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Патент USA US2407549

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Sept. 10, 1946.
J_ GOLDMAN
2,407,548
FIBROUS STRUCTURAL MATERIAL AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING SAME
Filed Aug. 1, 1940
3 Sheets-Sheet l
52 ~
g5
CARDING
lNVENTOR
W
ATTORNEYS
Sept. 10, 1946.
J_ GOLDMAN
2,407,548
FIBROUS STRUCTURAL MATERIAL AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING SAME
Filed Aug. 1, 1940
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
51
INVENTOR
14
ATTORNEY§
Sept. 10, 1946.v
J. GOLDMAN
2,407,548
FIBROUS STRUCTURAL MATERIAL AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING SAME
Filed Aug. 1, 1940
as
3 Sheets-Sheet 5
86’
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INVENTOR
ATTO R N EYS
2,407,548
Patented Sept. I 10, 1946
UNITED ‘STATES "PATENT OFFICE" '
. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING
SAME
Joseph Goldman, New Brunswick, N. 3., assignor _
to Fibre Products Laboratories, Inc., a corpo
ration of New Jersey
Application August 1, 1940, Serial No. 349,311 '
27 claims.‘ (ohm-71)
.
1
~
not is the disposition and‘ straightness 'of the
?bers in the elemental web whereby high strength
This invention relates to ?brous structural
material and method of and apparatus for mak
ing same. It relates especially to structural ma
terial fabricated by bonding together unspun
?bers into integral coherent sheet material.
i to weight of ?ber and web thickness is secured.
‘ The web material also has high resistance to
stretch in the direction of longitudinal disposi
tion of the ?bers in the'elemental web material
and composite ?brous sheet material can be
made having special directional strength char
acteristics suitable for different purposes.
It is a purpose of this invention to provide
structural material made from unspun ?bers that
has very high strength for its weight and thick
ness. Thus, according to preferred embodiments
It is a feature of this invention that the ?bers
of this invention a structural web or sheet can 10
in the unspun ?brous web material are disposed
be made from cotton ?bers, for example, that has
so as to take full advantage of the strength of
greater tensile strength for a given gauge. than
the ?bers. According to this invention a mul
non-ferrous metals, such as aluminum and magtiplicity of the unspun ?bers are straightened out
nesium metals, and has much greater strength,
e.‘ g. twice as much strength for a given weight 15 so as to be disposed substantially at their maxi
mum length. when tensioned lengthwise and are
as such non-ferrous metals.
likewise bonded together for the most part in
Features of this invention relate to the method,
to the apparatus and‘ to the product. From the
point of view of the method it is oné‘of the fea
tures of this invention that unspun ?bers which 20
have been brought into such disposition in web '
is very uniform in its ?ber density and thickness
even in sheets of relatively large lateral dimen
material that they are predominantly in one
direction are bonded together while the ?bers of
strumental in achieving the uniformity of the
striated web material, for while the ?bers may be
originally in theform of slivers or the like, ?bers
the web material are under tension, thereby set
ting the ?bers notv only as disposed predom
one direction or nearly so in a sheet or web that
sions.
The method and the apparatus are in
25 are caused to be distributed very uniformly as
inantly in one direction but also in a condition
by repeated lapping and drafting operations until
of tensioned straightness. Other features of this
invention» relate to the steps utilized in connec
the ?bers occur in a dense striated web of sub
stantially uniform ?ber density and thickness
throughout. The ?bers are cobonded in this
tion with the bonding step including the steps
whereby the ?bers are straightened and oriented 30 dense and uniform ?brous web or sheet so that
the bonding effect is very uniform throughout
the lateral extent and thickness of the web ma
terial. ; Furthermore, any wrinkling tendency in
together the ?brous striated web material will
cident to drafting is compensated for by a spread
have been conditioned in a manner especially
suited for the bonding step. Other features of 35 ing step to insure uniformity of the striated web
I material when the bonding ‘material is applied
this invention relate to the manufacture of un
to the web. In this manner a structural mate
spun ?brous web material during the condition
rial that not only has high strength, but also has
ing steps and bonding step and in directing the
very uniform strength characteristics through
web material from the conditioning step to the
bonding step.
'
40 out, is afforded that renders the material suit
able for numerous structural applications where
Certain apparatus features of this invention
in a strong and light structural material is de
relate to the means employed for drawing and
sired that can be made uniformly throughout to
bonding under tension in web form unspun ?bers
predominantly in one direction by tensioning
and drawing so that when the ?bers are bonded
and for handling the web material between the ‘ 7 close speci?cations.
In order to afford a better understanding of
45
drawing and bonding steps.
‘The product of this invention is a unique web
the practice of this invention, it will be described
for purposes of exempli?cation in connection
with the fabrication of unspun cotton ?bers into
material. The product. of this invention in its
thin coherent web material of high strength and
elemental form is a thin coherent striated web 50 density, reference being made to the accompany
ing drawings, wherein
of cobonded unspun ?bers which is useful per
‘Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic representation of- a
se and is also useful as 9, ply sheet in the forma
plant layout of machinery for making the unspun
tion of composite sheet material e. g. comprise
web material according to this invention,
ing a plurality of thicknesses or layers of the
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic side elevational repre
. elemental web material. a feature of the prod 55
or sheet material that is of great value for a
number of commercialpurposes as a structural
2,407, 648
a
4
3
sentation of apparatus for carrying out a draft
ing and bonding operation,
‘ ..
running yard of the cotton ?ber.
\
Fig. 3 is a plan view of the drafting and spread
'
ing apparatus,
'
Fig. 4 is a side elevationalview partly in sec
tion of the apparatus of Fig.3 and of means for
applying the bonding material,
by the reference character 26. In this machine
about 20 of the slivers 24 for example may be
taken from cans 25 and passed while, arranged
side by side between a series of drafting rolls 21.
_
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of one of the
spreader bars used in connection with the appa
ratus shown in Fig. 4,
-
The- ?ber is
next subjected to. a drawing operation in some
suitable device which may for example be a sliv
er lapping machine which is indicated generally
_ A series of three pairs of rolls may be used with
10 the nips of‘ adjacent pairs of rolls spaced from
_
Fig. 6 is a top view of an elemental web of vun-_
spun ?brous material made according to this in
vention,
Fig. 7 is a top view of a portion of the web ma- ‘
each other by a distance that is'slightly greater
than the length of the ?bers. Each pair of. rolls
is operated at a speed that is, different from the
immediately preceding pair ofrolls so that the
terial of Fig. 6 on a very greatly enlarged scale, 15 ?bers in the slivers 24 are drawnsuf?ciently to
Fig. 8 is a transverse cross-sectional view of a
straighten'them somewhat and arrange them so
portion of the web on a very greatly enlarged
that at least partially the ?bers become disposed
scale on the line 8-8 of Fig. 6,
Fig. 9 is a longitudinal sectional view of the
longitudinally of the ?brous material passing
through the drafting rolls. For example the last
web material on a very greatly enlarged scale on
the line 9—9 of Fig. 6,»
Fig. 10 is a plan view on a reduced scale of a
drafting roll may rotate so that the peripheral
20 speed
is twice the peripheral'speed of the ?rst
pair of drafting rolls in the series and so that the
?brous mass will be drawn approximately 2 to 1.
vention,
If 20 slivers each containingabout ,50 grains per
'Fig. 11 is a side elevational view of a modi?ed 25 running yard are run into the sliver lapping ma
form of apparatus for spreading under tension a
chine the ?brous web material that is discharged
drawn web,
‘ '
from the drafting rolls will contain about 500
Fig. 12 is a cross section of the spreading ap
grains per running yard. The web 28 which is
paratus on the line l2-I2 of Fig. 11,‘
discharged from the drafting rolls is approxi
Fig. 13 is a cross section of the spreading ap 30 mately 10 inches in width and ‘may be passed be
paratus on the line |3—I3 of Fig. 11, .
tween calender rolls 98 and rolled up into aroll
Fig. 14 is a cross section of the spreading ap
29. The roll 29 can be removed from the lapping
paratus on the line Ill-I4 of Fig. 11,
machine and taken to the ribbon lapping ma
Fig. 15 is a modi?ed form of drafting means
chine which is indicated generally by the refer
that may be used in the practice of this inven 35 ence character 30 and which subjects the ?bers
tion, and
’
to a further drafting operation.
Fig. 16 is a further modi?ed form of drafting
In the ribbon lapping machine the web mate
means that may be used according to this inven
rial 28 from each of four of the rolls 20 that are
tion shown in association with part of a spread
carried by the ribbon lapping machine is passed
ing means.
