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Патент USA US2407559

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Sept. 10, 1946.v
-
'
v w, c, KRE'ss
2,407,558.
RATCHET FOR SOCKET \‘(RENCHES
Filed Nov. '16, 1944
Ti“?
8%
’ 72 177
i’ziorwe s
"39
Patented Sept. 10, 1946
2,407,558
UN ITEDTI. STAII5ESTYv PAT
OF ‘FSICEJL
RATCHET FORTSOCKET“WRENCHES“
2,407,558
L
Willard‘ G.Williams
'Kr‘e'ss," Buffalo,
8560;,‘ Buffalop-NsY.
N. Y.‘,'lassignorr-toi.l;
ApplicationNovember-l?, 1944; 'Serial NOZ563;771Z
13 Claims?“ (01. 192L431)?‘
1 .
particularly
Thi'syinvention'
to those.utilized
relates. to ratchet
with toolsdrives,
such
‘and
as .
closed
a cylindrical"shell‘having
‘end-3i "The closed end
anropenrendi
-3‘ has an axial-exam
andY-a‘
socket wrenches and the‘like‘.‘ .
An object of the? invention is to provide an im;
proved‘ratchet drive whichican be set to drive in
tension. 4 which‘ is non circularcand preferably“
square or hexagonalin transverse cross “section,»'"
it being. square‘ in ‘the particularv example-illus-W'
either direction. selectively and ratchet ‘in the "
trated. ‘.In‘one of the faces of this ‘extensionis a“ “'
other direction, in .an intermediate position in
andthus'serves'as
which it ‘does notatdiréct
ratchet.
coupling
in either
drivebetween
direction . .
ball 35' pressed outwardly'by a spring,‘ not shown,“
to slightly less “than ‘half way‘out'so 8.8170 form“
a springoperated' detent foren'gaging in‘ 3;.1‘6CBSS""‘
the drivingand driven parts, andwhichwill be" 10 in the lsocket of a member to be 'coupled'thereto T‘
relatively.‘ ‘simple, strong, durable, compact, easily. 1.‘
manipulatedand inexpensive. .
as a part of the ‘drive.
anAnother.
.improved
object
ratchet...
of the'invention.
drive. having.isthe
to .-various
provide
The .insidaof the lba‘rrel part I‘ is generally?“
cylindrical
riphery. of this
‘in sha'pa'and
barrel I is aaround
row ofthis
teethil?.
inner'pe;
“The”
operating ..parts . well enclosed,..so. . as to be . pro--.
individual teeth. run in a direction lengthwise‘lof "."L
tected against thelentrance .of-..dirt and. other...
foreign lmattennandnlarge, .power. -.transmitting
capabilities. in. a. small .compact space, which may
be set to ‘causetthe drive in .either directionor
in .both directions at will by. a simpleoperation
which
of a conveniently.
the controlpositionedcontrol
memberwillremain
member,
in itswith]
dif-..
ferent: adjusted positions. . .until , the. coupling. is .
de?nitelychangedand whichwill rlequirea-mini...
thischamber. in the'barrel part or elementl; and “
thechamber...
anotl1er,=-but.
areallarrangedsidejby
inThis
a row
.rowaround
.side‘and.
of ‘teeth
theparallel
is periphery"
shown
vto.par-.
one
of l
ticularly in Figs. .4 and» 6. " .These-teeth are pref-f ‘
erably._.y shaped iii-‘character,withlthe. dihedral “‘
angleof theiapexrapproximately .a rightangle. I
Another element. or inner. part‘! .t‘elescopesrinto . r
mumof seryicingand attention, .
Other. objects and . advantages. will. be apparent. .<
.. the.
the chamber
openaendof.2,the
and
‘barrel-part
has a. cylindrical
.or element
,part
through.
..8 . en.
fromthe following .description of oneembodiment ..
the. .chamberl-of the-element »|, to provide .a bear-.
gagingma corresponding. cylindrical portionlll i'n' .
of the.invention,iand the novelieaturesmwill be...» ing surfacecbetween them. The sbearing..surface.....
particularlypointed out hereinafter in connection 30. 9 is between the opemendl. and‘therow. of teeth.‘
with the appendedlclaimsv. . .
6. ~The'1partJl has :a cylindrical bearing. end I011.
whichds substantiallyrconcentricwith- theaxis of Q
ratchet
Fig.1drive.
is .a constructed
sidemelevationrat
in accordance
-full.sca1e,.of>
with-this
a » the:.bearing surface 8,-and‘ at .its 'free endit ap-..
proximately abuts against-.thei'inner end ,wall 3
invention; .
of thebarrelorpartslttotransmit thrust between“
Fig.2. is. a planet the same; ; ..
35 vthe parts}. andtl inan: endwisecdirection. "-Beé,
In ‘the ‘accompanying. drawing: .
Fig. .3.is a longitudinal sectionalelevation of the . ..
same .on anenlarged scale, the sectionloeing taken...”
approximately along. the .line 3-3 of Fig.2; ..
Fig.4 is a bottom .sectionaLp'lan of the same»,
tween the'bearing. portiomB 'andlthe bearing end :
l?,wthis»:inner~part- ‘I has cut. awayportions or».
grooveswll and I2 runningiina direction endwisew.
of thenpart? and these'itwovcutaway-portionsl I ~ .
the section being taken‘ approximately along-the‘. 40
and ~.I2,:lbetween‘sthem;havea
the *apex ioutermosts : .
