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> Sept@ 10, m46;
c. E KETÉERAN@
2,407,555
AUTOMATIC CONTROL
Filed July so, 194s
2 ¿sheets-shew 1
Cittornegs
Sept E0, i945.
c. F. KETTERING
294079555
AUTOMATIC CONTROL
Filed July 30, 1945
Z'Sheets-«Sheet 2
îhmentor
@w
>
.
2,467,555
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,555
AUTOMATIC CONTROL
Charles F. Kettering, Detroit, Mich., assîgnor to
General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a
corporation of Delaware
Application July 30, 1943, Serial No. 496,824
'20 Claims.
l
This invention relates to control, means, and
more specifically to automatic steering control
means for mobile bodies.
In the operation of mobile bodies, such as air
craft and ships, it is advantageous to be able to
set control means'to maintain the body on a given
course and so relieve the pilot or helmsman of
the tedious task of keeping the body on the course
except for occasional checking. In mobile bodies
such las torpedoes, either air or water, adapted to
explode upon reaching some determined objective,
automatic `steering of the same is of course a
necessity as no manual `means could be present.
It is therefore an object of my invention to pro
vide means for automatically maintaining a mo
bile body on a given predetermined course.
It is a further object of my invention to pro
vide automatic steering means for a moving body.
It is a still further objectl of my invention to
provide compass-controlled automatic steering
means for- a mobile body.
With these and other objects in view which will
4become apparent as the specification proceeds,
the embodiments of my invention are best un
derstood by reference to the following specifica
tion and claims and the illustrations in the `ac
(Cl. 172-282)
ate coupling shaft 32. Shaft 24 also has a sprock
- et wheel 34 and at a spaced axial point a worm
36, both being rigidly secured'to said shaft. Worm
36 is adapted to engage a worm wheel 38 which
is connected by a link mechanism 40 with a steer
ing rudder 42 for the craft being driven. A steer~
ing shaft 44, which is adapted to cooperate with
some type of steering wheel 46 or similar steer
ing mechanism, is mounted in a portion of the
frame 48 of the body and has thereon a second
sprocket wheel 5U and also a small pinion 52. A
drive chain 54 is adapted to run over the two
sprocket wheels 50 and 34 and 'to cause a driving
connection between the two.- Thus when the
steering wheel 4t is turned, the rudder 42 will
rotate and steer the mobile body.
Pinion 52 is adapted to engage a gear 5G mount
ed on a short rotatable stub shaft 58, the oppo
site end- of which carries a small bevel gear 6E!
which forms part of the differential incorporating
two rotatable bevel gears 52 and t4 both engaging
the bevel gear (il) at diametrically opposite points,
and supported by suitable means such as pins (i5
from the surface of a large gear wheel 58, said
25 gear wheel 68 being mounted upon shaft 1i! but
freely rotatable with respect thereto. Shaft 'lo
also carries at its extreme end a bevel gear 1.2
which meshes with the two bevel gears 62 and
64 to Complete the differential. A small worm 14
control system embodying my invention;
mounted to contact the teeth of the worm wheel
Figure 2 is a perspective schematic diagram of 30 is
E8, said worm being driven by a small trim motor
the parts and inter-connections of my control sys~
16.
tem; and
Mounted upon the opposite end of the shaft
Figure '3 is an enlarged sectional view through
1U to that upon which gear 'l2 is mounted is a
the potentiometer and its control.
radially extending contact arm 13 electrically in
.Referring now more specifically to Figure 2 of 35 sulated therefrom which is adapted to engage a
the drawings, it will be seen that the actuating
circular resistor ßû mounted in an insulating
control means for my system is a compass 2 piv
housing 82 and to form therewith a variable po
otally mounted on a gimbaled ring 3 on a support
tentiometer for purposes to be described. Mount
4 and arcuately movable between two fixed stops
ed in housing 82~at a greater radial distance from
6 and .8. In its movement the `compass needle in 40 the potentiometer resistance are two arcuate rings
tercepts a light beam flowing to photocell I0 (Fig.