40 between drafting rolls 3|. These drafting rolls
Forthe purpose of affording a speci?c exam
may be similar to the drafting rolls 2'! except that
ple of the practice ‘of this invention in the man
in this case the speed of the rolls is adjusted so
ufacture of a highly desirable product, cotton ?
that the drafting will be about 4 to 1. Thus if
ber may for example be used which ?ber con
each of the webs 28 contains about 500 grains of
tains about 70% of ?ber that is about an inch or 45 cotton per running yard that enters the draft
more in length although other grades of cotton
ing rolls 3| the web discharged from each of the
may be used. Before the bonding step the un
sets of drafting rolls will weigh about 125 grains
composite sheet material that’ embodies this in
spun ?bers are acted upon so as to distribute ,
them uniformly in a sheet or web so as to be ar
per running yard. In the ribbon lapper four pairs
of rolls in each set of drafting rolls may for ex
ranged predominantly‘ in one direction and
50 ample be used. The webs discharged from the
straightened. This treatment can be accom
drafting rolls 3| are passed through bookfolds 32
plished using different types of apparatus, the
which cause the four Webs to become superposed
type of apparatus varying depending‘ largely up
on the type of ?ber being handled. For cotton
?bers that for the most part are about one inch
in length the treatment is preferably accom
plished by repeated drafting and lapping opera
tions whereby the ?bers are drawn predominant
ly in one direction and are straightened and at
the same time are averaged so as to result in a
web material having a high degree of uniformity.
A convenient arrangement of apparatus for
and the superposed webs are passed between cal- .
ender rolls 99 to form a composite web 33 which,
according to the present example, would con
tain about 500 grains of cotton per running yard
and would be 10 inches in width. The web 33 is
then made up into the roll 34.
By the foregoing operations the ?brous sliver .
60 material from the carding machine has been
drawn to an extent of about 8 to 1 and the web
33 discharged from the ribbon lapping machine
producing a web comprising unspun cotton ?bers
corresponds to an average of 80 slivers. The web
of the character mentioned is shown in Figs. 1
material taken from the ribbon lapping machine
is therefore very uniform in ?ber structure and
has also been treated so that the fibers have been
arranged for the most part in one direction and
then straightened considerably so that the ?bers
instead of being in the form of bends and crimps
70 are fairly well straightened. Inasmuch, how
to 5. The ?ber stock e. g. ?ber that has been
cleaned and made into a picker lap may ?rst be
passed through a conventional carding machine
which is indicated generally by the reference
character 20 in Fig. 1 and which may comprise
such conventional parts as a “licker-in” 2|, a
cylinder 22 and a doffer 23. The sheet material
from the carding machine is condensed into a
sliver 24 that is received by any suitable means
such as a can 25. The sliver thus produced may
ever, as there is no binder applied to the web the
?bers tend in a considerable degree to assume
’ their natural curved and crimped state.
f
The foregoing operations are largely ofa pre
for example contain approximately 50 grains per 75 paratory nature adapted to condition. the unspun I
2,407,548
5
?brous material for the subsequent operations.
48 that passes over sprocket wheels 49, 50, 5|, 52
In order to complete the manufacture of the
structural material the web material 33 from roll
34 is fed into another drafting frame which is
indicated generally by the reference character
35. This draftingframe may be of the general
and 53 which are‘ carried for rotation with rolls
than the speed at which the ?brous web material
- is discharged from the set ‘of drafting rolls 36.
type referred to above and may comprise ?ve pairs
The peripheral speeds of rolls 42, 43, 44, 45 and
42, 43, 44, 45 and 45 respectively. The peripheral
speed of roll 42 is caused to be slightly greater
46 are successively somewhat increased so that
of drafting rolls 36, the nips of which are spaced
the web material 33 is continuously subjected to
apart by a distance slightly greater than the max
imum ?ber lengthof'the fibers being handled. 10 tension.‘ This may be done either by making the
sprocket wheels 49, 50, 5|, 52 and 53 successively
The drafting rolls 36 are operated at successively
somewhat smaller or by utilizing rolls which suc
increased speeds as the web material passes be
cessively have increased diameters. Placed be
tween them so as to further draw out the ?bers
tween the rolls 42, 43, 44, 45 and 46 are spreader
in such a way as to straighten them and arrange
them in one direction. The drafting may be 15 bars 54, 55, 56 and 51 which are secured to ro-.
tatably mounted bars 58, 59, 60 and 6! so that
carried on so that in the drafting frame 35 the
by rotating the bars the bowed portion 62 of
web material 33 is drafted about 4 to 1. If the
the bars can have its position in the path of the
web going into the drafting frame weighs about
web material between rolls 42, 43, 44, 45 and 46
500 grains per running yard the web that is dis
charged from the drafting frame 35 will contain 20 adjusted as desired so as to avoid all contact with
the web material or so as to exercise maximum
about 125 grains of ?ber per running yard of the
spreading action on the web material. By any
. web material which is about 10 inches wide as
suitable means not shown the spreader bars 54,
it is discharged from the drafting frame.
55, 56 and 51 may be locked in the desired posi
The drafting rolls 36 (and the drafting rolls
21 and 3|) may be provided with suitable means 25 tion. In Fig. 5 one of the spreader bars, i. e. bar
for adjusting them both laterally and vertically
56, is shown. This bar has approximately a semi
circular bowed portion "62. The bars 54 and 55
so as to secure desired action. Moreover, the rolls
are curved somewhat more sharply adjacent the
may be ?uted or covered with special materials
sides than toward the center, this being the case
such as leather, impregnated fabric, cork or the
like to augment the drawing action.
30 particularly with bar 54. It has been found de
As the striated web material is discharged from
sirable to commence the spreading action at the
the drafting frame 35 it is not permitted to relax
sides and gradually extend the spreading action
but while maintaining at least some degree of
to the center of the web 33 in passing successive
tension thereon is passed between the applicator
ly over the spreader bars. For convenience in
rolls 31. These rolls may apply material adapted
making adjustments the spreader bars can be
to bond the ?bers of the sheet together which
made of material which has sufficient ?exibility
material may be a temporary bonding material
to permit them to be curved to the shape: that
or a permanent bonding material. The bonding
affords the desired results.
material may be carried in troughs 38 which
The spreading action takes place by moving
supply the bonding material by feed rolls 39 40 the web material under tension over the ‘bowed
(driven by any suitable means not shown) that
portion 62 of the spreader bars thereby tending
uniformly deposit the bonding material on the
to spread the web laterally. The primary ten
rolls 31. The rolls 31 may for example be cov
sion is exerted by the roll 46 which has associ
ered with some material such as a fabricwhich
ated therewith a press roll 63 that imposes its
carries the desired amount of the binder material
weight upon the sheet 33 passing between it and
and applies it‘to the web material 33 as it passes
the roll 46 so that the drag on the sheet 33 will
between rolls 31. If desired and depending some
be more positive. The spreading apparatus dis
what on the type of binder material applied, doc
poses the web material so that it is presented
tor blades llil may be associated with the rolls
more evenly to the applicator rolls 31 and tends
31 to control the amount of binder material car
to remove any longitudinally extending ripples
ried to the bite between the rolls.
.
that may be in the web material as discharged
Between the drafting frame 35 and the appli
cator rolls 31 are means for spreading somewhat
the sheet material that is discharged from the
drafting frame 35. ,The sheet material as dis
charged from the drafting frame 35 may for ex- '
ample be 10 inches in width. I have found that
it is desirable to spread the sheet 33 that is dis
charged from the drafting frame 35 before'a
bonding material is applied to the fabric. For
example the sheet 33 may be spread laterally from
a width of about 10 inches as it is discharged
from the drafting frame to a width of about 14
to 18 inches as it passes between the applicator
from the drafting rolls 36. Preferably the spread
ing is merely sufficient to remove the ripples and
cause the Web to lie ?at without substantially
pulling the ?bers laterally away from each other.
The drafting and spreading‘operation can be car~
ried out at any suitable speed. In ordinary prac
tice the web material is preferably passed from
the drafting rolls to the applicator rolls at a
speed of about '70 to 120 feet per minute. The
web material may be moved out of the other
drafting operations at approximately a similar
speed. It is also possible to secure substantial
spreading action without employing the spreader
rolls 31. To accomplish this spreading action any
suitable device may be used.
One device for laterally spreading the web ma
terial ‘that is discharged from the drafting rolls
3B which I have found to be effective and the
action of which is readily controllable is shown
in Figs. 3, 4 and 5. By any suitable supporting
bars inasmuch as the web material tends to
spread laterally when passed over a plurality of
rollers. The spreader bars serve to accelerate
means such as support members 40 and 4| rolls
material will be described. The web material is
caused to pass from the roll 46 between the ap
42, 43, 44, 45 and 46 are carried in suitable bear
this spreading action, however.
Continuing the foregoing example of this in
vention the bonding together of the unspun ?bers
in the web material by means of a casein binder
plicator rolls 31 the peripheral speed of which
sprocket wheel 41 by means of a sprocket chain 75 is somewhat greater than the peripheral speed
ings. The rolls are driven from a power driven
2,407,548
8
of roll 46 so that the. tension on the web ma
terial 33 will be maintained.