V-shaped walltl3
line ll—4 of Fig.‘ 3, ‘and looking. in the direction. . with‘
of the arrows;
Formed in the bottomof theicutawayportionw
Fig. 5is a longitudinal sectional'elevationbf theI .
(Fig;
l l is :6)
a -.concave,
‘having : apartially.
length‘ approximately
cylindrical bearing:
. equal to
t4 1-.
along the‘line 5—5 of Fig? 4; ‘
. the 'lengths‘of thetteeth-t and extending. in trans
Fig“. .6 is’a bottom sectional ‘plan of. the'same, .
verse.-cut'saway:
section-1 slightly
portion:1more»..than
l2 hasra similartbearing
a half circle.
the section beingztaken approximately'along the" ' The
same, thei. section being taken . approximately‘ _.
line 646 of Fig.5 and l'ooking'in the‘ direction of
the arrows; and
'
.
Fig.‘ 7 is an elevation of the cam disc forming'a 50
part of the control of the direction of effectiveness" ‘
of the drive.‘ "
surface l-5.».-.A ratchetpawl lthas a partially cym
lindrical, .convex surface .11. along one edge which- ..
?ts
this and
bearing
is rotatably
surface llbeing
received considerably
in thebearing
in ex‘
J4,
cess of a half. c'ylin‘denso that the pawl It may ..
In the illustrated embodiment ‘of the-invention,“ rock in the'bearing' [4 through a substantialan;
the ratchet drive includes‘ a hollow, 'barrel'shaped‘
gle.' ,sir?ila‘i‘ly?a pawl l‘8 has a ‘convex,'cylindri‘;' f
element or outer part1, generally in‘the forin‘of' '55 cal'bearingfportion 19 along one ‘edge'iwhich is I
2,407,558
3
rockably mounted in the bearing I5, this bearing
surface i9 being considerably more than a half
cylinder, so that the pawl I8 may rock through
a considerable angle in the bearing I5. Both
pawls I6 and I8 can abut against the converging
walls that form the wall I3, as shown by the
position of the pawl I8 in Fig. 6.
Each of the'pawls I6 or I8 at its outer or free
end is provided with a notch 26 of approximately
90° and en-gageable over any one of the V shaped
teeth 6 aligned therewith at any time, as shown,
for example, by the position of the pawl I6 in
Fig.5. One wall of each notch 20 is approxi; '
mately normal to a radius to the cylindrical bear-' ,
ing IT or IE1 of that pawl, so that when the notch
26 is engaged over a tooth 6, as shown .by the
position of the pawl I6 in Fig.‘ 6, that wall of
4
engagement with the teeth 6 by its related spring
pressed ball 22. If the cam or disc 26 is rocked to‘
the left in Fig. 4, the pin 25 will be released so
that pawl I8 may be urged yieldingly into en
gagement with ‘the teeth 6, and immediately
thereafter the opposite end of the notch 28 en
gages the pin 24 and cams the pawl I6 out of en
gagement with the teeth 6. Thus it will be ob
served that by rocking of the cam or disc 26 on
the bearing end ID of the part ‘I, the pawls- I6 and
. I8. may be alternately disengaged from the teeth
6. The notch 28 is long enough, however, so that
when the cam 26 is in an intermediate position,
both pins 24 and 25 will be released sufficiently to
enable both pawls I6 and I8 to fully engage with
the ratchet teeth 6 of the barrel or part I.
' The face of the own or disc 26 which abuts
against the end of the V shapedwall I3 is pro
the notch 20 which is normal to the radius to
vided with a radially extending slot or notch 29,
the bearing of that pawl will be in full abutting‘
relation, ?atwise, against one face or wall of that 20 see Fig. 7, which receives a cam 38, Figs. 4 and 5.
This cam 36 is ?xed upon one end of a rod or
tooth 6 over which the notch 26 is engaged, and
shaft 31 which extends parallel to and at one
provides a direct thrust on that tooth 6 through
side of the axis of relative rotation between the
the bearing axis of that pawl. Thus, when either
parts I and ‘I to: a point outside of the barrel part
pawl is-in engagement with the teeth 6, it will
provide a drive between parts I and ‘I, and there 25 I, as shown in Fig. 5. This rod 3I is rotatably
mounted in the part ‘I, and its outer end has a
will be no camming action arising through the
portion substantially exposed through a recess
transmission of ‘force. between the parts, which
32, see Fig. 1, provided in the periphery of the _
wouldtend to disengage either pawl from the
part ‘I at the end exteriorly of the part I. This
teeth. The teeth, however, may move away from
exposed end of the rod 3! carries an operating
either pawl in one direction, and eachpawl may
handle 33, Figs. 1, 2 and 5, by which the rod 3|
ride freely over the teeth when-the edge of the
may be rocked to a limited extent, during which
pawl having the notch 28 is the trailing edge of
rocking movement the cam 36 on the inner end
the pawl during relative rotation of the parts I
thereof alternately engages opposite sides of the
and ‘I. . With the arrangement shown, the pawl
I6 provides, a direct drive between parts I and ‘I 35 notch or slot 29 in the cam 26 and rocks the lat
ter about the bearing end II! to alternately dis
in ‘one direction and rides freely over the teeth
engage the pawls I6 and I8 from the teeth 6.
