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Патент USA US2407585

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Patented Sept. 10, “1946
2,407,584
UNITED STATES‘ PATENT OFFICE
2,407,584
ALKYLATION PROCESS
William A. Stover, Woodbury, N. ,L, ,assignor to
Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, Incorporated, a
corporation of New York
.No Drawing. Application February ‘24, .1944,
Serial No. 523,727
1
‘15 Claims. (Cl. 260--683.4)
This invention relates generally to the alkyla
tion -of para?inic hydrocarbons with ole?nic hy
drocarbons, and isv more particularly concerned
with the production of high-octane motor fuel by
the catalytic alkylation of ,para?inic hydrocar
. bons with oleflnic hydrocarbons.
It is well known in the art, to polymerize ole
?nic hydrocarbon gases to produce motor fuels
having constituents of an unsaturated character.
Various commercial processes have been proposed
for ultimately effecting the desired polymeriza
2
atures and pressures, on the order of over 900° F.
and over 4000 pounds per square inch gauge, re
spectively; or maybe conducted in the presence
of alkylation catalysts, at lower temperatures and
pressures, thereby assuring a high yield of desired
alkylate by avoiding extensive degradation of the
reactants, the occurrence of side andsecondary
reactions, and appreciable polymerization of the
ole?nic reactant. The two methods are known as
thermal alkylation and as catalytic. alkylation,
respectively.
tion‘of theole?nic hydrocarbons. These processes
Several methods are known for the catalytic
have been predicated upon the dictates of the
alkylation of isopara?inic hydrocarbonswith ole
?nic hydrocarbons. For instance, it isknown to
chemical nature of the stocks available as well as
engineering considerations such as initial and op 15 alkylate isopara?inic hydrocarbons with ole?nic
eration. costs ;, their essential feature being that in
hydrocarbons in the presence of sulfuric acid,
the course of treating the materials, the ole?nic
phosphoric acid, metal phosphates, metal halides,
hydrocarbon-s produced in‘the earlier stages of
activated clays and the like, as catalysts. In
the process, are eventually polymerized to gaso
these catalytic alkylation processes, the hydro
line. Accordingly, hydrocarbon gases may be
carbon reactants form with the alkylation cata_
passed along with cracking stock or naphtha
lysts, a heterogeneous system during the alkyla
through acrackingstill to crack and polymerize
such gases to gasoline simultaneously with the
cracking or reforming, orparai?nic hydrocarbon
gases may be separatelycracked to: ole?nic hy
drocarbon gases and thesegases are subsequently
passed with naphtha through a polymerizingand
reforming still. Insome instances,;the processes
involve the use of catalysts for facilitating the
tion operations. Since'under ‘alkylation condi
tions, the catalytic activity of the alkylation cata
lysts appears to be predicated upon contact be
tween the ‘catalysts .and the gaseoushydrocarbon
reactants at theinterfaces therebetween, in these
processes, the catalysts are used in amounts vary
ing between about 10% and 200% by weight, on
the charge, depending on the catalyst used. Due
30 to these comparatively high amounts, where pos
cracking and/or polymerization operations,
sible, recovery and regeneration of the catalysts
.It is also well knownin the art, to combine
pa-raf?nic hydrocarbonsadirectly with ole?nic hy
have ‘been proposed. This, of course, involves high
drocarbons by. processes broadly called, alkyla
initial and operation costs. Further, it is also
tion processes, tGgPI'Od-UCBJITlQt?l‘ fuels having con
known that-certain substances called promoters,
sti-tuents of saturated character. In alkylation 10 U! promote the catalytic action of these alkylation
processes, a. charge comprising a mixtureof a
catalysts. Accordingly, several processes have
para?inic . hydrocarbon, ‘called/the paraf?nic re
been proposed wherein small amounts of these
actant,‘ and an ole?nic hydrocarbon, called ‘the
promoters, on the order of about 1% to 3% ‘by
ole?nic reactant, is subjected to high tempera_
weight on the charge, are added to the catalysts
ture and, pressure-to produce asaturated alkylate 40 to promote their ‘alkylation catalytic activity.