84 and 85, each of which extends substantially
l) to vary the output thereof. The support 4 may
180°, but are separated slightly from each other
be rotated about the axis ofthe compass by worm
by a portion of the insulating housing. An ad
wheel 12 which is rigidly secured to said support
justable insulating collar 8B mounted on the shaft
and ’is so mounted asl to be engaged by Worm I4. 45 '.'il carries a bowed radially extending arm Sii
The latter is connected to one end of a flexible
which is adapted to contact and move over these
drive shaft I6, the opposite end of which is at
contact arcs S4 and 36. The electrical connections
tached'to and driven by a motor IB. The purpose
t0 these arms are made through slip rings V8|
of >this drive means is to provide a follow-up to
83.
prevent over-travel or over-correction in the di 50 and
In order to provide compensation for certain
rection of drive control of the compass.
compass movements, which will be described
To the shaft 2d of the motor I8 is also secured
more in detailat a later point, it is necessary to
a pinion `2i.’ which drives shaft 24 through reduc
provide a damping or compensating coil such as
tion gears 26„ .28 and 30, the latter being mounted
that vshown at 92 which is mounted on the side
55
on shaft 24 and the two former on an intermedi
companying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a schematic wiring diagram of a
3
2,407,555
of the casing enclosing the needle and which
operates in a manner similar to the follow~up
means.
Referring now to Figure 1, there is shown the
compass 2 controlling the flow of light to the
photocell I0 and having mounted near one end
4
mature |02 and raise it up until contacts |04 and
|06 engage contacts |08 and ||0 respectively.
This connects the motor I8 to the input lines I I6
and |20 and the motor I8 rotates, turning the
rudder 42 to cause the course of the mobile body
to be altered slightly. At the same time, through
thereof the compensating coil 92 which is shown
motor energization, the casing or housing 4 for
in dotted lines mechanically, but which appears
the compass is so rotated as to cause the compass
in the electrical circuit in the lower right-hand
needle to tend to assume a neutral position again
corner of the circuit diagram between the two 10 with respect to this housing. 'I‘hus only small
resistors in line with the variable potentiometer
impulses of steering are applied to the rudder.
tap. The photocell I0 is connected through lines
If now the compass assumes such a position as
94 and 96 to a suitable amplifier 98, the output
to intercept considerable light and the output of
of which is connected into a relay coil I 00 which
the photocell falls', the energy provided to the re
operates a movable armature |02 between two
lay coil |00 will not be sufficient to maintain the
limit positions. This movable armature |02 car
armature in its uppermost position, and it will
ries two spaced contacts |04>and |06 insulated
fall so that contacts |84 and |06 now engage
from each other, which cooperates with two
contacts ||2 and I|4 and in so doing reverse» the
spaced pairs of stationary contacts |08 and H0
polarity of the current flowing to the motor I8
on one side and I I2 and I I4 on the opposite side. 20 which therefore causes it to rotate in the oppo
Contacts |08 and ||0 are connected to a suitable
site direction and move the rudder 42 also‘in the
source of current through lines ||6 and |20,
opposite direction. This also turns the> follow
while contacts || 2 and ||4 are reversely con
up mechanism to drive the housing 4 back to try
nected to these same lines through inter-con
to align the compass therewith.
`
l
necting lines |22 and |24.
Contact |04 is con- .,
nected through line |26 to one side of a steering
motor I8 and also to resistor |28. Contact |06,
on the other hand, is connected through line
|30 to the opposite terminal of motor I8 and also
to a resistor |32.
Potentiometer coil 80 has one end connected to
line |34 which is also connected to one of the
conductor arcs 84 and to one terminal of a bat
tery |36. The opposite end of the battery |36 is
connected to line |38 which terminates in switch
|40, the opposite terminal of which is connected
through line |42 to one terminal of the trim
motor 16, this latter motor being geared to the
control shaft carrying the control arms 00 and
18.
The opposite terminal of the motor 'I6 is .i
connected to line |44 which in turn is connected
to said rotatable arm 90. This arm cooperates
with the two arcuate sections 84 and 86. Sec
Coil 92 has previously been referred to as a
compensating and damping coil and‘its functions
and operation will now be described in detail. It
is a well-known fact that when compass means
is tilted in any manner so that its axis is not ver-
tical, the vertical component of the earth’s :_ñeld
introduces a magnetic force acting on the com
pass, which provides an erroneous indication or
operation as the case may be. In the present
instance the compass needle 2 is pivotally
mounted on a vertical axis within a horizontally
trunnioned gimbal ring 3. The bottom of the ring
is slightly heavier than the top and so the assem
bly tends to remain in a. vertical position, irre
spective of thev rolling or tossing of the mobile
body. When, however, the body turns, then the
centrifugal force causes the girnbal ring to move
out of its vertical position and therefore the ver
tical axis of the compass is now moved to a slant
tion 86 is connected through line |46 to the op
mg position. The vertical component of the
posite end of potentiometer 80 and to one ter
earth’s ñeld will now tend to rotate the compass
minal of a battery |48 whose opposite terminal 1.1.5 needle to give an erroneous reading and one of
is connected to line |38 and battery |36, placing
the functions of the coil is to compensate for this
the two batteries in series. Two resistors |50
force.
