwardly to actuate the switch mecha
motor 32'! and by way of conductor 336 to the
nism in the opposite direction. As shown in Fig.
23 the switches 59'! and I93 are positioned on 70 source of power. Thereupon the motor will
the inner face of the plate 288 in opposed rela
rotate shaft 324 through 180° or until switch
tionship and the shaft 29! carries an arm 3!3
33! is opened by action of cam 328. This oper
having a pin 3M therein. Upon longitudinal
ation also serves to close switch 332 and to
movement of the rod 298 it will be seen that the
index the pilots to the backwash position. While
shaft 29! is rotated so that as the rod 298 moves 75 water ?ows through the softener during. the
will move up on the rod 298 until it engages the
collar 339, and thereafter the ?oat will move the
21497, 539
l7
~
backwash step of the ‘regeneration cycle, the
meter disk 33 continues to rotate and when
the cam E35 releases the switch 333, this switch
returns to the position shown in Fig. 26 there
upon energizing the motor 321‘ by way of circuit
through conductor 231, switch 333 and contact
334, switch I 33 and contact 239, switch‘ I04 and
contact 242, switch 332, conductor 333 and con
ductor 336, whereupon the motor operates to
18
switch 333 and contact 334, switch I33 and con-.
tact 239, switch I04 and contact 242, switch
332 and conductors 335 and 333-thus reposition
ing the ratchet. Asv the meter disk 35 rotates
in response to flow- of water during thefast
rinse step, the cam 36 engages the switch I34
bringing the same into contact with contact
242a. The circuit is, however, open at switch
£31 so that the motor is not again energized
drive the shaft 324 through 180° and move the 10 until the reagent tank is re?lled as indicated
by the liquid level control which thereupon
ratchet from the position shown in Fig. 24 to
functions to close the switch I01. Closing of
a position to engage the next succeeding notch
this switch. reenergizes the motor, 321 by way
in the ratchet disk 153, which operation serves
of conductor 231, switch 333 and contact 334,
to open switch 332 and close switch 33%. When
su?icient water has flowed through the meter 15 switch I03 and contact 233, switch I04 and con
tact 2420:, switch I31, conductor 233a, switch 33I
to accomplish the backwash operation as deter
and conductors 335 and 333, the motor driving
mined by setting of the cam 33 this cam oper
the shaft 324 to bring the ratchet into the posi
ates to actuate the switch 333 again completing
tion of Fig. 24, the switches 332 and 33I into
circuit to the motor 321 by way of conductor
231, switch 333 and contact 331’, conductor 338,
switch 33! and conductors 333 and 333 causing
the motor to drive the shaft 324 through 180°
and move the ratchet to the position shown in
Fig. 24, again opening the switch 331 and closing
the switch 332. This moves the pilots tostart
the brine injection step and as water flows
through the meter to the softener, the meter
disk ‘95 is turned until the cam 33 releases switch
333, whereupon the ratchet is repositioned by a
further energization of the motor 321 through
circuit comprising conductor 231, switch 333 and
contact 334, switch I93 and contact 239, switch
I04 and contact 242, switch 332 andconductors
33:3, and 333, this operation opening switch 332
and closing switch 33!.
Continued rotation of 3
the meter disk 95 during the brine injection
step brings the cam ‘91 into engagement. with
switch I33, moving this switch to establish cir
cuit through contact 233a, and vwhen sufficient
reagent is Withdrawn from the brine tank as
indicated by the liquid level control, the switch
I33 is closed, rcenergizing the motor 321 by way
of conductor 231, switch 333 and ‘contact 334,
switch I33 and contact 2390:, switch I38, con
ductor 336a, switch 33I and conductors 335 ‘and
333, the motor turning through 180° to bring
the ratchet to the position of Fig. 24, open the
the position of Fig. 26, and to "bring the pilots
to a position to reenergize the valves and shift
the same to the service combination. As pre
viously pointed out, the flow of water through
the meterv during the start of the service run
causes rotation of ‘the disk 35, and when the
cam ‘96 releases switch I34, the ratchetand the
cams 323 and 3213 are repositioned. It will be
seen that this arrangement may be substituted
for the actuator I09 and the solenoid valve I II)
to drive the ratchet mechanism through its cycle,
the motor 321, being substituted for the solenoid
E21 in the circuit. of Fig. 2.
.
_
.
A still further modi?edform of the actuating
mechanism is shown in Fig, 25 in which the
ratchet lever I56 has a laterally disposed'arm 34I,
a spring 342 having one end attached to the free
‘ end of the arm'34I andthe other connected to the
frame’ structure 9| so as'to normally urge the
ratchet arm I56 in a counterclockwise direction.
