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Патент USA US2407575

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‘Sept. 10, 1946.
‘A. EpNELsoN
2,407,573v ‘
Filed Feb. 8, 1945
MX A.m
Patented Sept. 10, ‘1946
' Alex E. Nelson, Los’ Angeles, Calif.,. assignor to .
_‘ H . Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc., ‘Santa Monica,
f Application February 8, 1943, Serial No. 475,193
13 Claims.
This invention relates to a machine-for form
(01. 78-61) .‘
movably to a surface contour, by forces acting in
ing metal‘ and particularly to a machine for
‘ all radial directions, but in the same sense, with
respect to a common center. If the forces act in
shrinking or stretching sheet metal.‘ ‘
Sh'eets of metal inltheir ?nal‘fabricated- form
or'at (some intermediate stage in-the" process of ‘
a centrifugal sense the result is a, stretching of
the metal from the center and if the forces act in
" fabrication may have a surface shape or a condi
-a centripetal ‘sense the result is a shrinking of
the metal toward the center. The machine of
"tion‘ requiring correction.- The sheet 'may be
planar and havelocalized‘ bulges or ridges. It
‘i may have» a generally cylindrical‘ or‘ other-curvi
linear shape interrupted by local deformations.
the invention may be utilized toredistribute the
‘metal in a sheet to remove bulges, to form bulges,
to eliminate internal stress, to shorten or elon
gate either narrow or wide strips of sheet metal,
Or‘ it_ may have a plane surface or generally
17curved surface in which‘ itis desired to'form
bulges or other local deviations from its general
3 either as a whole or along one edge portion there
of and to thicken or thin sheet metal either in
local areas spaced from the edges'of the sheet or
the desired surface contour but possess internal 15 in bands extending to the edges of the sheet.
stresses which are of a weakening or otherwise
Shortening or elongating a wide sheet, or other
h'armful character in view of the use to which it
wise correctively forming it over elongated zones
is to be put. In many such cases a machine of
or strips, may be accomplished by repeatedly ap
- surface contour.
Or‘ a sheet of metal may have
this invention is of useful application.
plying the machine at aligned loci.
It has heretofore been practiced to shrink or 20
- stretch sheet metal along straight or curved lines
in one direction only. Two pairs of gripping dies
or jaws are used, each pair contacting a surface
’ of the metal sheet and the two dies of a pair
‘It is one object of the invention to provide a.
machinefor upsetting a sheet af metal centri
petally or centrifugally while it is ‘constrained to
a prescribed surface contour.‘
It is another object of the invention ‘ to provide
moving toward and away from each other along 25 a machine for the ful?llment of the above object
by means of two sets of sector shaped dies ar
- a singlestraight or curvilinear directional line.
. The die surfaces are roughened to grip the metal
sheet so that in the shrinkingmachine as they
- approach each other they may push the metal
ranged with their apexes at'a common center and,
capable of moving radially with‘ respect to the
center from an initial position.
particles together, thickening the sheet along 30 It is another object of the invention to provide
transverse lines and shortening the sheet longi
for the resilient return of the dies of such a
tudinally, and in a stretching machine as they
machine to their initial position.
move apart they may similarly elongate a sheet.
It is another object of the invention to provide
Processing of sheet metal in accordance with this
for the registering axial alignment of the dies of
prior practice is limited for the most part to 35 one set with the corresponding dies, respectively,
shrinking and stretching of relatively narrow
strips of sheet metal which it is desired to shorten
' or. elongate as a whole or along only one edge
portion thereof. For it is mechanically di?icult
of the other set.
It is another object of the invention to provide
a die machine for centrally shrinking the metal
in a, generally circular zone of a metal sheet,
to mount and operate dies of this type which are 40 which shall provide for the above described re
long enough to reach from side to side of a wide
silient return andregistering alignment of the
sheet. If shorter dies are used, the metal just
beyond the ends of the strip which is being acted
upon by the dies inhibits the shrinking action of
the dies upon the metal within the strip. '
Again the single directional shrinking is an
inefficient way of removing “cans” or local bulges
While the machine described below represent
one embodiment of the invention which is de
45 signed for centripetal shrinking of sheet metal,
other sheet metal shrinking machines may like
‘ wise embody the invention.
The invention may
from a metal sheet or of eliminating internal
also with obvious modi?cations of structure be
stresses apt to cause “cans” or otherwise inter
embodied in a machine for centrifugal stretching
: ‘fere with the use of the sheet. Such defects, be 50 of sheet metal.
cause of their two dimensional character are not
In the drawing which are illustrative only,
usually readily eliminated by upsetting the metal
Figure l is a side elevation of the upper and
in a‘single directional manner.
lower dies and die holders of a machine of this
‘ -eThe machine of this invention involvesessen
.tially the upsetting. of sheet metal, while held 1m 55 l . Figure 2 is a sectional view of the set of upper
' 4
dies and die holder therefor taken along the line
2—2 of Figure 1.