and |52 are connected in series across the two
It will also be evident that the sharper the turn,
batteries. A resistor |54 is connected to the
the greater will be the centrifugal force and more
midpoint of these two resistors and also to» line
will be the displacement and the vertical pull on
|56 which extends to resistor |28 and one ter
the compass and therefore the restoring or com
minal of the compensating coil 92. The movable
pensating force must be stronger. I have pro
contact ‘I8 of the potentiometer 80 is connected
vided means therefore for so controlling the iield
to line |58 which terminates in resistor |60 whose
of the compensating coil that the latter varies
opposite terminal is connected to resistor |32 and
dependent upon the displacement of the rudder.
coil 92.
'
In other words, if the rudder is forced hard over,
In the operation of the device», the control mo
the body will execute a Shar-p turn, the centrifu
tor I8, which is a reversible motor and can be
gal force will be large, and a large compensating
rotated in either direction, depending upon the
ñeld will be necessary. This proportional control
polarity of the current applied thereto, turns, A is provided by the balanced potentiometer 10--80
through obvious connections, the rudder to steer
and its associated circuit which provides to com
the mobile vehicle, and at the same time turns
pensating
coil 92 current from the batteries |36,
the rotatable housing in which the compass is
|48 proportional to the rudder displacement 'and
mounted to provide follow-up means. The con~
trol for this motor I8 is through the photocell I0 L so poled as to repel the tendency of the needle to
be attracted by the vertical component of the
which in turn is energized by the amount of
earth’s ñeld. It should also be fpointed'out that
light falling thereon, determined by the inter,
this error is more prevalent when the body is set
ception of said light by the position of the com
pass needle. The output of the phototube is am
plified and the amplified result is in turn applied
to the relay roil |00. Thus, if the needle swings to
one side and allows considerable light to fall onto
the photocell, enough current will be provided
to the relay coil |00 to cause it to attract its ar
on a north course since any deviation therefrom
will tilt the vertical axis of the needle in such >a
plane that the vertical component of the earth’s
field has maximum effect. It is therefore termed
the north course error. The effect of this bias'
ing magnetic force upon the needle which is pro
portional to rudder displacement also acts asl a
2,407,555
magnetic follow-up device and tends >to align the
needle with the> photocell light source to balance
the same.
.
It will be seen by referring to Figure 1 that
there are two sources of power for coil 92. The
first is from batteries |38 and |48 which are con
nected through potentiometer ‘f8-»89 to coil 92.
When the former is balanced, no current flows
worm drives the worm wheel 68 vwhich carries the
two bevel gears 62 and 64 of> the differential.
Since at this particular instant shaft 44 is locked,
due to the fact that the rudder is in correct po
sition and so Vheld or locked for the moment, bevel
gear 6,0 will not rotate and the rotation of the
worm wheel 68 .will be transmitted through gears
82 .and 'S4 to gear 12 and therefore rotate- the
shaft ïiil. This in turn moves arm 1B of the lpo
through the coil, but when it is unbalanced, then
current will flow through the coil in a direction 1-0 tentiometer and this will approach its balanced
condition. The `motor circuit will be broken
dependent upon which way the arm 18 Vmoves
when arm Bil reaches a point. between the .two
from the center and proportional to the amount
of .displacement of the arm which is driven syn
chronously with the rudder.
Therefore which
ever side of neutral the rudder is moved, .a bias
ing magnetic field will be appliedto the compass
needle to tend to push lit back to neutral, the
strength of the field being proportional to the
rudder displacement.
arcs 8d and 85 which consists of insulating ma
terial of the member B2i It will be noted Athat
there are vtwo >of lthese positions at 1,80" apart.