The rolls 31 can I
be conveniently driven as by causing the chain 43
driven by sprocket wheel 41 to pass over sprocket
wheel I04 that rotates with one of the rolls 31.
Whileycasein solution might be applied by rolls 31 I have found that it is preferable in obtaining
15. In this way the web material is prevented
from wrinkling during its travel through the
apparatus and any tendency of the ?bers to relax,
before the bonding material has set, to a non;
straightened condition is minimized with the re
sult that the ?bers in the web, after the bonding
material has set, will still be ‘substantially as
a uniform application of casein» as a binder to
straight as'when they were introduced into the
?rst apply a temporary binder, which may be '
bonding step. The conveyors 63 and 13 may be
merely water. Accordingly water 64 is placed'in 10 of any desired length so that the time interval
troughs 38 and is carried over the surface of rolls
during which the web material rests thereon may
39 and 31 to the web 33, preferably enough water
be controlled as desired. Alternatively the con
being carried to form small beads 65 at the bitev
veyors may be drawn by any suitable means not
of the rolls 31. If desired‘doctor blades l0! may
shown so as to travel more slowly than the speed
be associated with the rolls 31 or other equiv
at which the web material is deposited thereon so
alent means may be used to control the amount
as to plait the web material thereon and there
of binder, temporary or otherwise, applied to the '
by increase the period of time during which the
web material. The water temporarily bonds the
web is carried thereby.
~
‘
,
?bers together by surface tension effect and this
The permanent binder that is applied may be
bonding effect. coupled with the relaxing effect 20 a 20% solution of soluble casein, for example.
of the water on the ?bers tends to set the ?bers
Due to the preliminary moistening of the web by
»in the condition of tensioned straightness that
applicator rolls 31, the casein solution applied
they are in upon reaching the applicator rolls.
by applicator rolls 66 impregnates the web mate
In this operation therefore the ?bers of the
rial very uniformly and evenly so that the web
?brous web are. bonded while the ?bers of the 25 will retain about 25%, for example, of thecasein
web are in the condition that they occupy when
(dry weight) on the dry weight of the ?ber.
the web is under tension. As above mentioned
It remains to dry the bonded web material and
the ?bers have been oriented so that for the
if desired subject it to some further treatment.
most part they are in one direction, particularly
To this end the web material may fall from the
the longer ?bers and are loosely associated so 30 applicator rolls 66 to a carrier 13 and thence to
that they can be drawn out and straightened
without rupturing the ?bers or the web. These
?bers are drawn out to maximum tensioned
a, treating chamber or 'zone 14. From the treat
ing chamber the fabric can pass to a drying
straightness and while still-thus drawn out are
plurality of heated drying rolls 16 until the mois
35 ture in the web has been reduced to about 10%.
The treating chamber 14 may be omitted if de
bonded together. .
The application of the temporary binder is vfol
lowed by the application of a permanent binder
while the bonding eifectof the temporary binder
persists. The permanent binder may be applied
by another pair of applicator rolls 66 which have
a peripheral speed substantially that of rolls 31
and to which the binder material in troughs 68
may be supplied by feed rolls 61. The supply of
bonding material can, if desired, be controlled by
doctor blades I02 or by ‘other equivalent means.
For convenience in handling the web material
after leaving the applicator rolls 31 the material
may drop to traveling conveyor 69, over rolls 10,
1| and 12 and thence to the applicator rolls‘66.
While the tension on the web 33 may be momen
tarily relaxed during this handling of the web
material the temporary binder (e. g. water)
maintains the ?bers in the web in substantially
the same condition that they were in when~ they
passed between the applicator rolls 31. Prefer
ably, the rolls 10, 1| and 12 are power driven so
as to lift~ the web material against its own weight
chamber or zone 15 in which it‘ may pass over a
sired. The treating chamber is shown, however,
in order to illustrate that the bonded web may
be treated in any way that may be desired. For
example, the casein bonded ?brous web above de—
scribed may be subjected to some gaseous or liq
uid environment which may be introduced into
the chamber from jets 11. For example formalde
hyde gas or tannic acid solution may be applied
to the bonded web to insolubilize the casein.
After the bonded web material has been dried
it can be made up into a roll 18 and is available
for any purpose. In addition to drying the web
on drying rolls it may ‘be dried in festoons or on
a carrier that is passed through a drying cham- '
her or in any other suitable way.
Web material that has been made as above
described is shown in Figs. 6, 7, 8 and 9. In Fig.
6 a fragment of the material is shown and illus
trates the predominant straightness and unidi
directional characteristics of the ?bers. If the
?brous material is examined under magni?ca
and again subject it to tension, and these rolls
tion it appears somewhat as shown in Fig. 7,
preferably are driven at successively increased
namely the ?bers have one predominant direc
speeds and at a rate such that the peripheral 60 tion. This is especially true with regard to the
speed is slightly greater than the peripheral speed
longer ?bers 19 inasmuch as some of the shorter
of rolls 31 so as to augment the tensioning effect
?bers 80 [which usually occur in cotton ?bers as
commonly sold may be disposed with someir
in the direction of the ?bers. Moreover, the rolls
66 are driven at a rate such that the peripheral
regularity as indicated. This is due to the fact
speed is slightly greater than the peripheral speed 65 that it is the longer ?bers that are acted upon
of roll 12 so that the‘ web is carried into these
most vigorously in the drafting operations and
rolls under slight tension. The peripheral speed
which are drawn to tensioned straightness when
of rolls 66 may conveniently be about .5% greater
the web is maintained under tension in the di
than the peripheral speed of rolls 31 for example.
rection of the ?bers. The small amount of mis
Similarly the rolls contacting the web material 70 cellaneously disposed short ?bers doesnot, how
subsequent to rolls 66 are preferably driven at
ever, impair the great strength of the web ma
successively slightly increased peripheral speeds
terial in the predominant ?ber direction and acts
(e. g. a small fraction of one percent increase)
as a ?ller that ‘to a slight degree augments the
until the binder is set in a setting step, e. g. in
strength of the web material in a lateral direc
chamber 14, or .during drying, e. g. in chamber 75 tion. Figs. 8 and 9 indicate the disposition of
2,401,549
the shorter ?bers being largely eliminated by
the fibers in a dense coherent mass with the long
?bers ‘l9 essentially unidirectional.
the combing step so that the drafting operation it
The indi
may result in a material consisting essentially
‘ cation of the ?bers in Figs. 6, 7, 8 and 9 is largely
of long cotton ?bers, e. g. % inch or more, sub
stantially all of which are straightened and are
diagrammatic, no attempt being made to show
relative proportions or ?ber count. Moreover,
arranged in one direction prior to the bonding
the showing of the web material in Figs. 1, 3- and
step. A material thus produced will be found to
have maximum strength per unit weight of ?bers
in the direction of the ?bers and will be very
5 is diagrammatic to showthe striated charac
ter of the web material, the ~?bers actually being
in intimate but loose association in a substantiaily
' continuous-web more than 1 ?ber diameter in 10 dense and will require a minimum of bonding
thickness. No attempt is made to indicate in
Figs. 8 to 10 the presence of the binder inas
material.
-
~
'
A web material made as above described is
suitable for many commercial purposes‘. -In such
‘ ‘ much as the binder in the fabric will be present
a material at least. about 70% of the ?bers have
in different ways depending primarily upon the
amount of the binder. If the binder constitutes 15 substantially tensioned straightness, namelm'the I
straightness that the ?bers assume when
about 25% or less of the material by dry weight,
stretched taut, and are arranged approximately
the binder is distributed for the most part on r
in one direction, e. g. within about 15° of the
the surface of the ?bers and acts to bond the sur
mean direction of those ?bers that are for the
face of the individual ?bers to the surface of
adjoining ?bers. Inasmuch as the ?bers are 20 most part in one direction. In this type of fabric
web about 80% of the ?bers over 3A. of an inch,
straightened and- are essentially unidirec
in length are among ‘those ?bers which are ar
tional the binder in the amount used is most
ranged approximately in one direction and are
effective in‘bonding the ?bers together. The
?bers instead of being bonded together at only
a few points of contact as is the case with 25
miscellaneously disposed ?bers, are brought into
vintimate contact and each , straightened ?ber
becomes bonded over most of the surface there
substantially of tensioned straightness.
As aforesaid the extent to which the cotton
?bers are drawn depends largely upon the type
of fabric that is to be produced. Thus for webs
that when made ‘up are to be quite‘light and
are to ex bit great uniformity of texture and
very high strength in the direction of the ?bers
the elemental web material may be subjected
binder are employed the fabric becomes more
to the conditioning operation until about 90%
_ completely dominated by the binder component
of the ?bers are disposed substantially in one
while still retaining the inherent advantages of
direction and exhibit tensioned straightness as
I the ?ber base for the material.
Due to the conditioning steps wherein a large 35 they are led to the bonding step.
On the other hand the drawing may be dis
number of slivers are lapped and drawn the web
continued when only a major proportion of the
material is very uniform in thickness and ?ber
?bers are disposed in one direction and exhibit
density and binder distribution affording uniform
of with adjoining substantially parallel ?bers
. that are likewise straight.