product. Sincethese temperature, pressure, etc.,
A copending‘ application, Serial Number 502,018,
conditions, or briefly, :alkylating conditions, also
?led September 11, 1943, is directed to the process
of alkylating‘ para?inic or isoparaf?nic ‘hydrocar
cause polymerization of the ole?nic reactant, it is
bons with ole?nic hydrocarbons, which comprises
necessary to maintain a relatively low concentra
tion of the wole?nic reactant in the charge. The = , contacting a paraf?nic or isoparai?nic hydrocar
only limit to the pressure used appearsto be the
bon and an ~~ole?nic hydrocarbon ‘in a reaction
feasibility ofmaintaining high pressures. .On-the
zone under alkylating conditions, with small
other hand, the temperature used ,is. .limited by
amounts of what has been termed therein, .a ho
degradation of the hydrocarbon reactants inthe
mogeneous gaseous phase alkylation catalyst
charge to low molecular weight hydrocarbons, and
which consists essentially of materials that form
the occurrence of side reactions, including poly_
with the hydrocarbon reactants, a single, homo
geneous gaseous phase under ‘the alkylating con
merization of the ole?nic reactant, under high
temperature conditions, that ‘substantially reduce
ditions of the reaction zone. The alkylating con.
the purity of ‘the ‘product obtained.
ditions of the process of this copending applica
Alkylation may be 'condu'ctedat high temper
tion, comprise a broad temperature range of about
2407,1594
>11 .
3T
3
4
590° F. to about 850° F., preferably, about 650° F.
to about 825° F., and pressures of at least 500
pounds per square inch gauge, preferably, at least
of homogeneous gaseous phase catalysts under
alkylation conditions that favor the production
.
of triptane, is manifest. It was also found that in
actual practice, it was impossible to obtain trip
Another copending application, Serial/Number Ci tane exclusively, appreciable amounts of 2,2-di
1500 pounds per square inch gauge.
502,813, ?led September 1'7, 194:3,is directed to
methylpentane and’ 2-methylhexane being always
the process of alkylating isobutane with propyl
ene, which comprises contacting isobutane with
formed.
The speci?c classes of homogeneous gaseous
phase alkylation catalysts claimed in the above
trolled alkylating conditions, with promoter or 10 noted copending applications, are organic halides,
small amounts of the homogeneous gaseous phase ,
and, more particularly, organic chlorides and
catalysts broadly disclosed in the copending ap
organic bromides.
propylene in a reaction zone under closely con
I have found that carbon dioxide is a suitable
~ plication referred to hereinabove, the closely con
homogeneous gaseous phase alkylation catalyst;
trolled alkylating conditions including a temper
ature range of about 750° F. to about 850° F., pref; 15 ‘and that isoparaf?nic or para?inic hydrocarbons
.may be e?iciently alkylated with ole?nic hydro
erably, about 775° F. to about.825°iF., and pres»
carbons to produce high yields of high-octane
sures of at least 2500 pounds per square, inch
In the alkylation of isobutane with pro- .
gasoline, by using relatively small amounts of
pylene‘in the presence of homogeneous'g'ase'ous
carbon dioxide.
I have also found that carbon dioxide is a suit—
phase alkylation catalysts, it was found that the 20
‘able homogeneous gaseous phase catalyst in the
'alkylate obtained included constituents that are
catalytic alkylation of isobutane with propylene
ventirely different from the constituents of the
hydrocarbon alkylate obtained in the alkylation
under the controlled alkylating conditions de
scribed in copending application, Serial Number
‘of isobutane with propylene in the presence of
known heterogeneous alkylation catalysts, i. e., 25 502,813, ?led September 17, 1943, referred to here
inbefore.
‘AlCls, H2SO4, and the like. Thus, when hetero
It is an object of the present invention to pro- ‘
geneous alkylation catalysts are used, 2,3-di
gauge.
methylpentane and 2,4-dimethylpentane are im
portant constituents of the hydrocarbon alkylate
obtained. On the other hand, triptane or 2,2,3
trimethylbutane, 2,2-dimethy1pentane, and 2
‘methylhexane are the predominant constituents
‘of the hydrocarbon alkylate, when gaseous phase
homogeneous alkylation catalysts are employed.
vlEn this copending application, the formation of
these three compounds was postulated as follows:
1.
