Sept. 10, ~~ R. E. GEARHART ‘ 2,407,546 WRENCH Filed June 7, 1943 3 Sheets-Sheet l R, Sept. ‘10, 19.46. . R. E. GEARHART 2,407,546 I WRENCH Filed June 7., 1945 . I !!|llllIlIllI IIIIIIIIHII] _ ' ' s Sheets-Sheet 2 Illll Fill E 86 96 4 I ; _ ' ~ INVENTOR, J? 2705/2.’ Gear/75rd BY ‘pg/M4/7/0272; ‘ Patented Sept. 10, 1946 ' *' . 2,407,546 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE l‘ WRENCH ' Roy E. Gearhart, Kansas City, Mo., assignor of three-tenths to Richard B. McCreary and three-tenths to Byram L. McCreary, both of Kansas City, Mo. Application June 7, 1943, Serial No. 490,106 ‘ 2 Claims. ' (01. 81-89) . 1 2 t This invention relates to improvements in a having jaws adapted to be forced toward each Fig. 12 is an elevational View of a further modi?cation of the wrench. Fig. 13 is an edge view of the wrench shown in other during the operation. Fig. 12. . wrench and particular reference to a wrench Fig. 14 is a longitudinal sectional view taken Much difficulty has been experienced in ob taim‘ng a wrench that will remove a hard set nut and particularly a hexagon nut or screw without . " on line XIV-—XIV Of Fig. 13. Fig. 15 is an enlarged cross sectional view taken on line XV—XV of Fig. 12. marring the nut or without slipping the wrench Fig. 16 is a cross sectional view taken on line on the nut to the discomfort of its operator. ‘ Many nuts and screws are plated and need to 10 XVI-XVI of Fig. 12. Fig. 17 is a fragmentaryelevational view of be carefully handled to prevent damaging. the wrench showing a modi?ed form ofthe The principal object of the present invention angled jaws. Throughout the several Views like reference is to provide a‘wrench that will so engage a nut or screw as to prevent relative movement of nut and wrench jaws and at ‘the same time present 15 characters refer to similar parts and the numeral smooth jaw surfaces against the nut thus pre venting damage to the surface of the nut. Another object of the present invention is the provision of a wrench having ‘smooth angled jaws each of which will simultaneously contact adja 20 i2 designates a shank or handle having ?xed jaws I4 and I6 formed in a common head and provided with angled nut engaging faces I8 and 20 respectively. Slidably mounted on shank I 2' is yoke or block 22 having complementary jaws 2,4 and 26 having nut engaging surfaces 28 and 30 respectively to coact with surfaces I8 and 20 cent sides of the nut. A further object of the invention is a wrench to engage a nut therebetween. It will be noted adapted to be set to a size slightly larger than that the jaws I6 and 26 are constructed to serve the nut to be engaged and then to be moved to clampingly engage the nut as the wrench is 25 as a socket wrench while'jaws I4 and 24 are disposed at right angles thereto in the body of manually moved by its handle to loosen or set the head and the yoke. V said nut. Other objects are simplicity and economy of Yoke 22 is recessed at 3.2 to present side walls 34 between which is ?tted the inner end of a construction, ease and efficiency of operation, and adaptation for use on various sizes and shapes 30 lever 36. This lever is pivoted to the side walls of nuts and screws. ‘ " Reference will now be had to the drawings ‘ wherein: Figure l is an elevational view of a wrench embodying this invention. Fig. 2 is an edge view of the wrench. Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken on line III-I of Fig. 2. - ‘ 34 by means of pivot 38, which is preferably tightly anchored in said side walls by any suit able means. A fulcrum :bar 40 having a series of rack teeth 42 is secured for limited longitudinal 35 movement between walls 34 by means of pin 44 which is ?xed in the bar with its ends protruding at each side to rest in slide slots 46 which are disposed substantially parallel with the shank I2‘. It will be noted that ratchet teeth 42 are 40 spaced longitudinally of the bar from the pin 44 so as to permit the hinging of the bar on the Fig. 5 is a fragmentary edge view showing the Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional view taken on line IV-IV of Fig. 1. V _ socket jaws of the wrench. s “ Fig. 6 is a side elevation of a modi?ed form of the wrench. Fig. 7 is an edge view. of wrench shown in Fig. 6. pin to free teeth 42 from the rack bar teeth 48 formed on the inner face