plane in a direction normal to the ?ange. If the
shrinking dies are applied to this ?ange with their
Figure 3 is a side elevation of one of the sets of
. dies.
axial center adjacent to the outer edge 54 of the
?ange at spaced intervals along the ?ange, the
Figure 4 is an enlarged plan view of one of the 5 metal of the ?ange is crowded together to a vary
ing extent, the action of the dies being such as to
' Figure 5 is a perspective view of a ?anged mem-
thicken and shorten the metal to a maximum
ber, illustrating .;'a, csiwork artic-len'livhich; maypbe
;‘Tde_>gree; adja'centithe edge>§54;1the degreecof thick
7 processed‘lby -a mac-hineof this invention. a
l eninglan'd shortening "decreasing'iacross' the ?ange
An upper die holder iii and a lower die holder 10 and reaching zero at the joint line 48. A pair of
12 are mounted on a machine (not shown). which ‘ _ zldies moving in a single direction to and from each
provides means for moving the upper sdieuholder .‘
toward the lower die holder to effect a ‘pressural
,--other,as.,i_n,prior practice, are obviously operating
v‘at 'a'disa‘dvantage, the metal near the Web resist
inglthecmovementsof the dies and inhibiting the
posed therebetween. The lup'per-i'die holder: it!) has <15 idesired shrinkageof the metal near the edge 54.
' relation of the dies with aisheetggoinnetals-llll ,dis
a conically bottomed recess IS in its lower face.
The lower die holder l2 ,isesimilarlyrformed
‘its upper face with arecess I8.
" ‘ “W “
A machine constructed in accordance with this I ,inizention -wilLmore the metal readily, wherever
‘ '
If any portion of the metal resists move
The recesses‘ I6 and I8 each hold zen-equal; :xm’ent dile to its surface contour or'to adjacent
number of sector shaped dies 20, which are sized 20 stiffening metal formations, suchv as the web 50,
.riand. Shaped 1' so that» when; their; rim i aces : 2 2 ,en. thexdiescontactingathat, portionatehdeto;haveiless
ijg?gellthei?cylindl‘i?al SideKWQHHZA,"of'j'th?jlleQessf of
,rthezcorresponding GiehQklHrSiQB-~wa11si:26;of;:a1[1y
wozpmximate diesware separated braclearance
: paceaniandthe"apexestilrof the di'esiaraspaced.
amovementrelative tattle-work Object taqWhQle,
and the opposite diesato vhavelgreatermovement
relatire to the Worls- object causingqasL shift
g-ofjthgv rk object. RT iS-Lieaturec th "in
smallidistance fI‘Omgthe ,axial‘cernt‘elrfrsz‘lof the ~_
ierholding recess. , Ina-the; drawing each-die hold-
'- ierentgkinds ,g-loig work, 1varticleseandg i
r isshownas:mountingxightdies.
'rnurnber-of Idifferent results. I‘
.. Retaining; pinsiM, cthreadedlyasecured jngjihe
This-,ieaturexis ,a1smn'acjcantage1their‘
acylindrioaliwallscefi‘ofethe dieholdersengage ‘an-r30 ,nrinsi-elegof :‘the' invention
.ierturesit?dn.theldiesgtwprevent‘rotationa1:move---mentrofi-the dies .andzaccidental:disassemb1y._of
' ystretchi-ngmachine
' oration are moved iillrwhiqhetheg
outwardly alonghr.
:;;the:rdiesif-r0m ;the;;diei;holder. [These-apertures
maan?initi .1 ohnormal, centrahposit
i-‘verseIy sloping cam surfaces;orrsothgltzmean?nas '
rare :idimensioned ito cpermitllimited. longitudinal
,» instance; in, eliminating rin-ternal ~ ensile
I .‘zrspringsfll?gseat?d'ln
movement-of theidies.
in; the;side1walls
l ‘
r ‘,
1:26; ofir thedies hold the: dies; resiliently‘; apartzto
theextent permittedvby; the :walls 0f§17h6;di€.hQlding recesses.
V .
, .
V ,
, .I; claim:
; ":Therwol‘k contactingrefacesiildiiof the diesrarefio
In a deviceiorproducingagchangepfzioigm
a; piece: oi;~sheet.;meta_1, ,thegcornbination, of:
-».sandeblasted .or otherwiseroughened:to1prevent
fz-ti'wo eetsof‘gripping-iaWs;theesets being movable
vthe idiessslipping. on the sheetumetalr'workr, article.