in the other direction, and the pawl I8 provides
A washer 34 is also rotatably mounted on the’
a direct drive between the parts I and‘l during
bearing end It and is disposed between the cam
this other direction of relative movement and
26 and the inner end 3 of the outer part I as
ridesfreely over the teeth 6 during said one di
shown in Fig. 5. This washer is provided with a
rection ‘of relative movement. When both pawls
recess 35 on its face abutting the end 3, and a
I6 and I8 engage teeth 6 at the same time, there
helical compression spring 36 is disposed in this
is a full coupling between both parts I and ‘I in
recess 35 so as to urge the washer 34 against the
'
In the face of each wall II and I2 there is a 45 end face of the cam. 26 and provide some fric
tional resistance against movement of the cam
recess 2 I, Figs. 3, 5 and 6, in which is received a
26. The periphery of the washer 34 has a bear
ball 22 that is urged outwardly» by a helical com
ing engagement with the cylindrical end portion
' pression spring 23, Fig. 6, but the outer end of v
of the chamber in the‘ barrel element or part I,
each recess 2| is slightly constricted so as to pre
vent full ejection of the ball therefrom. These 50 and also has a bearing on the bearing end III.
The part ‘I, at a zone just within the barrel ele
balls ‘urge the pawls individually,‘ resiliently,
both directions of relative movement.
ment or part I, has'an outwardly facing shoulder
yieldingly and outwardly into engagement with
31, Figs. ‘3 and 5, formed by reducing the out
the teeth 6 of the barrel part I. The pawl I6
wardly extending end of the part ‘I. The open
has 'apin 24 extending therefrom in a direction
parallel to the axis of rotation between the parts 55 end 2 of the part I, at a short distance from its
extreme ‘open end, is provided with a circular
I and ‘I and towards the inner end wall of the
groove 38._ A split, resilient ring 39 is disposed in
part, I. The other pawl I8 has a similar pin 25
the groove 38 and extends radially and inwardly
extending in the same direction.v A cam disc 26,
into the chamber of the barrel part and overlaps
as shown separately'in Fig. '7, has a central bear
ing aperture 2? which is rotatably mounted on 60 with the shoulder3‘l to limit outward movement
the bearing end ID of the innerpart ‘I, and abuts
of the part ‘I in a direction endwise of that part.
against the end of the wall I3. A notch or
The spring 36, by its endwise pressure on the
opening 28 is provided in the periphery of this
washer 34 and the part ‘I, holds the shoulder 31
cam 26 and into itrthe pins 24 and 25 extend.
When the cam or disc 26 is rocked 0n the bearing
, against the ring 39 as shown in Fig. 3. The part
‘I may be pushed endwise and inwardly of the‘
part I a small amount, to release pressure on ‘the
ring 39 and enable, its removal when one, desires
to remove the inner part ‘I from the outer part, I.
those pins away from the adjacent teeth 6, so
The outer end of the part ‘I is provided with a
as to disengage the pawls alternately from the
teeth 6._ t
.
,
7
Q
7
70 non-circular recess llilto receivea correspond
ingly squared end of a part of the drive. The
In Fig. 4 one end of the notch 28 is shown as
recess 46 corresponds to the socket of a socket
engaging the pin 25 and holding the pawl I8 dis
Wrench, and is usually made hexagonal orsquare
engaged from the teeth 6, and at the same time
as‘ may be desired, but in the example shown,
theother end of the notch 28 has fully released
the pin 24 so that the pawl I6 can be urged into 75 this recess or socket 46 is square in its periphery,
end I0, the ends of the notch or opening 28 will
alternately‘ engage the pins 24 and 25 and carry
5
aromas
The open end '2 ‘of the: part "I may have a notch
or slot ll, "Fig. 2,:leading to'the "groove 38'to' en“
‘The handle '33 is conveniently positioned v‘for
adjustment, and all of the par‘tso'f the mecha
abl'e a to‘ol‘to beinser‘ted ‘behind the "ring 39 suf
nism iare fully-‘enclosed so‘ as‘ ‘to 2be protected from
?'ci'ently ‘to pryonepart ‘of‘th'e ring 39, “adjacent
the ‘split ‘therein, isu‘f?'cieritly to disengage it ‘from
the groove 38.
‘The cam 30fexten'dsi'to one-‘side of ‘the rod 3| “a
further distance than the other, and the maxi-_
mum width or ‘diameter of‘the'cam is less than
the width‘o'fthe radial‘slot ‘ZS'in‘the'cam 26. The
edge "zones or portions of the cam 30 furthest
from and'nearest’to the ‘rod 31 are'oircular, with
their‘cent'ers of ‘curvature‘at thelongitudinal axis
of ‘the rod '3! , so that ‘when ‘said circular edge
zones of the ‘cam 30 'engages‘either side of the
slot 2'9,'-the 'thrust‘between that s'ideof “the notch
dirt and other ‘foreign matter. It will also be
noted that‘ byhaving'the pawlsimountedfor oscil
lati‘on on axes which are parallel to ‘the axis'vof
rotation between the 'parts “I and 11, the teeth
engaging edges 'of the lp'awls maybe made of, sub
stantial length, and'the teeth'B mayalso‘be made
of substantial ‘length. This ‘gives substantial
strength to the‘ structure, and rather heavy driv
ing ‘forces may be transmitted with safety ‘be-r
tween the parts without danger of ‘breakage for
the pawls orother parts. The arrangement also
accomplishes this heavy driving (capacity ‘with
great compactness of the drive.