of shank I2 (see Fig ures 3 and 8). Links 50 at each side of lever 45 36 are pivoted thereto by pivot 42 while their‘ other ends are connected by pivot 54 to the outer I . end of bar 40 so that when bar 40 is in the posi tion shown in Fig. 1 the bar teeth 42 will en IVIII—VI1I of Fig. '7. gage the teeth in rack bar 48 to prevent relative Fig. 9 is a cross sectional view taken on line 50 longitudinal movement of the bar and shank. When so positioned the lever 36 may now be IX-IX of Fig. 6. Fig. 10 is a fragmentary elevational view of a moved toward shank I2, and due to the angled relation of pivots 38, 52 and 54 and the fact that modi?ed form of the clamping jaws. bar 40 is secured to shank I2, the yoke and asso h i‘ Fig. .11‘ is an edge view of the jaws shown in Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken on line ‘Fig- ‘10'. ‘ ‘ 55 ciated jaws will be moved toward the respective 2,407,646 3 4 ?xed jaws to tighten the jaws against a nut N erative relation a. U-shaped spring member 98 therebetween (see nut in dotted lines in Fig. 1). A spring 56 secured by means 58 to lever 36 passes between links 58 and rests against bar 48 so that the bar will be urged against the shank I2 to maintain the anchoring teeth in proper meshed relation during the operation of the secured by screw 99 to bar 48 is adapted to en gage in grooves I88 formed in the side wall of the shank (see Figs. 6 and 9). Figures 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 illustrate a modi ?ed form of the wrench, suitable for use as a one hand wrench, and. involving the principal features of the preferred form. wrench. By properly adjusting the pivots 38, 52, and 54 any desired leverage may be obtained to This wrench comprises a shank or handle I82 clamp the nut, furthermore the greater the 10 terminating in a head I84 having an angled jaw pressure exerted on lever 36 the greater the pres sure of the jaws against the nut. When the wrench is set for operating a given _ I86. Yoke I88 is slidably mounted on shank I82 and is recessed at II8 to receive the end portion of lever II2 for limited pivotal movement on piv size nut and the parts are positioned as shown ‘ ot II4. It willlbe noted that when the lever is in Fig. 5 it is desirable to maintain the setting of ‘15. in the normalposition as shown the outer end the wrench constant. This is accomplished by portionII? ‘of the lever rests against the yoke means of the detent 58 carried by lever 36 in wall H8 to limit the movement of the lever away recess 59 and urged by spring 68 "into a recess from ‘handle I82. Interposed between handle 62 formed in the inner surface of wall ‘34, see I82 and. lever II2 for longitudinal movement Fig. 4. This detent will normally hold the 20 against handle I82 is a bar I28 having a reduced proper setting of the wrench, however, by exert end I22 which ?ts into a recess I24 formed in ing an extra force on the lever the detent will yoke I88. The outer extremity of bar LI28 is move from recess 62 to recess 64 when the parts notched at I26 to receive the worm’IZB mounted will be in position to permit the movement of for rotation on pin I38, and disposed ‘in .mesh .yoke 22 on the shank for setting the jaws to ?t 25 with the rackteeth I32 formed on the inner- face any. size nut within certain limits depending on ‘of shank I82, so that as the worm is rotated the the length of rack 48. bar will be adjusted lengthwise of the shank. It will be noted that the nut engaging jaw To maintain the bar I 28 in proper relation to the surfaces are disposed at 120° to each other to shank the bar is provided with overhanging de engage the surfaces of a hexagon nut; however, v30 tents I34 which slidably engage grooves I36 this angle might be changed to ?t a square nut formed in opposite sides of the shank. or any other polygonal nut or any irregular nut. Many advantages are obtained by using angled Links I38 are connected by pivot I48 to: lever H2 and to bar I28 by pivot I42. ‘It will be .ob jaws, since more than two surfaces of the nut served that pivots I I4, I48, and I 42 are not in a will be contacted thereby eliminating to a large .35 straight line so that when the lever is moved to degree the possibility of slipping the wrench on ward the shank the jaw ‘I44 carried by yoke I88 the nut and at the same time preventing