Thus, lwhen the motor circuit is broken by >arm
til riding off the conductive member, the Vpoten
tiometer will lagain be balanced and the »system
adjusted.
VI claim;
It will be noted that there are two lines, name
ly, |216 and I'Bil, which extend from the power sup
ply for the steering motor I8 and are connected
across the co-il 92 through resistors |28 and |32
to provide -the second source. The effect of this
source of power is much less than that provided
'1. In a control system for a mobile body, steer
ing means for the body, magnetic .means respon
sive to the earth’s terrestrial field controlling the
steering means, current conducting means. for
creating a magnetic field mounted in juxtaposi
tion to the magnetic means, a source of power
by the batteries and balanced potentiometer, but
it does also provide ya magnetic biasing field which
therefor and adjustable means connected be
tween the source of power and said conducting
means controlling the flow of current to the lat
tends to move the compass needle in the opposite
direction from that in which the earth’s ñeld is
moving it to damp the needle movement and give 30 ter and therefore the strength of the magnetic
field created thereby.
it a force in the opposite direction where needle
2. In a control system for a mobile body, steer
movement causes the relay switch Illll to be ac
ing means for the body, magnetic means respon
tuated. Therefore, as the body tends to :move off
sive to the earth’s terrestrial field controlling Athe
steering means, current conducting means for
course, the needle will swing to one side, calling
for corrective rudder, and the relay lswitch IUD
will be actuated to drive motor I8 to move the
rudder. Current will be applied to coil B2 from
lines |26 and ißt, creating a magnetic field to
tend to force the needle back to its neutral posi
tion to prevent excessive swing. At the same
time, the motor turns the compass housing to
_provide mechanical follow-up for the same» pur
pose. Further magnetic field is provided by coil
creating a magnetic ñeld mounted in juxtaposi
tion to ,the magnetic means, a source of power
therefor, adjustable means connected between
the source of power and said conducting means
controlling the flow of current to the latter and
therefore the strength of the magnetic field cre
ated thereby, and means interconnecting the ad
justable means with the steering means so the
two will operate in .synchronism and the magnetic
simultaneous movement of the potentiometer ,i field generated will be proportional to the dis
placement of the steering means.
arm 18, which field, as previously described, pro
3. In a control system for a mobile body, steer
vides correction for the north turning error pro
9,2 as the rudder moves away from neutral by the
ing ¿means for the body, compass means for con
portional to rudder displacement,
trolling the steering means, a coil for creating a
From the above it will be obvious that when the
ship or craft is moving along its normal course, _
modifying magnetic field mounted adjacentl the
the potentiometer must normally be set at bal
compass, a source of power for the coil, and re
versing and varying means for the current con
nected between the .source and the coil for vary
and the craft is turned through operation of the
ing the effect of the latter on said compass.
manual steering wheel, the potentiometer will
4. In a control system'for a mobile body, steer
become unbalanced and the relation between the 55
ling'means for the body, compass means for con
compass housing and potentiometer changed.
trolling the steering means, a coil for creating a
Therefore, after the new course has been ascer
anced position.
If, therefore, a new course is set
tained, and the craft has been properly aligned,
in order to again balance the potentiometer and
regain proper relation to the control compass,
switch lai! is closed which completes the circuit
modifying magnetic ñeld mounted adjacent the
compass, a source of power for the coil,'r'eversing
Gil
`and varying means for the current connected
between the source and the coil for varying the
to the trim motor 15. The rotatable arm 90 and
the arcuate conducting discs 86 and 84 on mem
ber 82 control the trim motor, and a circuit is
effect of the latter on said compass, and means
interconnecting said steering means and said re
arm Si) is engaging arcuate member 84 or 8E.
Assuming that the arm 90 engages member 86
ing means for the body, compass means for con
trolling the steering means, a coil for creating a
as shown in the circuit diagram, the motor circuit
r modifying magnetic field mounted adjacent the
compass, a source of power for the coil, balanced
potentiometer means connected between the
source of power and coil and means interconnect
versing :and varying means whereby the effect of
therefore completed to this motor whose polarity (if) the >coil is determined by the position of the steer'
-ing means.
and therefore the direction of rotation of the
5.. In a control system for a mobile body, `steer
motor will depend upon whether the rotatable
will be completed as follows: motor 16, line |44,
arm 90, arcuate conductor B6, line |46, battery
|48, line |38, switch lll-.0, line |42, back >to .the
motor 16.
ing the potentiometer and the steering means
The rotation of this ’Iii whereby as the latter is moved from its center
This causes the worm 14 to be ro
tated in a given direction.