‘7 OH;
111
- ,Isobutane
Propylene
CH;
2,2-dimctl1ylpentane
vide an efficient process for catalytically alkylat
ing isoparafiim'c or para?inic hydrocarbons with
ole?nic hydrocarbons. Another object is to pro
vide an efficient process for catalytically alkylat
ing either normal para?'inic hydrocarbons or'iso
paraf?nic hydrocarbons with ole?nic hydrocar
bons to produce high yields of high-octane motor
fuel, A more speci?c object is to provide a proc
ess for catalytically alkylating isobutane with
propylene to produce high yields of high-octane
motor fuel. A very'important object is to afford
va process capable of carrying out the above ob
jects by using relatively small amounts of car
bon dioxide as alkylation‘catalyst. Otherobjects
and advantages of the present invention will be‘
come apparent to those skilled in the art from
the following description.
'
'
Broadly stated, my invention provides afproc~
'
‘
Ha
l '. isobutane
CH3
‘ess for alkylating parafiinic or isoparamnic hy
OH: H
drocarbons, particularly isobutane, with ole?nic
Propylene‘ 2,2,3-trimethylbutane
hydrocarbons, particularly propylene, which com
prises contacting the para?inic and ole?nic hy~
or triptane
it" i .111
.
‘ E;
-
>
drocarbons in. gaseous phase and in a reaction
zone under alkylating conditions, with an alkyla
‘ ‘tion i catalyst consisting essentially of carbon
dioxide.
' isobutane
Propylene
2-methylhexane
:From a motor fuel standpoint, the 2,2~dimethyl
'pentane produced by the ?rst reaction, has an
"octane number of about 80 CFR motor method;
. "the triptane produced by the-second reaction has
an octane'number'of well over 1.00, and the 2
7
a
V
\
An important feature of the process of the
present invention is the fact that, contrary to ‘the
known catalytic alkylation processes of the prior ‘
art which are onlycapable of alkylating isoparaf
‘?nic hydrocarbons, myprocess is capable of al
~ky1ating either normal paraf?nic or isopara?inic
hydrocarbons with substantially equa1 ease.
,methylhexane obtained in the third reaction,v 60 ‘ -Anoth_er important feature of the process of
In view of
the ‘present invention is the relativelyvlow tem
the foregoing, in the manufacture of higlieoctane
perature that may vbe used. As a result, degra
:motorfuel by the alkylation of isobutane with
dation of the hydrocarbon reactants in the charge
propylene, 'alkylation conditions that favor the
to» lowrmolecular weight hydrocarbons and the a
:prdductionoftriptane obviously are preferable.
‘pronounced occurrence of side reactionsinclud
EFurther,‘.'since neohexane which may be produced
Ling polymerization of the ole?nic reactants, are
.by the alkylation of isobutane with ethylene, has
substantially completely avoided. Consequently,
:an‘ octane number ‘of 93.4, and since 2,3-dimethyl
:pentane an‘d'ZA-dimethylpentane which are the. in my process, Iobtain high yields of a high grade
product that is almost entirely para?inic in nature
predominant constituents of the alkylate ob
.hasaan octane number of about 4.5.
'tained in the alkylation of isobutane with pro
vand'is substantially free from impurities.
.pyleneinthe presence of heterogeneous alkyla
vtion catalysts, have octane numbers of 89 and
i82,~respectively,ithe importance of the alkyla
‘tion is the'fact that, contrary to known catalytic '
tion of isobutane with propylene in the presence
.A very important feature of the present inveng
.processes of the prior art in .which the hydro
carbon reactants being processed form with the
as
aaomse
6
b
alkylation catalysts, a heterogeneous system. dur
ing theialkylation operatiomthe alkylationfproci
plies, asis well‘understood. Additional ole?m'c
hydrocarbons, if required, may beformed froma
ess/of my invention. employs an alkylation. cata
portion of the para-?inic hydrocarbons. On the
lyst that forms, with the hydrocarbon reactants
being processed, a single, homogeneous gaseous
phase under the alkylating conditions of the re
may be admixed to increase: the concentration. of
actionlzone. Accordingly, as a result of the cata
lyst being in the. same. phaseor stateas the hy
other hanch, additional ,‘paralhnic hydrocarbons
paraf?nic hydrocarbons to a- desired‘ magnitude.