‘It will be understood that various changes'in
ZQ-an'djthe cam 30 will not cause rotation of the
cam. =‘Ifhus, when the rod *3}! is ‘rocked in either
the details, materials andvarrangements-oif parts,
direction, vthe circular peripheral ‘zones of the
which‘ havelbeen herein described and “illustrated
cam '30 “'by vengagement ‘with the sides of the 20 in order‘ to ‘explain the nature #of the invention,
notch 29 of the cam 26-williho1d the cam “26in
maybe made by those skilled {in the art‘within
that ‘adjusted position ‘and prevent ‘any danger
of the cam 26 being accidentally shifted'by-any
o'f‘t'he "driving ‘forces in a manner to change the
control'of’the- pawls thereby.
It‘i’s believed ‘that ‘the operation of the ‘drive
will 'be-clear from the preceding description of
the construction, but it will be brie?y summar
ized. Assuming that the drive is assembled vwith
the'parts “in the relation shown in Figs. 1 to 6, '
and‘ thatthe extension 4 of part I is received in
a's‘ocketc‘f apart to'be driven, and that ‘aidriv
ingpart has a squareend ‘disposed in the recess
4'0 in ‘the outer ‘end of part 1, the operator v?rst
the principle ‘and scope of the invention Ias'vexi- '
pressed in the appended claims.
roam":
'1'. A ratchet drive comprising ‘a driving‘ part
and a driven part partially telescoping endwii‘se
and having cooperating ‘bearing surfaces ‘rotate
ably ‘supportingon‘e from the-other, 'oneaof said
parts ‘havingv ‘a peripherally extending row/"oi
teeth, the other of said ‘parts mounting a pair
of pawls ‘for individual movement ‘into and out
of "engagement with said "teeth, 'one paWLby its
engagement with said teeth, preventing relative
rotation of said parts inone direction and ri'd
operates the'handl‘e 33~tot1he~end position which
ing idly over the teeth in the ‘other direction,
causes the ‘release of the particularlpawl which
and the other‘ pawl, by its engagement with said
is to give the desired direction of drive. In Figs.
teeth, preventing relative rotation of the ‘parts
4 and 6 it is the pawl if?which is vreleased for
in ‘said other direction and riding idly ‘over
engagement with the teeth "6, and the pawl f8 ‘is
said teeth in said one direction, means re
disengaged "from the teeth '6. ‘When 'the'inner 4.0 siliently iurgin'g "both of said pawls individ
part “1' is ‘rotated ‘counter clockwise ‘in
<4, it
ually into engagement with said teeth, ‘said
will impart a similar movement‘to ‘the-outer part
pawls having extensions at corresponding ends
‘I, and-when the vinner part ‘l is given a clock
eccentric 'to their pivotal axes, and ‘a ‘disk dis‘
wise movement in Fig. *4, the‘pawl ‘I16 1will,ratchet
posed transversely across the ends of said pawls',
or "ride "idly ‘over the teeth ‘6 during ‘which there in. OnI mounted for ‘movement back and forth about
is no driving ‘action between the parts 7| “and ‘I.
the axis of relative rotation 'of said parts and
"If new the handle ‘33‘ is moved ‘to ‘itsother "end
having‘ an opening into which said pawl ‘exten
position, the cam 39 will‘be rockedTfromithe 'po
sions continuously project, said disk when ro
sition ‘shown "in Fig. ‘4 to the right, or clockwise
in‘that ?gure, ‘so "as to rock 'the cam 25 inva di "50 tated in either direction having one end oisa‘id
opening engaging the extension of one pawl :and
rection to have one ‘end of‘ the notch 128 ‘en
forcing it out of engagement with said ‘teeth
gage pin 14 on ipaw'l l6 and‘disengage ipawl to
while the other end of the opening fully releases
from the ratchet teeth i6,
immediately
the extension on the other pawl, :and disengag
thereafter ‘ifully release ‘the pin ‘25 on :pawl l8
so "that the ‘pawl I 8 may ibe‘yieldingly urged {into 7
engagement with the teeth ?fand'provide a driv
ingsaidpawls alternately as saidldisk moves back
and ‘forth, ‘said opening having a length in the
direction of movement of said disk greater‘th'an
ing'c'onnection between the parts l'an'd'i'l. With
the distance between said “extensions whenboth
that ‘relation of the parts, *When the part 1 is
pawlsiengage with said teeth, whereby whenlsaid
‘given a clockwise rotation ‘in Fig. 4, the'pawl i=8
disk is in an intermediate angular position in
woulddrive the ‘part “I in the sam'ecdirection-but
would ride idly over the‘iteethi? "during. :counter ‘60 its adjustmerihthe ends of the opening will ‘fully
release ‘both pawls‘for engagement with .said
clockwise movement ofthelpart Tin ‘Fig. ,4.
teeth.