If larger amounts of
high strength throughout.
tensioned straightness.
This can be accom
In the example above given the cotton ?ber 40 plished for example by taking the material dis
charged from the sliver lapping step which has
contained over about 70% of ?ber that is one
been above described and in which the ?bers
inch or more in length. Of course, other grades
are drawn about 2 to 1 to afford a web weighing
of cotton ?ber may be used. In order to achieve
about 500 grains per‘ running yard, and then
the advantages of the invention in marked degree,
however, over about 50% of the cotton ?ber stock 45 passing the material through the drawing frame
35 on which the ?brous sheet is drawn 4 to 1
should be 1% of an inch in length, and preferably
and thence tov the‘applicator rolls 3‘! so that
over 60% to 70% of the cotton ?ber should be
the ?brous material will be drawn a total of
over % inch in length. Fiber material which
8 to 1. Such a fabric web is not as uniform as
contains about 50% or more of fibers at least
about % inch in length is regarded as “long” 50 a fabric web which has been subjected to addi
tional lapping and drawing steps before the
?ber. The percentages of ?ber given above and
elsewhere herein and in the claims are percent
ages by weight.
The characteristics above mentioned of the
structural web are those which result from man
ufacturing steps above described wherein ordi
nary cotton ?brous stock is used and wherein
?brous material is bonded together. In any such
web material it is preferable that the major
proportion of the ?bers that are arranged ap
55 proximately in‘ one direction and are straight
ened, include at least about 70 % of the ?bers that
are over about % of an inch or more in length.
1 in preparing it for the bonding step. In such
'A ?brous web which has only approximately
50% of the ?bers disposed in one direction and
case, as above mentioned, some of the shorter
straightened by tension nevertheless exhibits
?bers remain somewhat indiscriminately dis
posed. It is possible, however, by subjecting the
?brous web material to repeated drafting and
‘lapping operations prior to the bonding step to
cause substantially all of the ?bers to‘ become 65
great strength. Such a web is especially useful
in making relatively heavy sheet materials con
taining a plurality of the elemental‘webs, e. g.
about 8 to 20, thereby minimizing any lack of
uniformity in the elemental webs. Even with
such heavy composite fabrics, however, it is pref
the stock is subjected to a drawing of about 32 to
straightened and arranged in one direction. For
certain uses of the ?nished material this may be
desirable but for most purposes it is not neces
sary to obtain such a high degree of ?ber
erable to draft the ?brous material prior to bond
ing until about 70% of the ?bers is straightened
by tension and are approximately in one direc
straightnessand arrangement in one direction. 70 tion. A fabric which contains about 800'grains
The occurrence of miscellaneously distributed
?bers may likewise be eliminated by subjecting
the cotton to a combing operation using any
of cotton ?ber per square yard and which con
tains about 200 grains per square yard of casein
binder, for example, has a tensile strength of
about 50 pounds per inch in each direction when
suitable type of combing machine designed for
handling cotton ?bers of .which many are known, 75 the individual webs are disposed with the pre
2,407,648
-
'
l1
12
.
ponderant ?ber direction of half the webs at
a right angle to the preponderant ?ber direction
per square inch and preferably at least about
20,000 pounds per square inch.
In the practice of this invention I have found
that it is distinctly preferable, especially in con
nection wth cotton ?bers to bond the ?brous
material which has been arranged in one direc
of the other half of the webs and when in each
web about 50% of the ?bers are bonded while
straightened in one direction by tension. This
compares with a .tensile strength of ‘about 25
pounds per inch in each direction for av fabric
containing the same weights of ?ber and of casein
tion and has been straightened by tension, while . the ?bers are disposed‘in thin elemental striated
binder which is made by weaving cotton threads
webs ranging from about 75 to about 250 grains
so that about equal weights of ?ber are in the
per square yard in weight.
warp and the weft. If in the material embodying
this invention 70% of the ?bers in each web
are disposed substantially in one direction and are
straightened, then even greater strength, e. g.
75 pounds per inch in each direction, can be at 15
action ‘on the‘ ?bers in tensioning and bonding
tained.
A
'
In such case the
the same is superior and the ?bers become more
uniformly‘bonded together. In connection with
cotton ?bers it is desirable not to 'carry on the
bonding step when the material being treated
weighs more than about 400 grains per square
yard inasmuch as while heavier webs maybe
brought to the bonding step somewhat inferior
.
Somewhat more generally web material com
posed of unspun ?bers vcobonded in the manner
referred to can readily be made according to this
results are obtained.
'
‘
invention so as to, have a_tensile strength of at 20
Somewhat more generally the striated web
least about 10 pounds per inch width for each 100
material should be of su?icient thickness so that '
grains per square yard of ?ber and preferably , the ?bers at least in major proportion will be ob
‘ a tensile'strength of at least about 20 pounds per
tained in juxtaposition when oriented to ten
inch width for each 100 grains per square‘yard
sioned straightness and approximately in one
of ?ber. These tensile strengths can be obtained
direction, and should preferably be in thickness
using other binders than casein in an amount su?l
about 2 to about 8 times the diameter of the ?ber
cient to prevent longitudinal relative slippage of
the ?bers when the sheet material is subjected to
tension in the preponderant direction of the
?bers.
that is used.
mental webs until a sheet of desired thickness and
webs are preferably bonded together before be
ing assembled 'in a composite sheet and may be
made up into a composite sheet by bonding to‘
per se, are substantially non-stretchable. Accord
ing to the present invention .the ?bers are sub
, ’ jected to tension which straightens them out and
gether webs in‘which the ?bers have previously
been cobonded together.
In Fig. 10 there is illustrated afcomposite sheet
which includes elemental webs 8 l' and 82 in which
the preponderant ?ber direction extends longi
tudinally of the sheet. If desired the composite
" they are bonded together while very uniformly
Therefore
sheet can include a web 83 in which the ?bers ex
' tend transversely so as to give transverse strength
to the composite sheet as a whole. In such case
. the presence of the transverse sheet 83 tends to
keep the ?bers in webs 8i and 82 from spread
ing and thereby increases the strength of the
binder that is used is.also substantially non‘- ,
material in the ?ber direction of the webs 8| and
82 so that the strength in this directioniis some
what greater than if the web 83 were‘ not in
cluded. The number and ?ber direction of the
?brous webs can be widely varied and it is an
advantage of this invention that means are af
forded whereby strength in the direction or direc
stretchable very strong structural web materials
can be obtained.
The .web material‘ made according to this inven- '
tion is- preferably dense and compact for the
weight of ?b'er contained therein. Thus, a web
material which contains about 200 grains of ?ber
per square yard can be made of such compact
8
weight is produced. The ?bers in the elemental '
y is highly resistant to stretching. Cotton ?bers,
and evenly» distributed in this state.
~.
this can be done by laminating or plying the ele
Another feature of the web material is that in
addition to being strong it can be made so that it
sincethe ?bers are substantially straightened the
material does not stretch when subjected to ten
sion in the direction of the ?bers but remains
substantially unyielding. Moreover, since a pre
ponderant proportion of the ?bers are disposed
in one direction, the load is borne by all of these
?bers as well as by the binder, thus affording
great strength in resisting rupture. When the
~
When it is desired to make heavier material
‘ tions of greatest strains can be attained with
ness and ?ber density that .the web will be only in an
minimum of ?ber material.
__
.
about one-thousandth of an inch or less in thick
The nature‘ and amount of the bonding agent
‘ness. By “?ber density" the weight of- the ?ber
that issued can be varied widely depending- upon
per square yard per unit thickness is intended.
the type of material to be produced. For most
purposes binder to the extent of about 20%_to
The structural material of this invention either '
in the elemental web form or in the form of a 60 50% by weight (dry) of the weightpf the ?bers
is incorporated with the ?bers especially when
composite sheet containing a plurality of ele
the binder is relatively inelastic or non-plastic at
“ mental webs can be made so that the ratio of
ordinary temperatures. Lesser amounts, e. g.
thickness in thousandths of an inch to weight of
about 10%, is sufficient for many purposes. On
‘?ber, in grains per'square yard is. about 1 to 200.
While such materials are preferable, even those 65 the other hand, 50% to 100% may be used if
highly impregnated ?brous material is. desired.
materials according to this invention wherein the
The use of amounts of'binder as high‘as about
ratio of thickness in thousandths of an inch to
100%, may be desirable, e. g. in the production
grains per square yard is only about 1 to 100 are
‘very dense as compared ‘with materials hereto
fore produced by any other means. ‘
_
‘.
In the practice of this invention one can readily
produce structural sheet or web' material which
has a tensile strength in the ‘preponderant direc
of waterproof material in which the binder is a
natural or synthetic rubber material or a bitumi
nous material.