scuf?ng will be moved toward jaw I86 to grip thenut po of the nut surface. This wrench is especially sitioned therebetween. A spring member I462se adapted for use on plumbing ?xtures where it is cured at itsone end by screw I48 to the lever essential that the plated surfaces of the nuts be 40 rests against bar I 2.8 and tends to constantly purge maintained in good form. the lever to its extended position. The modi?ed form shown in. Figs; 10 and 11 p This wrench may be operatedv by one hand to provides for a shank ‘I8 having a head ‘I2, and adjust thejaws to ?t any given nut,‘ andtomove yoke ‘I4 slidably mounted thereon and adapted the nut to or from the set. position. to be operated in like manner to .the parts shown . .45 The modi?ed form ofjawjshown in Figurelli'l ' in Figs. 1 to 5. The novel feature of this form " is the provision of nut engaging jaws ‘I8 and ‘I8 having respectively two transversely intersecting provides for a planar jaw face‘ I48 formed on the head of shank I82 and a planar jaw face I58 on the yoke I88. These planar jaw faces arein par angled grooves ,88 and 82 thus combining the allel relation and are disposed at an angle .to a jaws of, Fig. 1 inv one set. At 83 the nut engag .50 planar perpendicular to the longitudinal ‘axis of ing walls ofthe jaws are slightly recessed to-per- > the shank I82. I g .mit adjustment of the wrench on the nut; This wrench is suitable for moving transverse The modi?ed form shown in Figures 6, 7, and lyto position on the nut N without opening the 8 comprises a shank 84 having an o?set head jaws any more than is accomplished by moving 92 provided with an angled jaw 94. By refer .55 the lever H2 to its extended position. ’ ring to Fig. '7 it will be noted that the shank is, - From the foregoing it will be understood that relatively thin and that the jaw 94 extends out various alterations in the details of construction wardly at each side thereof. Shank 84 is rela and arrangement of parts may be ‘made ‘within tively short and has a rack bar 48 on its inner the scope of the invention herein disclosed and wall. A block or yoke 9.8 is slidably mountedon 60 claimed. ' " shank 84 and has a transversely vdisposed boss What I claim is: . 86 on which is mounted anyangled jaw88 com l. A wrench comprising a ‘shank having a ?xed plementing jaw 94. v jaw; a yoke slidably mounted on said s‘hanki'hav Mounted in recess 96 between ‘walls 34 is :a ing a jaw complementing said ?xed jaw and ‘hav lever or handle 36 pivoted by means of pivot 65 ing side walls provided with slots disposed‘par 38 to said walls. A bar 48 is secured-for limited allel with said shank; a rack bar formed in'the longitudinal movement between walls 34 .by means face of said shank; a fulcrum bar mounted for ‘of pin 44 which extend into 'slots'46 formed in hinging and sliding movementin the slots of said each of the side walls. This bar is ‘provided with yolk; a relatively short series of teeth formed-on ratchet teeth 42 which are adapted to mesh in 70 one face of said fulcrum bar and spacedapart rack bar 48 of the shank and is interconnected from the fulcrum point of said ‘bar and .adapted to lever 36 by means of links 15.8. The spring 58 to mesh with the teeth .of said ‘rack ‘bar; .a ‘lever secured to handle 36 tends ‘to urge ‘bar 48 ‘away pivoted to said'yoke; a ‘link vpivotally intercon from the lever and against the shank‘ 84.; To necting said lever with thefree end of said ful normally maintain the bar and‘shank in ?xed op~ 7 5 crum bar whereby as said lever is moved toward 2,407,646 5 6 said shank the fulcrum bar is urged toward said shank and said yoke is urged toward said ?xed the slotted side walls of said yoke; and having teeth adapted to mesh with said rack bar teeth; a lever pivoted to said yoke; links pivotally in terconnecting said lever with said fulcrum bar Jaw. \ I 2. A wrench comprising a shank having a ?xed jaw; a yoke having slotted side walls slidably mounted on said shank and having a jaw com plementing said ?xed jaw; a rack bar formed in the face of said shank; a fulcrum bar mounted at its one end for pivotal and sliding movement in whereby as said lever is moved toward said shank the said fulcrum bar will be urged toward said shank; and a spring interposed between said lever and fulcrum bar to normally urge them apart. ROY E. GEARHART.