‘If the handle =33 ‘is movedfinto fan intermediate
position, ‘where neither end of the ‘slot12'8 holds
,2. A ratchet drive comprising a driving part
and a driven part partially telescoping endwise
a pawl “out ‘of engagement with the teeth‘6,'then '65and
having cooperating bearing-surfaces rotat
both 'pawls iB'and I58 will'be ireefto‘b‘e moved into
ably
supporting one, from the other, one of said
engagement with the teeth ‘6 ‘by their "spring
parts ‘having a peripherally extending row of
pressed balls 22, ‘and ‘one .p'awl will ‘provide a ‘di
teeth, .the other of said parts mounting a pair
rect drive in one direction, and ‘the otherp‘awl
of pawlsior individual movement into ‘and out
in the other direction, with "no idle or ‘ratchet 70 of engagement with said teeth, one pawl, by its
‘movement whatever. Thus the ‘device ‘can be set
engagement with said teeth, preventing relative
‘to ratchet ‘in one direction or ‘the other ‘selec
rotation of, said partsin one direction and'ridin‘g
ti’vely, or‘i't may Joe placed in a locked ‘condition
idly over the teeth in the other direction, and
whichthere ‘is no ratchet Jaction, buta direct
‘theother pawl, by its ‘engagement‘with said‘teeth,
‘drive’in'both directions.
"75 ‘preventing ‘relative ‘rotation ‘of *the "parts "in ‘said
2,407,558,
7
.
other direction and riding idly over said teeth
in said one direction, means resiliently urging
bothof said pawls individually into engagement
with said teeth, an element mounted on said part
carrying said pawls and adjustable thereon be
tween three positions in one of which it shifts
one of said pawls out of engagement with said
teeth, holds it so disengaged, and releases the
other pawl, in another of which it shifts said
other pawl out of engagement with said teeth, 10
8
engagement with said teeth, one pawl, by its
engagement with said teeth, ‘preventing relative
rotation of said parts in one direction andv rid
ing idly over the teeth in the other direction, and
the other pawl, by its engagement with said vteeth,
preventing relative rotation of the parts in said
‘other direction and riding idly over said teeth
in said one direction, means resiliently urging
both of said pawls individually into engagement
with said teeth, said pawls having extensions at
corresponding ends, an element mounted for
movement back and'forth about the axis of rela
and in the third of which positions it releases
tive rotation of said parts and having a notch
both of said pawls concurrently, a shaft rockably
in which said pawl extensions are disposed, said
mounted on said part carrying said pawls and
extending in a direction parallel to the rocking 15 element when rotated in either direction engag
ing the extension of one pawl and forcing it out
axes of the pawls to a point exteriorly of the
of engagement with said teeth while the other
telescoping parts, said shaft at one end having
end of the notch fully releases the extension on
a cam part engaging with said element to shift
the other pawl, and disengaging said pawls alter
it between said positions when said shaft is
rocked, and the outer end of said shaft having 20 nately as said element moves back and forth,
said notch having a length in the, direction of
an operating handle by which it may be rocked
movement of said element greater than the dis
in order to- change the adjustments of said ele
tance between said extensions when both pawls
ment.
engage with said teeth, whereby when said ele
3. A ratchet drive comprising a driving part
and a driven part partially telescoping endwise 25 ment is in an intermediate position in its adjust
ment, the ends of the notches will fully release
and having cooperating bearing surfaces rotat
both pawls for engagement with said teeth, a rod
ably supporting one from the other, one of said
rockably mounted about its longitudinal axis
parts having a peripheral row of longitudinally
holds it so disengaged, and releases said one pawl,
and extending parallel to the axis of rotation of
extending teeth, the other of said parts mounting
a pair of pawls for individual movement into and 30 said part carrying the pawls, and means ?xed
on the inner end of said rod and having a cam
out of engagement with said teeth, one pawl, by
its engagement withsaid teeth, preventing rela
tive rotation of said parts in one direction and
riding idly over the teeth in the other direction,
engagement with said element for rocking it be
tween said different positions, said rod extend
ing outwardly beyond the telescoping portions of
and the other pawl,‘ by its engagement with said 35 said parts and there having an exposed portion
accessible for operation ‘when a shifting of said
teeth, preventing relative rotation of the parts
in said other direction and riding idly over said
teeth in said one direction, means resiliently urg
pawls is desired.