'
~
The particular bonding material that is se
lected is largely optional. 'Among bonding ma
terials applied in an aqueous medium there are,
tion of the ?bers of at least about 10,000 pounds 75 in addition to casein'above mentioned, numer
r
2,407,548
13
,
m
14-:-~
.
~.
.
or ether type- afford structural sheet materials
ous others such as glue, latex, asphalt emulsions
and the like. When the bonding agent is applied
of intermediate sti?ness. Structural sheet ma
terial vcomprising .relatively- (soft ~ binders such‘ as
in an aqueous medium it is preferable to ?rst
apply water to the elemental web material as a
low softening point bituminous'materials, rub
~ber and the like can be made which arev very
pliable.
' temporary binder so that the permanent binder
may be more uniformly deposited on and among
the ?bers. In such case two application steps, one
7 While reference has been made to'the em- '
ployment of a'bonding material which remains
involving the application of the temporary binder
on the surfaces of the ?bers it is also possible to
and the other the application of the permanent
binder constitute preferredv practice. If desired 10 treat the ‘?bers with‘ a material that attacks them
‘sumciently so that'the surface becomes sticky
in the application of water as a temporary bond
and bonded and then removing the material but
‘ ing step a wetting agent may be employed such
leaving the ?bers bonded together. Thus, in
as pine oil soap, and the like, in order ‘to promote
more uniform impregnation of the fabric with the
the case of cotton ?bers (the ?brous web may be
permanent binder. Moreover, reactive materials
15 treated with sulphuric acid, zinc chloride or the
like, e. g. by the applicator rolls 31, Theadded
material that attacks the, ?ber may thereafter
such as coagulants may be incorporated in the ‘
?rst application, e. g. a coagulant such as alunr,‘
tannic acid, formaldehyde, etc., may be included
be neutralized or washed away by suitable means,
' to insolubilize or harden the permanent binder
the extent of“ the action being dependent upon
subsequently added.
'
20 the time interval during which the material in
.When the binder is added in an aqueous me
dium subsequent treatment of the web is largely
con?ned to drying, although before, during, or
after drying ‘the web may be subjected to further
active condition remains in contact with the fibers
prior to neutralizing it or washing it away. Any
- such material, since it results in bonding the
treatment, _e. g. in a treating chamber such as 25
chamber 14.
'
Other bonding materials such as bitumens, cel
lulose esters, cellulose ethers, synthetic resinous
materials and the like, may be applied when dis
?bers together, is regarded herein as a bonding
material.
'
'
.
Where a plurality of the elemental webs are
combined to form a composite sheet this can
be done in several ways. For example, the web
material after having been bonded while the web
solved in an appropriate solvent therefor. When 30 is under tension can be laminated while the bond
a volatile non-aqueous solvent such as naphtha,
ing material is adhesive so that the webs will acetone, etc., is used subsequent evaporation of
adhere together. Alternatively, the bonding ma
the solvent in a suitable solvent recovery system,
terial as a result of evaporation of solvent, cool
is preferable. When a volatile non-aqueous sol
ing and the like may be permitted to‘ harden and
vent is employed the temporary bonding step may
thereafter the web materials may be ‘bonded to
be omitted. In this'case the binder solution can
gether. If the bonding material can be reacti
be applied by applicator rolls 31, for example.
However, it is frequently desirable especially
vated, e. g. by heating a reversible thermoplastic ‘
material or by peptizing a solventactivatable
when the binder material is relatively'tacky as
adhesive, the adhesive may be reactivated by the
applied, to ?rst incorporate a small amount of a 40 heating or the solvent peptization so that the
temporary binder, e. g. about 1 to 2% of starch,
webs may be bonded together. Of, course, in any
silicate of soda, methyl cellulose or the like and
event additional adhesive or other bonding ma
thereafter apply the permanent binder as 21. sep
terial the same as or different from the bonding
arate step.
material on the ?ber in the elemental webs may
Binder materials which are thermoplastic may 45 be employed. If the ?brous material is sufficient
likewise be employed by applying them in a heat
ly porous after having been bonded under ten
lique?ed condition or by applying them in a ?nely
sion, a bonding material‘ may be applied after
divided condition and then heating the ?brous
the webs have been laminated so that it may ‘
web material to render the incorporated thermo
penetrate sufficiently through the composite sheet
plastic material sticky and bond the ?bers to
to bond the laminations togethen, Another de
gether. Thus, bitumens such as asphalts, pitches,
sirable way to bond the elemental webs together
tars, etc.,- cellulose esters and cellulose ethers
is to dispose ?nely divided thermoplastic ma
such as cellulose acetate, cellulose nitrate, ethyl
terial such as asphalt, cellulose esters or ethers,
cellulose, benzyl cellulose, etc., a wide variety of
resins or the like between superposed webs and
synthetic and natural resins such as urea-fur
then subject the composite sheet to heat as by
fural resins, vinyl resins, etc.,,may be employed.
The binder material may be a reversible thermo—
passing it between or over rolls heated su?icient
to render the thermoplastic material tacky and
plastic such as asphalt which after application
bond the webs together.
~'
may be softened by reheating or may be ther
Whether the sheet material is in theform
mosetting such as phenol-formaldehyde resins of 60 of an elemental web or a composite sheet it is
the “Bakelite” type. After the ?bers have been
preferable as‘aforesaid to employ only about 20%
cobonded-by the thermoplastic binder in a tacky
to 50% of the weight of the ?ber of binder that
or sticky condition it is usually sufficient merely
remains
incorporated with the sheet material.
to permit the web material to cool until the
The ?bers that are arranged approximately in
binder is substantially non-sticky.
one direction and are of substantially tensioned
The ?exibility or pliability of the structural
straightness“ will have any tensile load in the
web or sheet material will depend largely upon
direction of the ?bers distributedamong them,
the character and amount of binder that is used.
and excess of binder tends to detract from the
Thus a web or sheet containing about 50% of the
weight of the ?ber of a relatively rigid binder 70 strength of the material per unit weight rather
than otherwise since the‘ fiber is usually stronger
such as a rigid synthetic resin binder of the
phenol-formaldehyde type will be quite stiff espe
cially when a plurality of the individual ply sheets
than the binder material. " The amount of bind
are made up into a composite sheet of consid
together to prevent relative slippage of the ?bers I
er that is appropriate for cementing the ?bers
erable thickness. Binders of the cellulose ester 75 is all that is required and since the ?bers are in
2,407,548
15
.
a dense compact arrangement‘ the amount of
binder required is relatively small.
It is to be understood that the foregoing op
eration whereby the improvements of the inven
tion may be attained merely constitute an illus
trative example of the practice of this invention
and that the drawing or drafting can be per
formed in other ways and that the spreading vof
the ?brous web, if the spreading step is per
formed,” can be carried out by other means.
Thus, in Fig. 11 there is shown an alternative de
vice that may be employed for spreading the i1
brous web between the drafting and the applica
tion of the bonding material. In this modifica
tion the web material in passing from the draft 15
ing rolls 36 to the rolls 31 passes over a saddle
backed part I03 which is downwardly curved and
16
-
bearrangedtoothicklyinordertoobtain agood
drawing action.
_
‘
‘
'
For drafting ?bers that are longer than cot~
ton’ ?bers modi?ed equipment is desirable such
as that shown in Figs. ‘15 and 16 which may be a
gill box or draw box or the like. There are a
number of relatively long ?ber materials e. g.
bast ?bers such as jute, sizal, hemp, ramie, flax,
and coir, or natural silk. In mtking web mate
rial from such ?bers the fibers are preferably
caused to Occur in lengths averaging about 6 to
Sinchesandthe?bersinthisforrhairecarded
and run into heavy sliver form. The slivers, e. g.
two, may be run for example into the gill box‘
shown in Fig. 15 comprising the sliver guide II,
the retaining rolls '2 and 33, the slip roll 84, the
drawing roll 85 and pres roll I5. The rolls I3
and 35 are spaced apart by a distance that is
is: bowed outwardly, e. g. as indicated in the
cross-sectional views shown in Figs. 12, 13 and
greater than the length of the ?bers and between _
14. The peripheral speed of the rolls 3'! is slight 20, them are the movable fallers 81 on the pins of
ly greater‘. than the-peripheral speed of the last
which the ?bers are carried from the roll I3 to
of the drafting rolls 36 so that the web material
the roll 85. The fallers move at a speed that is
33 is maintained under tension in passing over
somewhat greater than the peripheral speed of
the part I03 which because of the curvature
the roll 83. The drawing roll 35 may have a pe
thereof ‘causes the web 33 to spread, e. g. from 25 ripheral speed about 4 times that of roll 33 there
about 10 inches as discharged from the drafting
by drawing the ?bers by about 4 to 1. Any suit
rolls to about 14 to 18 inches when the web
able means (not shown) such as screw means
reaches the applicator rolls. It is apparent that
may be used to move the fallers, lower them at
equivalent means may likewise be employed.
the end of their travel toward roll 85, return
In carrying on the spreading step the extent 30 them and elevate them at the end of the return
‘of the spreading will depend somewhat on the
travel.
material being handled. For cotton ?bers it is
It is usually desirable to subject the ?brous
usually desirable to spread the material prior to
material to further drafting. In such case the
the bonding step by about 25% to ‘75% of its
web ‘material discharged from rolls 85 and 85
original‘ width.