Disposed on and projecting from the side of ‘the
ratchet arm I33 is a pin 343 adapted for engage
ment by the end of a bar 344 attached to the
armature 345 of a solenoid 346 supported on the
frame structure 3|. .An adjustable stop screw 341
is positioned on the frame structure to limit the
return movement of the solenoid armature. The
solenoid 34$.is adapted for substitution for the
solenoid I21‘in the circuit of Fig. 2 so that when
switch 33! and close the switch 332. This oper
the solenoid 34B is energized the armature moves
ation also moves the pilots to re—arrangeithe
valves to terminate the flow of reagent and 5 0 upward, bringing the bar 344 into contact with
the projection 343 thereby causing rotation of
water continues to flow to the softener rotating
the ratchet arm I36 to the position shown in
. the meter disk 35. When the cam 31 releases
Fig. 25. Upon deenergization of the solenoid the
the switch 533, the motor is again energized to
armature 343 drops down against the stop 341
rotate the shaft 334 andv reposition the ratchet,
this energization occurring through a circuit in 5 5 retracting the bar 344, and the ratchet arm I53
is"returned in a counterclockwise direction by
cluding conductor 231, switch 333 and ‘contact
action of the spring 342.
I
334-, switch I33 and contact 239, switch I04 and
In, many largerindustrial water treatment in
contact 242, switch 333 and conductors 335 and
stallations means are provided for storing rela
336, this operation also again opening switch
tively large quantities of salt, the brine in the
332 and‘ closing switch 33L Water continues
tank B being replenished after each regeneration.
to flow through the softener during the rinse
In
order to render such installations fully auto
step, rotating the meter disk 95, and when‘th'e
matic, it is necessary to effect control over'the
cam 98 acts on the switch 333 to close circuit
replenishing of the brine, and in Figs. 2'1 and 28
to contact 331, the motor 321 is again energized.
to index the pilots to reset the valves to the 6 I have shown the manner in which my control
mechanism may be extended to accomplish this
fast rinse position, the motor being energized
purpose where speci?cally different types of brine
through conductor 231, switch 333 and contact
331, conductor 333, switch 33!, and conductors
335 and 338. This brings the ratchet to the
replenishing mechanisms are employed.
In Fig. 27 I have shown a construction in which
position shown in Fig. 24 and the switches332 RT O the brine is pumped from a salt storage tank into
and 33i to the position shown in Fig. 26. 'As the‘v * ~ the brine tank B. In this construction the letter
C indicatesv {the salt storage tank into which a
meterdisk 35 continues to rotate, the cam 93
‘pipe or conduit 33! is disposed so that brine may
releases switch 333 causing the motor 321' toop
be drawn from adjacent the bottom of the tank.
era'te and the ratchet to be repositioned, the
motor being-energized through conductor 231,___ 75 The conduit 35I has disposed‘therein a flow reg
2,407,539
19
20
said cams, and means for operating said valves
controlled by said switches.
or regulating the rate of ?ow through the con
2. The combination in an automatic water
duit, and likewise has a check valve 353 for pre
treating apparatus having a water treating tank,
venting return flow in the conduit. The conduit
35! is connected to ‘a pump 354 driven by an elec 01 piping connected to both ends of said treating
tank, a water supply pipe, a service pipe, a waste
tric motor 355, the outlet of the pump having a
pipe connected to said piping, a plurality of power
conduit 356 disposed to discharge into the brine
operated valves located in said pipes and piping,
tank B. For the purpose of controlling the motor
ulating valve 352 for the purpose of restricting
355 so as to cause the pump to start and stop
of control means comprising a meter located in
said water supply pipe, a disk rotated by said
meter as water flows therethrough, a plurality of
flat and offset cams disposed around the periph
ery of said disk, an electric circuit, a plurality of
electrical switches arranged in said circuit and
to the fast wash valve 55.
It will be seen that this mechanism serves sub 15 positioned to be actuated by said cams, means
arranged for opening and closing said valves con
stantially the same function as the brine re?ll
trolled by said switches, and means for individu
valve 59, the conduit 58 and the ?ow regulating
ally adjusting the position of each of said cams
valve BI, and thus where the brine tank B is to
on said disk to vary the point of actuation of
be re?lled from a salt storage tank the latter‘ele
said
switches and the consequent operation of
20
ments may be replaced by the mechanism shown
said valves.
in Fig. 27.