2,407,555.
7
8
position, current of one polarity or the other will
be applied to the coil and increased in propor
tion to the deflection of said steering means.
6. In a control system for a mobile body, steer
reversing switching means controlling the driving
means, compass means connected to and operat
ing the switching means, a coil mounted in juxta
position to the compass means and connected
across the driving means whereby as the polarity
of the current to the driving means is reversed,
the current now through the coil will also be re
versed and the eifect of the coil’s magnetic ñeld
ing means for the body, compass means for con
trolling the steering means, a coil for creating a
modifying magnetic field mounted adjacent the
compass, a source of power for the coil, balanced
potentiometer means connected between the
on the compass will likewise be reversed, a, sepa
source of power and coil, means interconnecting 10 rate source of power; a balanced potentiometer
thepotentiometer and the steering means Where
by as the latter is moved from its center position,
connected thereto and to the coil whereby any
unbalance of the potentiometer will cause addi
tional bias voltage to be applied to the coil which
may aid or oppose the first voltage to modify the
current of one polarity or the other will be ap
plied to the coil and increased in proportion to
the deflection of said steering means, driving 15 effect thereof, movable means for varying the
setting on the potentiometer driven by the driv
means differentially connected into the intercon
nection between the steering means and the po
tentiometer, means connecting the driving means
ing means, and a second driving means for re
turning the 'potentiometer to balanced condition
to the source of power and switching means be
when energized.
tween the source and the driving means actuated 20
11. In a control system for a mobile body,
by the movement of the interconnecting means
to bring the potentiometer to balanced position.
steering means for the body, a reversible driving
motor connected to said steering means, a source
of power, reversing switching means connected to
’7. In a control system for a mobile body, steer
ing means for the body, reversible driving means
the source and motor to control the same, com
pass means to actuate the switching means, a
coil mounted adjacent the compass means to
create a biasing neld therefor and connected to
for turning the latter in either direction, revers
ing switching means controlling the driving
means, compass means connected to and operat
ing the switching means, a coil mounted in jux
the reversing switching means whereby it will be
taposition to the compass means and connected
energized simultaneously with the motor.
across the driving means whereby as the polarity 30
12. In a control system for a mobile body,
of the current to the driving means is reversed,
steering means for the body, a reversible driving
the current flow through the coil will also be re
motor connected to said steering means, a, source
versed and the eifect of the coil’s magnetic held
of power, reversing switching means connected
on the compass will likewise be reversed.
to the source and motor to control the same,
8. In a control system for a mobile body, steer
compass means to actuate the switching means,
Íing means for the body, reversible driving means
a coil mounted adjacent the compass means to
for turning t .e latter in either direction, revers
create a biasing field therefor and connected to
ing switching means controlling the driving
the reversing switching means whereby it will be
means, compass means connected to and operat
energized simultaneously with the motor, a sep
ing the switching means, a coil mounted in juxta 40 arate source of power, a resistance connected
position to the compass means and connected
across said source, a movable contact engaging
across the driving means whereby as the polarity
said resistor and connected to said coil, means
of the current to the driving means lis reversed,
connecting said coil to the second source of
the current flow through' the coil will also be
power whereby when the circuit is balanced,
reversed and the effect of the coil’s magnetic field
no current flows through the coil from the sep
on the compass will likewise be reversed, a sepa
arate source, but when unbalanced, current may
rate source of power, and a balanced potentiom
flow in either direction, depending upon the di
eter connected thereto and to the coil whereby
rection of unbalance.