Especially‘with heavier ?bers
which tend to be more uniformly distributed as
discharged from the drawing apparatus less
spreading, e. g. about 10%» to 25% of its original
width is usually su?icient prior to the bonding
35
maybemadeupintoarollll orifdesiredmay
be passed to sliver form. Apparatus for carry
ing on a second drafting operation is shown in
Fig. 16 which includes the retaining rolls so and‘
SI, the slip roll 92, the drawing roll 53 and the
40 press roll 94. The roll of material 33 feeds into
The bonding material can also be applied in
the rolls 36, 3| and 52 andis carried bythe fallers
‘a other ways, for example, as illustrated in Fig. 11,
35 to rolls 93 and 94. The fallers travel at a
. As shown, the bonding material is sprayed onto
speed somewhat greater than the peripheral
the web 33 before it goes between the rolls 31
speed of roll SI and roll 33 has a peripheral speed
from nozzles I06. This method of application of 45 about 8 times the peripheral speed of mll 3|
bonding material is especially suitable when a
thereby drawing the ?bers about 8 to 1. If de
relatively small amount of bonding material is
sired one or more webs, e. g. from roll 88' in ad'
to be applied.v It is also possible to seize the con
dition to roll 33, may be fed into the device of
ditioned web material while the ?bers are, drawn
Fig. 16 so that the ?brous web will not become
to tensioned straightness and thereafter apply 50 excessively attenuated by the drafting. Alter
step.
>
the bonding material, e. g. through a forami
natively one or more slivers may be fed into the
nous restraining member. Alternatively a. ther
device of Fig. 16 as may be desired.
,
moplastic binder such as asphalt may be blown
In the device of Fig. 16 the fallers vl5 are car
into the web 33 in powdered form from the noz
ried in the form of a continuous belt about rolls
zles I00 and the rolls 31 may be heated to soften 55 3i and 31. Theactionisessentiallythesame as
the asphalt and bond the ?bers in the web ma
the action of the fallers in the device of Fig. 15
terial together. Various other ways of applying
and the devices of either Figs. 15 or 16 may be
‘ binder are also possible although for most purused although the device of Fig. 15 is somewhat
poses the ways above described have been found
preferable. The different mechanisms are shown
‘ to be preferable.
The type. of drafting apparatus that is used
may be varied. The type of apparatus that is
used should be that which is best suited for han
dling the particular ?ber to be made into a web.
For drawing and lapping cotton ?ber some ap
paratus such as that described above for purposes
of exempli?cation is usually most desirable. The
use of drafting frame equipment containing a
primarily to illustrate the fact that the drafting
mechanism may take many different forms. It is
preferable however when the ?ber is subjected
to more than one drafting operation that the
pins on the fallers used for any drafting after
the ?rst drafting ‘be somewhat more numerous
thanthepinsonthe fallersusedinthe?rst
drafting Operation.
‘
After the ?brous web material has passed from
rolls 33, 33 it is taken over spreading means such
plurality of adjacent rolls that have successively
asthatshowninFigs.2to5 orinFlg. 11 forex
increased peripheral speeds is very effective in 70
ample to means for applying bonding material
straightening the ?bers and arranging them in‘
while maintaining the web material imder ten
one direction. The extent of the drafting in each
sion as it travels from the rolls 33, 34 to the
drafting frame and the sequences of lapping may
be varied widely although the ?bers should not 75 means for applying the bonding material.
By way of example two very heavy slivers of
2,407,548
17
18
about 14 to 18 inches ‘wide is described.“ It is. of
‘course, pos'sible‘tojmake the web‘rinaterialjof ‘other
widths; This can be done by varying the lateral
capacity of the" equipment‘ usedf‘eij‘g‘. equipment
jute ?ber weighing about 1200 grains per run-7
ning yard may-be
(into the‘ ‘drafting appaé
ratus of Fig. 15 wherein it is drawn about tl‘to ‘1
to‘form‘web material about‘ll'inches wide weigh
ing.600 grainsper running'yard. Four‘of'the
webs thus made; (weighing in all“ about ‘2400
grains‘per running yard) are then run ‘to the
drafting apparatus shown in Fig. 16 whereinv the
such as described above. ‘ItNis ‘preferable ‘that
?brous web material is‘drawn about 8 to l to‘ form
aiweb material about 11 inches wide‘ weighing 10
about 300 grains per running yard. Thislatter
material is ‘then‘spread to about 15 inches in
width‘ before the bonding‘ materialis ‘applied.
The bonding‘ material may be‘ any‘ of those‘ deg
web material during the?draftingoperation‘ be
at least ‘Qinches‘in widthand that the drafted
striated web‘m‘aterial be at least about 12 inches
in‘width ‘when the ‘?bers are integrally ‘cobonded;
For‘m‘akingl'wideweb material it is also possible
operate ‘them simultaneously, at the‘ samespeed,‘
‘ to ‘mount a plurality of ‘the units in parallel ‘and
the ‘output of each unit‘ being placed‘ alongside
the‘ output of‘ an adjacent “one, "Thus. a, P111-‘
rality of the drafting‘lframes‘;35‘can be‘ placed
scribed above and used in similar‘proportions.
The bonding material may be‘ applied by ‘any’ of
side by side and the‘ web material discharged ‘i
from each‘ spread‘ laterally‘ until the‘ marginal’
the ‘means heretofore referred to‘ or‘ the ‘equiv
edges abut ‘each other. ‘The wide web can then
alent thereof.‘ For 'such‘very coarse ?ber‘the
be passed between a common pair of applicator
web preferablylweighs‘about-2400 to 800‘ grains
per ‘square yard when the bonding‘ material is 20 rolls ‘for applying the bonding material.“ If ?bers
from a v‘cardir‘ig machine or the like are‘used as
a sourcev of ?brous material it is not ‘necessary to
The process ‘can also be carried out inconnec
pass the carded sheet to sliver form, inasmuch
tion with ?bers of intermediate length such‘as
as‘the‘ carded material in sheet ‘form ‘may be‘
wool‘, in which the ?bers may ‘run about 2 ‘or 3
applied.
a
‘
I
‘
‘
‘
‘
l
‘
inches in length. In such case a draw‘box or gill 25 subjected'to repeated lapping and drafting opera
box or the like‘ may ‘be u‘sed‘to straighten the
“ tions to condition ?brous material in theman
?bers and arrange them in one direction but,
ner above referred, to.
,
,d
e
,
In order to ‘obtain material having uniform
of course, the spacing between the retainer rolls
density and thickness so as to achieve a product‘
and the drawing rolls will beless than ‘when
30 having uniform strength characteristics through
longer ?bers such as jute, hemp, etc., are used.
out, it is desirable to make ‘at least two ribbon
or sheet~like intermediate webs and then lap.
them and‘ subject the composite web to drafting
Any operation or apparatus forv drawing ‘?bers,
by some such action as‘ ‘drafting rolls, ‘gill ‘box,
or draw box wherein ?bers are seized and pulled
out essentially in one direction thereby straight
to attenuatethe composite ‘intermediate web and‘
ening them in one direction, is referred to here 35 draw the ?bers thereof to increased straightness
in as a drafting operation ‘or apparatus and is
‘ ‘ in a direction corresponding to that of theid‘r‘aft‘r '
to‘ be distinguished ‘from ‘mere sheet-forming
actions such as felting or the action of a carding
web ‘or sheet-like bodies are made‘and lapped ,
machine.
so'as to obtain a drafted web that is very uni
ing. Preferably at least four such intermediate
In addition to ?bers such as those above men
tioned, other ?bers may be made up ‘into web
structural ‘material e. g. synthetic ?bers such ‘as
rayon, cellulose acetate and the like. Web struc
tural material consisting wholly or partially ‘of
mineral ?bers e. g. asbestos ‘?bers may also be
form.