In carrying out my process, I use. temperatures
varying between about 590‘? F. and about 850° F.,
preferably‘ temperatureslvarying between about
drocarbomreactants being processed, fouling of
the; catalyst is; substantially eliminated and agi 10 650°‘ F. and‘ about 825°. F. In the alkylation of
tationand/or- mixing problems are non-extant.
isobutane with propylene, however, I have found,
Further-,: since the catalyticactivity of, alkyl'ation
as disclosed in the copending application, Serial
catalysts appears to be predicatedsomewhatup
No. 502,813, ?led‘ September 17, 1943, ‘that the
on: contact; between. the. catalysts and the; gase
ous hydrocarbon reactants at the interfacesthere
. between, it: iollows that the catalytic ef?ciency of
a‘. given catalyst increases; with the. increase in
area. of: interfacial contact, other variables re
best yields of desired alkylate are obtain-ed when‘
the alkylation is conducted at temperatures fall;
ing within about 750° F; to about‘ 850°" Fz, and
preferably, about 775° F. to about 825° F.‘ The
alkylate produced under these conditions contains
no more than 5% of ole?nic hydrocarbons and
maining constant. Hence, since the catalyst of
myrprocess inherently furnishes the greatest pos 20 no aromatics so that the predominance of alkyl
ation obtained thereby is a distinct feature of my
sible “interiacial. contact?’ between the catalyst
process. Under appreciably higher temperature
and-the. hydrocarbon reactantsunder the alkylat
conditions, side reactions occur that substantially
ing conditions of the. reaction zone, ef?cientucata,
reduce the purity of ‘the product obtained; Inthe
lytic activity with a concomitant high yield of
alkylation of isobutane with propylene in accord
high grade alkylate is achieved using relatively
smallamounts .of carbon dioxide.
Inview of:the. foregoing, an'operation feature
of. ‘the. process of the. present invention that. is
ance with the process of‘ the present‘ invention,
it must be noted that'even within the preferred
temperature range, side reactions occur that ac
of .consi'derablepractical importance, is that rel, '
count for substantial portions of the totalalkyl
atively small amountsof ‘carbon dioxideare used
as alkylation. catalyst. These amounts and. the
ate.
cost are so small that the catalyst may be dis
carded feasibly, thereby- obviating recovery and
regeneration problems and eliminating high ini
.
The pressure to be used‘ in my. process may
vary from. about 50.0. pounds per square. inch to
about 6000 pounds per square inch or more; and
preferably from about-j 2500 pounds per square
35 inch to about 6000 pounds per square inch for
tial and operation costs.
the alkylation of isobutanewith propylene, the
A most. important feature of the present in
most suitable pressure being more or less depend
vention is‘ that: high yields ‘of high-octane mo
ent upon the particular temperature involved.
tor ‘fuel areobtainedby alkylating isobutane with
In general, the higher the vpressure, the higher
propylene in the presence of carbon dioxide.
The amount-of carbon dioxide used in- myproc 40 the yield of alkylate. Accordingly, the criterion
for establishing an upper limit to the pressure
ess varies between about 3% and about 20%, and
range used is primarily the feasibility of main
preferably, between about 6% andabout 9%, with
taining such pressure.
‘
‘
respect‘ to the volume of the total charge of ‘hy
In my process it is desirable, as in known iso
drocarbon-reactants. It must be noted, however,
that larger‘ amounts of carbon dioxide may“ be . paraffin-ole?n‘ alkylation processes, to-keep-the
concentration of’ the ale?nic reactant relatively
employed if desired, although no additional ad
lowgduring the alkylation reaction, inorder to
vantages result therefrom.
eliminate as much ole?n polymerization as pos
The paraf?nic and ole?nic hydrocarbons‘to be
sible. Accordingly, it is advisable to. maintain
used in my process may be derived from any suit
the ole?n concentration in the charge below
able source, as is well known in the art, and may
about 25% by volume, and preferably between
be'used either in- the-pure state or in admixture
about 7% and about 12% by volume.