‘
‘
5. A ratchet device comprising ‘a, hollow, barrel
part open at one end, an inner part partially
ing both of said pawls individually into engage
ment with said teeth, a cam disk extending across 40 telescoping endwise within said barrel part, said
the ends of the pawls, mounted for rocking move
ment about an axis parallel to the rocking axes
of said pawls and having an opening in the face
towards the pawls in which the ends of the pawls
are continuously received and extending in a
direction about the rocking axis, said pawls being
engaged alternately by the ends of said opening,
a member mounted for oscillation about an axis
parts having cooperating bearing surfaces rotat
ably supporting one from the other, said barrel‘
part having a row of teeth around its inner'pe
riphery, said inner part rockably mounting a pair
of pawls for individual rocking movement about
axes parallel to the axis of relative rotation of
said parts, individually into and out of engage
ment with said teeth, one of said pawls, by its
engagement with the teeth,’ preventing relative
parallel to, but eccentric of the axis of relative
rotation between said parts and engageable with 50 rotation of said parts in one direction and riding
idly over the teeth in the other direction, the
said disk to rock it selectively between two posi
other of said pawls, by its engagement with said‘
tions, in one of which one end of said opening
teeth, preventing relative rotation of the parts in
shifts one of said pawls out of engagement'with
said other direction and riding idly overithe
said teeth and holds it so disengaged while the
opposite end of the opening releases the other 55 teeth in said one direction, means resiliently
pawl, and in another of which it shifts the other '
urging said pawls individually into engagement
pawl out of engagement with said teeth, holds it
with said teeth, an element rockably mounted on
said inner part adjacent the inner end of said
barrel part and having an opening therein, and
pawls, the opening being of a length, in the
direction of movement of said disk, greater than 60 said pawls having eccentric pins extending into
and continuously remaining in said opening so
the distance between said pawl ends when both as to be alternately engaged by {the ends of said
pawls engage said teeth, whereby when said disk
opening when said element is rocked on said inner
is in an intermediate position it releases both
part, the, ends of said notch alternately engag
of said pawls for engagement with said teeth, said member being accessible for operation from , 65 ing and shifting said pawls out of engagement
so disengaged and releases the said one of said
the exterior of said telescoping parts, whereby
said pawls may be selectively shifted while said
parts remain assembled.
with said teeth while releasing the other pawl for
engagement with said teeth, said notch having a
length sufficient, when at an intermediate 'posi
tion, to fully release the pins of both pawls for
4. A ratchet drive comprising a driving part
and a driven part partially telescoping endwise 70 simultaneous engagement of said pawls with said
teeth, and means engaging said element extend‘
and having cooperating bearing surfaces rotat
ing from said element lengthwise of the barrel
ably supporting one from the other, one of said
part to its outer end and there accessible for'opk
parts having a peripherally extending row of
eration from the exterior of said telescoping parts
teeth, the other of said parts mounting a pair
of pawls forindividual movement into and out of 75 for rocking said element ‘in opposite’ directions
2,407,558
r 9
10
to, control the I engagement , of , sai d- pawls with said
having alengthsu?icient, when at anintermedi
ate position, to fully release the, pins of both pawls
teeth.
‘
‘
a
'
,
,
,
6. ‘A- ratchet device. comprising a. hollow, barrel
part open-lat, one, end, an inner part partially tele
scoping endwise within said barrel part, said
par-ts, having cooperating bearing surfaces r0,
tatably supporting one, from the other, said bar
rel‘ part having a row of teeth around itsfinner
Periphery, said inner part rockably mounting a
pairoi pawls, for individual rocking. movement
about axes parallel to the axis of relative rota~
tion of, said parts, individually into and, out of
engagement with said teeth, one, of. said pawls,
by its engagement with‘ said teeth, preventing
relative rotationof said parts in one directignand
ridingidly over the teeth in the other direction,
the other of said pawls, by its engagement with
said; teeth, preventing relative rotation, of the
parts insaidother direction ‘and riding idly over
for simultaneous engagement of said pawls with
said teeth, means engaging said element and ac
cessible for operation from the exterior of said
telescoping parts for rocking said element in op
posite directions‘ to control the engagement of
said pawls with said teeth, a washer disposed be,
tween the, inner part and the inner end of. said
barrel part and having an end face bearing
against, said element so as to frictionally retard
its rocking movement on said inner part, and a
spring acting between the inner end of, said barrel
part and said washer, and urging said washer
endwise against said element so_ as to frictionally
hold said element in its different adjusted‘ posi
tions.
,
8. A ratchet device, comprising a hollow, bar
rel part open at one end, an inner part partially
theteeth in said one direction, means resiliently
telescoping endwise within‘said barrel part, said
urging said pawls individually into engagement
parts having cooperating bearing surfaces rotat
with’ said teeth, an element rockably mounted. on
ably supporting one. from the other, said barrel
said inner part adjacent the inner end. of, said
barrel part and having an opening therein, and
said pawls having pins extending into and al
part having, a row of teeth around its, inner pe
ways remaining in said openingso as to bealter
nately engaged by the ends of said'opening when
‘said element is rocked on said inner part, the
ends of'said notch-alternately engaging andshift
ing said pawls out of engagement with said teeth
while releasing the other pawl for engagement
with‘ said‘ teeth, said notch having a length great
er- than the distance between said pins and. suf
ficient, when at an intermediate position, to fully
release the pins of both pawls for simultaneous -,
engagementof said pawls with said teeth, means
engaging said element extending, lengthwise of
said parts to the open end of the barrel part ,and
there. accessible for operation from the exterior
ofsaid telescoping parts for rocking said element
in opposite directions to control the ‘engagement
of said pawls with said teeth, andmeans. at. the
inner end of said barrel and acting between said
barrel part and said element for frictionally re~
sisting movement'of said element on said inner
part.