3. The combination in an automatic water
In Fig. 28 I have shown a still further structure
treating apparatus having a water treating tank,
by Which the brine tank may be re?lled from a
piping connected to both ends of said treating
salt storage tank. the salt storage tank in this
instance being indicated by the letter D. Water 25 tank, a water supply pipe, a service pipe, and a
waste pipe connected to said piping, a plurality
is supplied to the salt stOrage tank from a water
of power operated valves located in said pipes and
supply pipe 36l which delivers into a chamber
piping, control means including a fluid meter lo
362 disposed on the side of the salt storage tank
cated in said water supply pipe, a meter clock
adjacent the top thereof. The ?ow of water into
driven by said meter as fluid flows therethrough
the tank is controlled by a conventional float
through
a set of primary change gears, a disk
valve indicated by the numeral 363_ the valve bee
driven by said meter clock through a set of sec
ing open when the ?oat 364 thereof reaches a
ondary change gears, a plurality of individual
preselected lower position and closed when the
adjustable cams on said disk, an electric circuit,
float returns to its elevated position in response
a plurality of electrical switches arranged in said
35
to change in level of the liquid in the salt stor
circuit and positioned to be actuated by said cams,
age tank. The salt storage tank is connected
and means for operating said valves controlled
to the brine tank B by means of a conduit 365
by
said switches.
in which is positioned a ?ow regulating valve 363
4. The combination in an automatic water
similar in structure and function to valve SI of
Figure 1. There is also disposed in the pipe 365 40 treating apparatus having ‘a water treating tank,
piping connected to both ends of said treating
a hydraulically operated valve 361 which is a
tank, a water supply pipe, a service pipe, and a
valve of the type well known in the art, the valve
waste pipe connected to said piping, a plurality
being hydraulically closed and spring opened.
of power operated valves located in said pipes and
The valve 351 is connected to the tube 222 lead
piping, control means including a water meter
ing to the pilot I12 so that the valve 361 is actu
located in said water supply pipe, a disk rotated
ated by the hydraulic pressure therein to be
by said meter as water flows therethrough, a plu
opened during the interval in which the fast
rality of individual ?at and offset cams on said
wash valve 55 is open. and when the fast wash
disk, an electric circuit, a plurality of electrical
valve is closed, the spring operates to close the
switches arranged in said circuit and positioned
valve 361. Thus the mechanism of Fig. 28 is
to be actuated by said cams, one of said cams ac
substituted for the brine valve 59. the pipe 58
tuating one of said switches three times, other
and the flow regulating valve 6| where it is de
of said cams operating the other of said switches
sired to re?ll the brine tank‘B from a salt storage
one time each, and means for operating said
tank. The ?ow regulating valves 352 of Fig. 2'7
valves controlled by said switches.
and 366 of Fig. 28 serve to adjust the rate of flow 55
5. The combination in an automatic Water
of brine to the tank 13 to cause the tank to reach
treating apparatus having a water treating tank,
its re?lled condition when the required amount
a water supply pipe, a service pipe, and a waste
at the required time, a pressure switch 351, of
conventional design, is employed, this pressure
switch being connected to the tube 222 of pilot
H2, this being the same tube which is connected
of washing has been accomplished through the '
' pipe connected to both ends of said treating tank,
a plurality of pressure operated valves located in
fast wash Valve 55. In other words, these valves
permit control over the timing of the fast wash 60 said pipes and piping, of control means compris
ing two pilot valves, said pilot valves having a
water supply under pressure from said water sup
ply pipe and a waste outlet, and having a rotat
treating apparatus having a water treating tank, 65 able shaft for driving the same to successive posi
tions to control said pressure operated valves
piping connected to both ends of said treating
from a service position, through regeneration po
tank, a water supply pipe, a service pipe, a waste
sitions, and back to the service position, means
pipe connected to» said piping, a plurality of power
for indexing said shaft, a water meter located in
operated valves located in said pipes and piping,
of control means comprising a meter located in 70 said water supply pipe, a disk carrying cams
driven by said meter as Water ?ows therethrough,
said water supply pipe, a disk rotated by said
an electric circuit, a plurality of electrical
meter as water flows therethrough, a plurality of
switches arranged in said circuit and disposed in
flat and offset cams on said disk, an electric cir
the paths of said cams for energizing said index
cuit, a plurality of electrical switches arranged
in said circuit and positioned to be actuated by 75 ing means vupon the closing of said switches to
step.
I claim:
1. The combination in an automatic water
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