‘
with other constituentsv not undesirable. The
Traces of water apparently haveno seriousill
para?im‘c and ole?nic hydrocarbons‘usually em
effects on the course of the reaction-in .thejproc
ployed in the preferred operation of manufactur
i-ng motor fuels, will be the normally gaseous O! -VI ess of my invention, and there is‘ evidence to
support the conclusion that small. amounts of
paraf?nic hydrocarbons, except‘ 'methane and
water may be bene?cial.
ethane, and‘ the normally gaseous ole?nic hydro
carbons, as is well understood in the art. Here
again my process has a distinct advantage over
many of the prior art processes in that the ole
?n-ethylene may be used for alkylatingthe paraf
?nic hydrocarbons. It is‘ well known that eth
ylene cannot be used in many catalytic processes,
including the sulfuric acid process, whereby the
The alkylate-product that I obtain distills over
a fairly large boiling range, but a greater part
of‘the alkylate, usually from about 85% to about
90%, distills in the boiling range of aviation gas
olines. The iodine number of the aviation dis
tillate is low, on the order of about 5 to‘ 10.‘ As
mentioned hereinabove, the alkylate product con.
supply of‘ available ole?nic hydrocarbons is ‘ re a6.01
sists predominantly of branched para?inic hy
stricted. ‘Therefore, an important aspect of the
present invention ‘is the fact that butane, for in
stance, may be alkylated with ethylene.
drocarbons.
Aconventionaland prefered source of para?inic , .
,
‘
Numerous experimental data could be adduced
to indicate the results obtainable in accordance
with the process of the present invention, but the
and ole?nic hydrocarbons is the ?xed‘gases. ob
tained around petroleum re?neries. These ?xed
gases may furnish substantially‘ all the desired
folowing examples are sufficiently character- .
paraf?‘nic and-ole?nic hydrocarbons, or it may be
Isobutane was alkylated with propylene inia
two-liter high, pressure bomb' at temperatures
necessary or desirableto obtain additionalsup
istic:
Example. 1
2,407,584;
7
7
varying between '750°'F. and -785“"F., and under
pressuresvarying between 4300 pounds per square
material, and controlling‘ the concentration of
inch and 5100pounds per square inch, ‘for 30
minutes, thermally and catalytically, in the pres
principal reaction; the improvement which com
prises reacting said para?inic‘hydrocarbon with
' ence of propylene bromide and carboni-dioxide. 5
said ole?nic hydrocarbon, in a reaction i'zone
under alkylating conditions, in the presence of ,
the ole?nic hydrocarbon: so that alkylationis the
The results were as follows:
carbon dioxide.
Yieldof alkylate Per cent of ‘trip
boiling at 75° O.— ‘tune. in alkylate
85° 0.,per cent
boiling at 775° C.
Catalyst
'
by weight
85° C. ‘
None ___________________ __ V
Pro ylene bromide ______ __
Car on dioxide _________ __
14.7
9:1:1
_ 357.1
37. 7
65:1
55:1
motor fuel, which comprises reacting alight iso
reaction.
The results show that the catalytic processes
3. The process
'
of manufacturing triptana,
which comprises reacting isobutane with pro
pylene, in a reaction zone under alkylating con
ditions including temperatures varying between
about 775° F. and about 825° F. and pressures of
at least 2500 pounds per square inch, in the pres
ence of carbon dioxide, and controlling the con
Isobutane was alkylated with propylene in a
two-liter high pressure bomb at temperatures
varying between 750° F. and 800° F. and under
pressures varying between 3500 pounds per square
centration of propylene so that alkylation is the .
principal reaction.
inch and 4350 pounds per square inch, using
varying amounts of carbon dioxide. The results
_
.
4.'The process of manufacturing neohexane,
which comprises reacting isobutane with ethyl
_
ene, in a reactionrzone under alkylating condi
tions including temperatures varying between
about 650° F. and about 825° F. and; pressures
30 of at least 1500 pounds per square inch, in the
Amount of cata- Yield_of alkylate Per cent triptane
lyst, per cent
boiling at 75°
in alkylate boil
by volume of
V
10 para?inic hydrocarbon with a light ole?nic hy
drocarbon, in a reactionzone under alkylating.
conditions, in the presence of carbon dioxide, andv
controlling the concentration ‘of the light ole?nic
hydrocarbon so that alkylation is the principal
form greater yields of alkylate boiling at 75° C.