7, Aratchet device comprising a hollow, barrel
part open“ at one end, an, inner part partially
telescoping endwise within said barrel part, said
parts having cooperating bearing surfaces rota
tably supporting one from the other, said barrel
part having a row- of teeth around its inner pe
riphery, said innerpart rockably mounting a pair
of pawls for individual rock-ing movement about
riphery, said inner part rockably mountings, pair
of pawls for individual rocking movement about
axes parallel to the axis of relative rotation of
said parts, individually into and out of engage.
ment with said teeth, one of, said lpawls, by its
engagement with said teeth, preventing relative
rotationof said parts inone direction and riding
idly over the teeth in the other, direction, the
other of. said pawls, by its engagement with said
teeth, preventing relative rotation of the parts
in said other direction and riding idly over the
teeth in said one direction, means, resiliently
urging said pawls individually into engagement
with said teeth, an element rockably mounted
on said inner partadjacent the inner end of, said
barrel, part and having an opening therein, and
said pawls having pins extending into said open
ing so as to be alternately engagedby the ends
of said opening when said, element is rockedon
said inner part,,the ends of said notch alternately
engaging and shifting said pawls out of engage
,- ment with said teeth while releasing‘the other
pawl for engagement with said teeth, saidnotch
having a length sufficient, when at an interme
diate position, to fully release the pins of both
pawlsfor simultaneous engagement of said pawls
with said teeth, a rod extending in a direction
lengthwise of said inner part and rockably
mounted for oscillation on its own axis, by said
inner part, and a connection between the inner
end of said rod and said element for transmit
ting rocking movements of said rod into rock
ing movements of said element, said rod extend
ing out of the telescoping relation between said
parts and having its outer end exposed for man
axes parallel to the axis of relative rotation of
said parts; individually into- and out of engage
ment with said teeth, one of said pawls, by its
engagement with said teeth, ‘preventing relative
rotation of said parts in one direction and riding
idly over the teeth in the other direction, the
other of said pawls, by its engagement with: said
teeth, preventing relative rotation of the parts in
said other direction and riding idly over the teeth
in said one direction, means resiliently urging
tially telescoping endwise within said barrel part,
said parts having cooperating bearing surfaces
rotatably supporting one from the other, said
said pawls individually into engagement with
barrel part having a row of teeth around its inner
said teeth, an element rockably mounted on said
inner part. adjacent, the inner end of said barrel
part and having an opening therein, and said
periphery, said inner part, rockably mounting a
pair of pawls for individual rocking movement
pawls-‘having pins. extending into said opening
tion of said parts, individually into and out of
engagement with said teeth, one of said pawls,
by its engagement with said teeth, preventing
so: as to be alternately engaged by the ends of
said opening when. said element is rocked on said
inner part, the ends of said notch alternately
engaging and shifting said pawls. out of engage
ment, with said teeth while releasing the other
ual rocking, operation.
9. A ratchet device comprising a hollow,
barrel, part open, at one,‘ end, an inner part par
about axes parallel. to the axis of relative rota
relative rotation of said parts in one direction
and riding idly over the teeth in the other direc
tion, the other of, said pawls, by its engagement
pawlfor engagement with said teeth, said notch 75 with said teeth, preventing relative, rotation of
2,407,558
11
.
V
the parts in said other direction and riding idly
12
.
end, said barrel part adjacent its 'open end hav
over the teeth in said one direction, means resil
ing an annular groove in its inner periphery,
iently urging said pawls individually into engage
ment with said teeth, an element rockably
tending shoulder approximately aligned, trans
and 'saidinner part having a peripherally ex
mounted on said inner part adjacent the inner 5 versely of the parts, with the inner side wall of
end of said barrel part and having an opening
therein, and said pawls having pins extending
into said opening so as to be alternately engaged
by the ends of said opening when said element
is rocked on said inner part, the ends of said
notch alternately engaging and shifting said
pawls out of engagement with said teeth while
releasing the other pawl for engagement with
said teeth, said notch having a length suf?cient,
when at an intermediate position, to fully re
lease the pins of both pawls for simultaneous
engagement of said pawls with said teeth, a rod
extending in a direction lengthwise of said in
ner part and rockably mounted for oscillation on
,its own axis, a connection between the inner end
said groove, a split ring releasably engaged in
said groove and overlying said shoulder so as to
prevent endwise retraction of said inner part
from said barrel par-t, the inner periphery of said
barrel part having teeth extending in a direc
tion lengthwise thereof and arranged in a row
around said inner periphery, said telescoping
parts having cooperating bearing surfaces 'by
which one part is rotatably connected to the
15 otherql a pair of pawls carried by said inner part
within said barrel part and rockably mounted on
axes parallel to the axis of relative rotation be
tween said parts, spring means urging said pawls
individually into engagement with said teeth,
one of said pawls preventing relative rotation vof
said parts in one direction while riding idly over
of said rod and said element for transmitting
the teeth in the other direction, and the other
rocking- movements of said rod into rocking
of said pawls, by its engagement with saidteeth,
movements of said element, said rod extending
preventing relative rotation of said parts in said
out of the telescoping relation between said parts
and having its outer end exposed for manual 25 other direction while riding idly over said teeth in
said one direction, means carried by said inner
rocking operation, a washer disposed between
part, engageable for operation from the exterior
the inner end of said barrel part and said ele
of the barrel part, and operable on said pawls, by
ment, a spring acting between the inner end of
movement between selected positions, to shift
said barrel part and said washer for urging said
washer endwise against said element and fric 30 them alternately out of engagement with said
teeth and hold each disengaged while releasing
tionally resisting rockingmovement of said ele
the other pawl, and, when in another position,
ment, whereby said element will retain the posi
fully releasing both of said pawls for simultane
tions into which it is adjusted by said rod;
ous engagement with said teeth'to prevent rela
10. A ratchet drive comprising a hollow
barrel part having an open end, an inner part 35 tive rotation of said parts in both directions, a
washer interposed between the inner end of the
telescoping within said barrel part through said
barrel part and said last named means for fric
open end, said barrel part adjacent its open end
tionally holding the latter in its different posi
having an annular groove in its inner periphery,
tions, and a spring acting between the inner end
and said inner part having a peripherally ex
of said barrel part and said washer and urging
tending shoulder approximately aligned, trans
said washer in a direction outwardly of said bar
versely of the parts, with the inner side wall of
rel part to provide the frictional contact with said
said groove, a split ring releasably engaged in
pawl shifting means, and for ‘holding said shoul
said groove and overlying said shoulder so'as to
der against said split ring.