‘
‘
‘
1
,
“
"
d
‘It is apparent fromthe foregoing that ?brous
structural material having great strength for the
weight‘ of the ?ber can be produced according to
.45
made according to this invention." In cobond
ing mineral ‘?bers cobonded into striated web
material any suitable binder therefor such as 1‘
this invention in a‘ ‘very economical way. Fabric-i
like sheet ‘material‘having the strength of woven
fabrics can be made without going through the
costly operations‘ of spinning and weaving,
Moreover, sheet‘material resembling sheet metal
in strength per gauge thickness can be made and ,
sodium silicate may be employed. Moreover,
?bers which are‘ unspinnable, e. g. kapok, mil-k 50 which is much stronger than non-ferrous metals,‘
such as aluminum, for, their weight. . High
weed ?bers, ‘manila, Spanish" m‘oss and the like,
strength can be obtained ‘with a minimum of
can be made up into structural material accord
binder material and a material ‘can be‘ produced
ing to this invention.
according to this invention that is very dense
Regardless of the character of the ?ber that‘
and of great strength for its thickness. ,The
is employed it is desirable that the proportion
?brous material is also so uniform in thickness,
of the ?ber that is arranged- approximately in
one direction and brought to tensioned straight
' ness correspond ‘substantially with the propor
?ber density and binder distribution‘as to have
throughout ‘very‘uniform strength characteris
tions above mentioned in connection with cotton
tics. ‘ A new structural material, therefore, is
?bers for the reasons mentioned in connection
afforded having great commercial utility.
with the foregoing description ‘of web materials
While this invention has been described in con
and composite sheet materials made from ‘cotton
nection with certain speci?c embodiments there- .
In the, practice of this invention the web ma
of it is to be understood that this‘ has been done
merely ‘for the ‘purpose of illustrating the prac
terial can be treated in various ways during the 65 tice ofthis invention and affording a better un- , ‘
dersta-nding thereof. Accordingly, the“ scope of “
this invention is to be governed by the language“
terial can be treated with a dye or stain or pig
of the following claims construed in the‘ light‘of
vment during the application of either the tem-,
performance of the method. Thus, the web ma:
porary or permanent‘ binder or as awseparate
operation. Moreover, waterproo?ng or water 70
repeilent material may similarly be incorporated.
If desired, a‘?ller material such as ?nely divided
clays (bentonite, kaolin, etc.)', silica dust or the H
like may be incorporated in‘a similar way.
In the ‘foregoing description a web material
the foregoing’ description.
I claim:
‘
'
I
I
1. ‘Amethod ofmaking afabricated web of‘
co-bonded unspun ‘?bers which“ comprises sub- ‘
jecting unspun ?bers to draftinguntil the?bers
are ‘preponderantly‘straightened and arranged .
in one direction longitudinally of an‘ elongated '
3,407,548
?brous web, spreading said ?brous web laterally
while under longitudinal tension, and bonding
said ?bers together while said web is under lon
gitudinal tension.
.
v
2. A process of making a ,web of cobonded un
spun ?bers which comprises forming a plurality
tween ‘said rollers: to spread’the web material
‘ laterally.
8. Apparatus according tooclaim 5. wherein the ,
spreading means comprises an elongated cen
trally bowed part over which the fabric is
adapted to pass and thereby become spread
of elongated bodies of unspun ?bers, subjecting
laterally.
,
>
said bodies to drafting to draw the ?bers there
9.
Apparatus
for
making
a
web
of
cobonded
in in the direction of the drafting and orient and
straighten said ?bers in the direction of the 10 unspun ?brous’material which comprises draft
ing means'for straightening said ?bers and ar
drafting to form a plurality of webs with the
ranging
them in a preponderant ?ber direction
?bers so oriented and straightened therein, lap
in an elongated striated web, said drafting means
‘ ping a plurality of said webs to form a compo
including a plurality of adjacent pairs ‘of rolls
site web containing a plurality of web laminabetween
which said ?bers pass and means for.
tions, subjecting the composite web to a draft 15 driving said
rolls at successively increased speeds
ing operation to attenuate the composite web
to accelerate the movement of said web as it
and draw the ?bers to increased straightness in
passes successively between said rolls and draw
a direction corresponding to the direction of the
said web material longitudinally, means for
draftingjwhile said ?bers are in a dry and essen
spreading saidlweb discharged from the last pair
tially unbonded conditio , and thereafter co 20 of drafting rolls laterally upon being discharged
bonding the ?bers together while in striated at
tenuated web form to form a coherent integrally
bonded web material, the ?bers not being per
from said drafting means, applicator means for
' applying a bonding material to the web, and
. means for maintaining said 'web material con
mitted to relax between the drawing step and
tinuously under tension during the travel there
the bonding step.
25 of between said drafting means and said applif
3. Apparatus for making a ‘web of cobonded
unspun ?bers which comprises drafting means
for straightening and arranging the ?bers in a
predominant direction longitudinally of an elon
cator means.
.
10. Apparatus for making a web- of cobonded
unspun fibers. which comprises drafting means
for producing an attenuated webin which the
gated web, means spaced from said drafting 30 ?bers have a preponderant ?ber direction, a
means for applying a bonding material to the
pair of rolls, means for carryingsaid web .of
?brous web after the web is discharged from
material under tension in‘ said ?ber direction
the drafting means, and means for maintaining
su?icient to straighten the ?bers in said direc
said web under tension between said drafting
tion between said drafting means and said rolls‘
means and said means for applying the bonding
and means for applying bonding'material to
material to said web.
,
'
said web received by said rolls after said web is
4. Apparatus for making a web of cobonded
discharged from said drafing means and while
unspun ?bers which comprises drafting means
said ?bers are in said condition of tensioned
straightness.
‘
for straightening and arranging the ?bers in a
predominant ?ber direction longitudinally of an 40
11. A method of making structural sheet ma
elongated web, said drafting means including a
terial which comprises forming a striated web
plurality of adjacent ‘pairs of rolls between which
of loosely associated contiguous ?bers about 50%
said ?bers pass and means for driving said pairs
of which are at least about % inch in length, in
of rolls at successively increased speeds to ac
which about 70% of the ?bers at least % inch in
celerate the movement of. said web material and 45 length have a preponderant mean direction and
draw the web material longitudinally, applicator
are disposed within about 15° of said mean di
rolls for applying a bonding material to said
rection and in which the ?bers are arranged in
?bers of said web discharged from the last of
substantially uniform thickness and ?ber density,
said pairs of drafting rolls acting on said web,
subjecting said web material to pulling tension
and means for rotating said applicator rolls so 50 in said direction at a ?rst zone while said web
that the peripheral speed of said applicator rolls
is restrained at a second zone so as to prevent
is at a somewhat greater speed than the pe
movement of said web at said second zone at a
ripheral speed of the last pair of said drafting
rate that is as great as the rate at which said
rolls to maintain said web under tension lon
web is pulled at said v?rst zone, said‘?rst zone
gitudinally thereof when fed into the nip of said 55 being spaced from said second zone by a distance
applicator rolls.
greater than the length of the ?bers in said web, ‘
5. In apparatus for making unspun ?brous
" thereby causing said ?bers disposed in said di
material, the combination with drafting means
rection between said ?rst and second zones to
for straightening unspun ?bers and arranging
be dragged relatively to contiguous ?bers and
them in a preponderant ?ber direction, of ten 60 become tensioned and straightened while in an
sioning means for subjecting said ?brous webv
essentially unbonded striated web form, and
material discharged from said drafting means
bonding said ?bers of said web together before
to tension‘ and ’ means between said drafting
said pulling tension imposed on said web is re
means and said tensioning means for laterally
laxed to form a coherent integrally bonded sheet
spreading web material discharged from the 65 material of substantially uniform ?ber density
drafting means.
and binder distribution throughout wherein said
6. Apparatus according to claim 5 whereinvthe
?bers brought to said condition of tensioned
straightness as aforesaid are maintained in said
spreading means comprises a plurality of rollers
condition by said binder after said pulling tension
over which the web material ,is adapted to pass.
7. Apparatus according to claim 5 wherein the 70 is relaxed.
12. A method of making structural sheet ma
. spreading means comprises a plurality of rollers
terial comprising unspun cotton fibers, which
over which the web material is adapted to pass
comprises carding cotton ?bers about 50% of
and means between said rollers for bowing out
the center of the web material as it passes be 75 which are at least % inch in length, then draft
ing the carded cotton ?bers to draw the ?bers
2,407,543
21
at least 8 to 1 in the ‘direction of the drafting
~
22
.
straightness during the travel of the sheetlike
and orient‘ said ?bers in“ the direction ‘of the
body from the nip of saidrollaand, .while?so
drawing said sheetlike body? with said'?bersin
nally in an elongatedsheetlikebody, said ?bers
being drawn‘ under tension in the ?nal stagebf
said drafting into and between‘ the nip of apair
said condition or tensioned‘straightnesspbondlng '
drafting ‘and straighten‘ said ?bers; longitudi
of rolls which ‘grip “the ‘sheetlikebody there
betwe‘en, ‘drawing‘said sheetlike body ‘from the
the said ?bers of said sheetlike body together to
formna coherent integrally bonded sheet matee
rial wherein‘ the ?bers are fixed in; co-bonded
relation insaid condition of tensioned ‘straight
nip of said pair of rolls under‘tension and with
'17., A method of making a‘fabricated sheet of
dragging ‘of, individual‘ ?bers ‘disposed longie 10i cobonded
unspun ?bers which comprlsessuba
tudinally, thereof‘v relative to contiguous ?bers
je'ctingunsp'un
?bers‘ loosely ‘associated in dry
in frictional contact therewith, thereby‘ main-4
non-co-bonded condition‘to draftingiin a, sheet
‘ taining said ?bers‘ in a‘condition ‘of tensioned
.like body wherein ‘the’ ?bers are positively
straightness and longitudinally of the sheetlike
ness.,\
l,
I
,
l
b
N
.