.any unbalance of the potentiometer will cause
13. In a control system for a mobile body,
additional bias voltage to be applied to the coil
steering means for the body, a reversible driving
which may aid or oppose the first voltage to mod
motor connected to said steering means, a source
ify the effect thereof.
of power, reversing switching means connected to
9. In a control system for a mobile body, steer
the
source and motor to control the same, com
ing means for the body, reversible driving means
pass means to actuate the switching means, a coil
for> turning the latter in` either direction, revers- .
ing switching means controlling the driving
means, compass means connected to and operat
ing the switch means, a coil mounted in juxtapo
sition to the compass means and connected across
’the driving means whereby as the polarity of
the current to the driving means is reversed, the
vcurrent now through the coil will also be reversed
and the'eifect of the coil’s magnetic field on the
compass will likewise be reversed, a separate
source of power, a balanced potentiometer con
mounted adjacent the compass means to create a
biasing ñeld therefor and connected to the re
versing switching means whereby it will be ener
gized simultaneously with the motor, a separate
»source of power, a resistance connected across
60 said source, a movable contact engaging said re
sistor and connected to said coil, means Connect
ing 'said coil to the second source of power where
by when the circuit is balanced, no current ilows
through lthe coil from the separate source, but
when unbalanced, current may flow in either di
nected thereto and to the coil whereby any un
rection, depending upon the direction of unbal
balance of the potentiometer will cause addi
ance, and means interconnecting the steering
tional bias voltage to be applied to the coil which
means and the movable contact to cause them to
may aid or oppose the viirst voltage to modify the
move together to apply an additional biasing force
effect thereof, and movable means for varying 70 to the compass means, dependent upon the posi
the setting on the potentiometer driven by the
tion of the steering means.
driving means.
14. In a control system for a mobile body, steer
l0. In a control system for a mobile body,
ing
means for the body, a reversible driving motor
steering means for the body, reversible driving
connected to said steering means, a source of
Ameans for turning the latter in either direction,
power, reversing switching means connected to
2,407,555
the source and motor to control the same, com
10
means for turning theïlatter in either direction,
pivotal compass means controlling the driving
pass means to actuate the switching means, a
means and means for creating a magnetic ñeld in
coil mounted adjacent the compass means to cre
the vicinity of said compass to bias the same con
ate a biasing ileld therefor and connected to the
nected to said driving means and energized simul
reversing switching means whereby it Will be en
taneously therewith.
n
ergized simultaneously with the motor, a separate
18. In a control systemv for a mobile body, steer~
source of power, a resistance connected across
ing means for the body, reversible driving means
said source, a movable contact engaging said re
for turning the latter inl either direction, compass
sistor and connected to said coil, means connect- l means, switching means controlled by the com
ing said coil to the second source of power where
pass meansl to actuate the driving means, means
by when the circuit is balanced, no current ñows
for creating a biasing magnetic iield in the vicin
through the coil from the separate source, but
ity of the compass means connected to and ener
when unbalanced, current may flow in either di
gized simultaneously with the driving means to
rection, depending upon the direction of unbal-. a damp the movement of :the compass.
ance, means interconnecting the steering means
19. In a control system'for a mobile body, steer
and the movable contact to cause them to move
ing means for the body, reversible driving means
together to apply an additional biasing force to
for turning the latter in either direction, com
the compass means, dependent upon the position
pass means, switching means controlled by the
of the steering means, a second driving motor, and 20 compass means to actuate the driving means,
interconnecting means between this second motor
means for creating a biasing magnetic ñeld in the
and the movable contact to provide for driving
vicinity of the compass means connected to and
said movable contact to balanced position without
energized simultaneously with the driving means
moving said steering means.
and an additional source of adjustable power con
l5. In a control system, steering means, means
nected to the magnetic means to supplement the
25
including compass means controlling the steering
power supplied thereto from the driving means.
means, and means for creating a magnetic ñeld
20. In a control system for a mobile body,
in the vicinity of the compass means energizable
steering means for the body, reversible driving
simultaneously with the steering means to create
means for turning the latter in either direction,
a repulsive force in an opposite direction to that
30 compass means, switching means controlled by
in which the compass tends to move due to the
the compass means to actuate the driving means,
terrestrial iield.
means for creating a biasing magnetic field in the
16. In a control system, compass means, means
vicinity of the compass means connected to and
controlled thereby to steer a, mobile body on a pre
energized simultaneously with the driving means,
determined course and magnetic biasing means
an additional source of adjustable power connect
35
in juxtaposition to the compass means energized
ed to the magnetic means to supplement the pow
from the control means to create a magnetic field
er supplied thereto from the driving means, and
to tend to cause the compass to move in a direc
means for adjusting the value of the last-named
tion opposite from that in which the terrestrial.
power means actuated by the driving means.
ñeld tends to move it.
40
17. In a control system, steering means, re
CHARLES F. KE'I'I'ERING.
versible driving means connected to lsaid steering
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