The opposite end, faceofeaich‘die hasthershape
1_;t;owar.r1can,draway:from 894911‘. Qilh?lfn?llldx?wh
prising 1&1? :leastthree; sector;s;h_aped
wiof-ra' conical :se'ctor :‘conformingctosthembottom of
_ ;
fav?herrjinl the operation o?the'rma‘chinerthe dies
iio'fi thetwogsetssarer-brought intoecontact with’ the
:oppositeiside's;respectively, ofaag-sheet of :metal
which is tov be processedpasf-for rin'stancei-tdrbe
i1l0ca'11y‘~ shrurlik-T to ‘ eliminate-ta ‘- planar-lfdeviation
such:as' a “can”: or bulge; ‘the axially- acting pres;
sure of the machine :causeslthe:sixteen»idies to
iimoveicentr‘allyi'by reason“ ofIthe'cam-action of
i'ithe'» ‘comically - v shaped? bottom l faces :oi the l'two
?recesses i6 andeil'?.‘ --A. ciroularr-lporti'onroff the l55Z?r$kme?in$if®rifrai?i?nylmQYjng said ,J
metal sheet containing at leastaepor-tion of the
*- 1;
as mersensesfrom saidzinitialzposition withiltesnoct
ibulge: is gripped and pressed'into-ithe general
=p1ane~of the sheetland'the‘met'al thereof is moved
toward‘the reentrallraxis 32 ‘of the ‘die rholders,
‘:2. .~The~~-comhinati0n; de?ned rinzblaizmjiltaindé‘in '
:ad?li 0n1thereto;,:means.;forresilientiyrretrieving
" shrinking
thertotali area-of -between‘the ‘portion
the ,1 cos-S
‘he; Orv-their
, 1,1,.o?n
dies so that when the die pressure is releasedthe
='whi?hssaid:?rstsandcsecond; meanseincludemam
slack-of therbu-lgeis ‘goneand ‘thesheet-cannot
i-spring-back to itsijbulged condition. '»'U-pon~re-
r1ifa¢€S‘1Q1l$hB§I1 iacesxof; said :iawszof reach ;:set;:opgrpgsite:ztheiltgrippingrfacesm?orx
;a generally
‘ *lease oi'thepressureoil'the'ldies'kwhenrthernpper':65 conical surfaceacoaxia withasaid
*die holder-‘it is"retractivelyelevated;‘the springs
MWretu-rn the dies to-theirinorma1 or initiaLposi-"»tion as-showninlFig-ur'e 2.
fA‘rmachine‘of the‘ invention hasimanyl?eldseof
.i-f Ether-include opposingzpressure memhersrhav
g worrespondingz‘cooperatinggconicallyiashaped
' ' ia'idevice' foriproducingcacchangeso?:iorm
use in forming sheet metal bodies‘.v ~For-example, :lO-zinazpiec
l'sheetrmetal, 1the-.ucombinaition-.sof:
a ?ange 46 shown in Figure 5, which is vintegrally
ittwowsetszof, ripping,jawsgithersetsrbeingcrriovasble
'-joinedvt0 a web‘E? ‘on a c'onvexly curved jointline
4:48 lying in the plane of. the ?ange, quite Ifrequenlt1y has a surface contour presenting .scallopelike
set comprising atprleasti:threensector:shapedcjaws
»~-W‘¢W6S g 0r“ Wrinkles '52 > departing from , its. general ‘ 3.75 grinning- iaces it aired‘ rtosiform aiconmlonasubstané
tially circular surface juxtaposed to a similar
cooperating common substantially circular sur
face formed by the gripping faces of the other
two sets of gripping jaws, the sets being movable
toward and away from each other, and each set
comprising at least three jaws disposed with their
sheet gripping faces in
juxtaposed on a common
each two proxi
mate jaws; a ?rst means for axially relatively
moving the jaws of each set toward the other
set to press them against a work sheet; and a
second means acting coordinately with said axi~ 10
ally moving means for radially moving said jaws
of each set against the resilient action of the
the other set to press
mounting means to diminish the clearance spaces.
both sets against a work sheet; and a second
means acting coordinately with said. ?rst means
5. In a device for producing a change of form
for moving said jaws in said radial manner and
metal, the combination of:
in the same sense.
gripping faces faired to form a common sub
stantially circular surface juxtaposed to a sim
ilar cooperating common surface formed by the
other set of jaws; means
mounting the jaws of each set to hold them resil
to a similar cooperating common
by the gripping faces
sockets in the sides of said proximate jaws.
7. The combination de?ned in claim 1, and in
addition thereto; means for preventing rotative
movement of said jaws in said mounting means.
8. The combination de?ned in claim 1 in which
said mounting means are held non-rotatively and
in addition thereto; interacting means on each
of said jaws and the mounting means therefor
9. A device for shrinking a, metal sheet com
prising two jaw housing members movable to
wards and away from each other, a plurality of
gripping jaws reciprocally disposed side by side
in each housing member with the outer ends of
one set of jaws facing the outer ends of the other
set of jaws, the jaws of each set being relatively
movable laterally in a manner to shrink the sheet
having a
directions, the jaws of the
respective sets being axially reciprocable in their
respective recesses and having cam surfaces con~
forming respectively to the ?rst mentioned cam
60 surfaces whereby upon movement of the sup
other to move
porting members toward each other the respec
at least two directions.
tive sets of jaws are moved laterally inwardly to
ward the longitudinal axis of the jaw supporting
10. In a device for producing a change of form
in a piece of sheet metal, the combination of: 65 members.
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