85" C. and greater overall yields of triptane.
Example 2
of the runs were as- followsi
_
.2. The process of'manufacturing high-octane
charge
C.—85° (3., per
cent by-weight
mg at 75° 0.
3. 8
7. 4
30. 0
37. 7
6:l:l
55:1
11. 9
31. 0
65:1
19. 0
30.0
65:1
presence of carbon dioxide, and controlling the
85° C.
concentration of the ethylene so that alkylation
is the principal reaction.
g
with an ole?m'c hydrocarbon, in a reaction‘ zone
The results show that the catalytic e?ect of
under alkylating conditions, in the presence of
carbon dioxide reaches a maximum at concentra
tions of about 7% to 8%.-
.
5. In the process of alkylating an isopara?lnic
hydrocarbon with an ole?nic hydrocarbon‘, which
includes reacting an isopara?inic hydrocarbon
catalytic material, and controlling the concentration of the ole?nic hydrocarbon so vthat al
.
Example 3
kylation is the principal reaction; the improve-1
Isobutane was alkylated with ethylene in the
presence of 7.4% by volume of carbon dioxide,
a reaction zone under alkylating, conditions’ in
ment which comprises reactingsaid isopara?inic
hydrocarbon with ‘said ole?nic‘ hydrocarbon, in
in a two-liter high pressure bomb at tempera
tures varying between 750° F. and 784° F. and
under pressures varying between 3600 pounds
per square inch and 3700 pounds per square inch,
cluding temperatures varying between about 590°
F. and about 850° F.- and pressures of at least
500 pounds per squareinch, in the presence of
carbon
for 30 minutes. An alkylate containing the fol
lowing hexanes was obtained:
(1) Neohexane fraction containing:
. .
r
Other hexanes _______________ _.
_
N
_
'
.
gaseous isoparai?nic hydrocarbon with 2. nor
mally gaseous ole?nic hydrocarbon, in a reaction
zone under‘alkylating conditions including tem
peratures varying between about 650°-F. and
95
2
balance
30.1
‘
(a) 2,2-dimethylbutane (nephexane) ________________ __
(b) 2,3-dimethylbutane (di1sopropyl)_
10
____ 15
(c) Other hexanes _________________ __
balance
and boiling at 55° O.—65° O. __
____
15. 2
Total hexanes in alkylate _________________ __
45. 3
Although the present invention has been de
scribed in conjunction with preferred embodi
ments, it is to be understood that modi?cations
and» variations may be resorted to without de
parting from the spirit and scope of the inven
tion, as those skilled in the art will readily un
derstand. Such variations and modi?cations are
considered to be within the purview and scope
of the appended claims.
'
i
by weight
and boiling at 40° 0-"550 C.
I'claim:
_
‘Per cent
.
> (a) -2,2-d1methylbutane Eneohexane) ;___
(b3 2,3-dimethylbutane diisopropyl) _
(c
_
50 motor fuel, which comprises reacting a normally 7
~
(2) Diisopropyl fraction containing:
dioxide.
6. The process of manufacturing high-‘octane
'
‘
f
1. In the process of alkylating a para?inic hy
drocarbon with an ol'e?nic hydrocarbon, which
includes reacting a paraf?nic hydrocarbon with
an ole?nic hydrocarbomin a reaction 'zone under
55 aboutf825° F. and pressures of at least V1500,
pounds per square inch, in the presence of carbon
dioxide, and controlling the concentration of the
normally gaseous ole?nic hydrocarbon. so that al
kylation is the principal reaction;_
7. In the’ process, of manufacturing high-oc
tane motor fuel by alkylating a normally gaseous
isopara?inic hydrocarbon with a normally gas
eous ole?nic hydrocarbon, which includes react-1
ing said normally gaseous isopara?inic hydro
65 carbon with said normally gaseous ole?nic hy
drocarbon, in a reaction zone under alkylating
60
conditions, in the presence of catalytic material,
and controlling the concentration of the nor
mally gaseous ole?nic hydrocarbon so that al
70 kylation is the principal reactionythe improve
ment'which comprises reacting said normally
gaseous isoparaf?nic hydrocarbon with said nor
mally gaseous ole?nic hydrocarbon; in a“ reac
tion‘ gone, under alkylating , conditions including‘
alkylating conditions, in the presence of catalytic 75 temperatures varying between about 750° F." and
9
2,407,584
about 850° F. and pressures of at least 2500
pounds per square inch, in the presence of carbon
dioxide.