body ‘during the travel of the ?bers from‘the 15 straightened by, gripping‘ the ,?b‘ers'between
nip‘of said rolls, and thereafter, and, ‘while so I drafting‘rolls-and by drawing the sheetlike ‘body
by‘ said rolls while the ?brous material of ‘said
drawing said sheet-like body with said ?bers in
said condition‘ of tensioned straightness, bond
ing the said ?bers of said sheetlike body together
sheetlike body is restrained at a distancegreater
than the length of the ?bers‘ from the nip of said
by application of a binder thereto ‘to form’ a co
rolls, therebyorienting said ?bers, in the direc
said ?bers are ?xed in said ‘condition of ten
ening the‘ ?bers in said direction ‘longitudinally
of the sheetlike body, the drafting accomplish
20
herent integrally bonded sheet material‘ wherein , tion of travel of said sheetlike bodyand straight‘
sioned straightness by the said binder, so applied
ing‘ a drawing of at least 8 to 1, then ‘further
13. A method according to claim 12 wherein 25 drawing and attenuating said sheetlike body of
?bers by gripping the sheetlike body between rolls
the cotton ?bers after the carding step are, sub
‘which are rotated‘at a peripheral speed that
jected to the drafting to draw and partially
draws, the ?bers in said non-co-bonded‘condi
orient and straighten the ?bers in the direction
tion and as oriented by the drafting with drag
of the drafting and wherein a plurality of bodies
of the so drawn and partially straightened ?bers 30 ging of individual ?bers disposed longitudinally
of the sheetlike body relative tocontiguous ?bers
are lapped and then subjected to further draft
in frictional contact therewith; thereby main
ing prior to the ?nal step wherein the ?bers in a
the ?bers in a condition of tensioned
sheetlike body are ?xed by application of binder > taining
straightness during ‘the travel of the sheetlike
thereto while travelling in a condition of ten-‘
sloned straightness longitudinally of the sheet 35 body to said last mentioned rolls, and first 8,131
plying a binder to bond said ?bers together im
like body, the total ‘drawing accomplished by the
mediately adjacent said last-mentioned rolls and
drafting steps subsequent to carding being at
thereto.
‘
’
v
least 32to l.
14. A method according to claim ‘12 wherein
the ?bers when drawn into the bonding step are 40
disposed in a sheetlike, body ‘weighing between
rI5-and 400 grains per square yard and are drawn
by gripping the sheetlike body between the nip
of a second pair of rolls which pull individual
?bers and drag them relative to other ?bers in
frictional contact therewith so as to tension said
?bers and dispose said ?bers in tensioned
straightness in the sheetlike body when the
binder is applied to cobond the ?bers together
into a coherent sheet'material.
15. A method according to claim 12 wherein
the ?brous sheetlike body is maintained under
longitudinal tension after the binder is applied
and during setting of the bonding material ap
plied to the ?bers.
16. A method of making a fabricated sheet of
cobonded unspun ?bers which comprises ar
ranging the ?bers in an elongated body, and
prior to discharge ‘of said ?bers fromthe ‘nip
of'said last-mentioned rolls, thereby?xing said
?bers in cobonded relation in said condition of‘
tensioned straightness in a coherent sheet,
18. A method according’ to claim 1'? wherein
the ?brous sheetlike body, afterleaving the rolls
last mentioned in claim 17 adjacent to which the
binder is applied, is subjected to tension during
the setting of the binder.
19. A method of making a sheet of co-bonded
unspun cotton ?bers which comprises forming a
thin striated sheetlike body of ?bers which are
arranged approximately in one direction and a
major proportion of which are substantially
straight, drawing said sheetlike body in the direc
tion of said straightened ?bers while said ?bers
are in non-co-bonded dry state with dragging of
said ?bers relative to other ?bers in frictional
contact therewith to maintain said ?bers in"
straightened condition, and, while so drawing said
sheetlike body, applying a ?rst binder material
thereto
to ?x said ?bers in said straightened con
subjecting the ?bers while in elongated body
form to drafting to draw the ?bers at least 8 to 60 dition in said sheetlike body, and then applying
further binder to said sheetlike body while said
1 in the direction of the drafting and orient the
?bers are maintained in said straightened condi
?bers in the direction of the drafting in a sheet
tion by said ?rst binder material to additionally
like body wherein the ?bers are straightened in
bond said ?bers in straightened condition into a
said direction longitudinally of the sheetlike
coherent and integrally bonded sheet material.
body, said sheetlike body being drawn under ten
20. A method according to claim 19 wherein
sion in the ?nal stage of drafting into and be
said ?rst binder is water and said further binder
tween the nip of a pair of rollers which grip the
material is a non-volatile adhesive substance and
material of the sheetlike body therebetween.
is applied in an aqueous medium to said web
drawing said sheetlike body of ?bers from the
while the ?bers in said web are still moist.
nip of said pair of rollers under tension and with
21. Structural sheet material comprising a web
dragging of individual ?bers disposed longitudi
of unspun ?bers at least about 50% of which are
nally of the sheetlike body relative to contiguous
3/; inch or more in length, said web being char
?bers in frictional contact therewith, thereby
acterized by the fact that at least about 70% of
disposing and maintaining said ?bers in said
the ?bers of 3/; inch or more in length are dis
sheetlike body in a condition of tensioned
2,407, 548
’
.
‘23
-
,
posed approximately in one direction, are, of sub
r
24
I
.
disposed approximately‘ in one direction in'each
web and being of substantially tensioned straight
stantially tensioned straightness, are substantially
‘ non-stretchablel’and'iare co-bonded together in
longitudinally non-slippable relation by a sub
stantially non-stretchable binder distributed sub
ness, and said ?bers in each of said webs being
co-bonded ‘ together
by
a.
substantially non;
stretchable binder material distributed substan
tially uniformly about and among said ?bers, the
?ber density in said webs. of said structuralma
terial being such that the ratio of thickness in
stantially uniformly about and among said ?bers.
22. Structural sheet material in the form of a
rigid, hard, dense body, said structural material
consisting primarily of unspun ?ber and binder,
at least 50% of the ?ber component being ?bers 10 thousandths of an inch to weight of ?ber in
grains per square yard is 1 to at least 200.
of % inch or more in length, and said structural
'
25. Structural sheet material according to claim
material being characterized by the fact that at
least 70% of the ?bers over % inch in length
are maintained in a condition of tensioned
24 wherein the ?bers in said webs are unspun cot- '
ton ?bers distributed in \substantially .uniform
thickness in each web so that the ?ber in each,
straightness by said binder and are disposed in
approximately the'same direction in each indi
vidual layer of one ormore layers comprised ‘in
said structural material, and said structural ma
terial being further characterized by the‘ fact that
said binder for said ?bers is a substantially non
stretchable binder that is distributed substantially '
uniformly about and among said ?bers, and the
?ber'density in said structural material being
such‘that the ratio ‘of thickness in ‘thousandths
web weighs about 70to 400 grains per square yard .
I
and wherein said
weight of the ?bers.
substantially non-stretchable
'
v 26. Apparatus for making'a web of‘ co-bonded'
unspun ?bers which comprises draftingmeans for
producing an attenuated web in- which the ?bers '
have a. preponderant ?ber direction in the direc
tion of the drafting, a pair of rolls arranged for
of an inch to weight of ?ber in grains per square
25 passage of said web therebetween after discharge
yard is 1 to at least 100.
23‘. [Structural sheet material according to
from said drafting means, means including said
pair of rolls for drawing said web in said ?ber
‘direction to dispose the ?bers in said web in‘ a
and wherein said substantially non-stretchable
condition of tensioned straightness in said web
binder constitutes about 10% to about 50% by
dry weight of said structural material and where 80 after said web is discharged‘ from said drafting
means and when said ‘web is fed between said
in the ?ber density is such that the ratio of thick
claim 22 wherein said ?bers comprise cotton ?bers
rolls, and means immediately adjacent said pair
of rolls forapplying bonding material to said web
24‘. Structural sheet material in the form of 35 passing between said rolls while said ?bers in said
web are in said condition of tensioned ‘straight
aprigid, hard, dense body, said structuralmate
ness.
rial being characterized by comprising a plurality
27. Apparatus according to claim 26 which also
of integrally bonded superposed webs of unspun
includes means for subjecting said web after leav
?bers, at least 60% of the ?brous material of said
ing said pair of rolls‘
' ness in thousandths 01’ an inch to weight of ?bers
in grains per square yard is 1 to at least 200.
I
with said binder applied
web being substantially unstretchable ?bers % 40
thereto to tension during the setting of the binder.
inch or more in length and at least about 70%
of the ?bers of % inch or more in length being
JOSEPH GOLDMAN.
'
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