prevent endwise retraction of said inner 'part
12. A ratchet device comprising a barrel
from said barrel part, the inner periphery of said
having one open end and closed at the other end, .
barrel part having teeth extending in a direc
an inner part partially telescoping into said
tion lengthwise thereof and arranged in a row
barrel part, the telescoping portions of ‘said parts
around said inner periphery, said telescoping
part
parts having cooperating bearing surfaces by
having cooperating bearing surfaces‘ by which
which one part is rotatably connected to the
other, a pair of pawls carried by said inner part
within said barrel part and rockably mounted on
axes parallel to the axis of relative rotation be
the parts may have relative rotation about an
axis parallel to the lengths of said parts, the
inner wall of said barrel part adjacent its open
end having an inwardly facing shoulder, and
said inner part having adjacent thereto an out
tween said parts, spring means urging said pawls
individually into engagement with said teeth, one 55 wardly facing shoulder, a split ring disposed be
tween said shoulders so as to releasably lock said
of said pawls preventing relative rotation of said
parts together against endwise separation, the
parts in one direction while riding idly over the
chamber within said barrel part having a periph
erally arranged row of teeth, a pair of pawls car
said pawls, by its engagement with said teeth,
preventing relative rotation of said parts in said CD'0 ried by said inner part extending approximately
to the inner end of said barrel part and movable
other direction while riding idly over said teeth
individually into and out of engagement with
in said one direction, and means carried by said
said teeth, resilient means urging said pawls in
inner part, engageable for operation from the
dividually into engagement with said teeth, one
exterior of the barrel part, and operable on said
teeth in the other direction, and the other of
pawls by movement between selected positions,
CD (41i of said pawls, by its engagement with said teeth,
to shift them alternately out of engagement with
preventing relative rotation of parts in one di
rection and riding idly over the teeth in the
other direction, and the other of said pawls, by
said teeth and hold each disengaged while re
leasing the other pawl, and, when in another po
sition, fully releasing both of said pawls for
simultaneous engagement with said teeth to pre
vent relative rotation of said lparts in both direc
tions.
11. A ratchet drive comprising a hollow bar
rel part having an open end, an inner part tele
its engagement with said teeth, preventing rela
tive rotation of said parts in said other direction
and riding idly over said teeth in said one di
rection, a rod ‘extending parallel to the axis of
rotation between said parts, from adjacent the
inner end of the barrel .part to and beyond the
scoping within said barrel part through said open ‘,75 open end of said barrel part, and rotatably sup;
2,407,558
ported by the inner part between the peripheral
14
movable individually into and out of engagement
with said teeth, resilient means urging said pawls
Wall of said inner part and the axis of rotation
of said parts, a member operated by the inner
end of said rod for shifting said pawls alter
nately and individually out of engagement with
said teeth or releasing both of said pawls con
currently, and a manually operable terminal on
preventing relative rotation of parts in one di
rection and riding idly over the teeth in the other
direction, and the other of said pawls, by its
the outer end of said rod.
engagement with said teeth, preventing relative
‘
individually into engagement with said teeth, one
of said- pawls, by its engagement with said teeth,
13. A ratchet device comprising a barrel part
rotation of said parts in said other direction and
having one open end, an inner part partially tele 10 riding idly over said teeth in saidone direction, a
scoping into said barrel part, the telescoping
portions of said parts having cooperating bear
ing surfaces by which the parts may have rela
motion transmitting element for shifting said
pawls alternately and individually out of engage
ment with said teeth or releasing both of said
tive rotation about an axis parallel to the lengths
‘pawls concurrently, said element having a por
of said parts, the inner wall of said barrel part 15 tion accessible for operation exteriorly of said
adjacent its open end having an’ inwardly fac
barrel part, a washer disposed between said ele
ing shoulder, and said inner part having adjacent
-ment and the inner end of said barrel, and a
thereto an outwardly facing shoulder, a split ring
spring acting between said inner end and said
disposed between said shoulders so as to releas
washer and urging the latter against said ele
ably lock said parts together against endwise 20 ment to frictionally retard its movements in
separation, the chamber within said barrel part
shifting said pawls, and also holding said shoul
having a peripherally arranged row of teeth, a
der against said ring.
pair of pawls carried by said inner part and
WILLARD C. KRESS.
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