8. In the process of alkylating a parai?nic
hydrocarbon with an ole?nic hydrocarbon, which
includes reacting a paraf?nic hydrocarbon with
an ole?nic hydrocarbon, in a reaction zone under
alkylating conditions, in the presence of cata
lytic material, and controlling the concentration
of the olefinic hydrocarbon so that alkylation is
the principal reaction; the improvement which
comprises reacting said para?inic hydrocarbon
10
which comprises reacting isobutane with propyl
ene, in a reaction zone under alkylating condi
tions including temperatures varying between
about 775° F. and about 825° F. and pressures
of at least 2500 pounds per square inch, in the
presence of an alkylation catalyst consisting es
sentially of carbon dioxide in amounts varying
between about 6% and about 9% with respect
to the total volume of the charge, and control
ling the concentration of the propylene so that
alkylation is the principal reaction.
12. The process of manufacturing neohexane,
which comprises reacting isobutane with ethyl—
with said ole?nic hydrocarbon, in a reaction zone
under alkylating conditions, in the presence of
an alkylation catalyst consisting essentially of 15 ene, in a reaction zone under alkylating condi
tions including temperatures varying between
carbon dioxide, in amounts varying between
about 650° F. and about 825° F. and pressures
about 3% and about 20% with respect to the
of at least 1500 pounds per square inch, in the
total volume of the charge.
presence of an alkylation catalyst consisting es
9. The process of manufacturing high-octane
motor fuel, which comprises reacting a light iso 20 sentially of carbon dioxide in amounts varying
between about 6% and about 9% with respect to
para?inic hydrocarbon with a light ole?nic hy
the total volume of the charge, and controlling
drocarbon, in a reaction zone under alkylating
the concentration of the ethylene so that alkyl
conditions including temperatures varying be
ation is the principal reaction.
tween about 590° F. and about 850° F. and pres
13. The process of alkylating a parai?nic hy
sures of at least 500 pounds per square inch, in
with an ole?nic hydrocarbon, which
the presence of an alkylation catalyst consist 25 drocarbon
comprises contacting said paraf?nic hydrocarbon
ing essentially of carbon dioxide in amounts
and said ole?nic hydrocarbon in gaseous phase
varying between about 3% and about 20% with
and in a reaction zone under alkylating condi
respect to the total volume of the charge, and
tions, with an alkylation catalyst consisting es
controlling the concentration of the light ole
?nic hydrocarbon so that alkylation is the prin 30 sentially of carbon dioxide, and controlling the
concentration of the ole?nic hydrocarbon so that
cipal reaction.
alkylation is the principal reaction.
10. In the process of manufacturing high
14. The process of manufacturing high-octane
octane motor fuel by alkylating isobutane with
motor fuel, which comprises contacting a light
propylene, which includes reacting said isobutane 35 isoparaf?nic
hydrocarbon and a light ole?nic hy
and said propylene, in a reaction zone under
alkylating conditions, in the presence of cata
lytic material, and controlling the concentration
drocarbon in gaseous phase and in a reaction
zone under alkylating conditions, with an alkyl
ation catalyst consisting essentially or carbon
dioxide, and controlling the concentration of the
40 light ole?nic hydrocarbon so that alkylation is
reacting said isobutane with said propylene, in a
the principal reaction.
reaction zone under alkylating conditions in
15. The process of manufacturing ‘triptane,
cluding temperatures varying between about 750°
which comprises contacting isobutane and pro
F. and about 850° F. and pressures of at least
2500 pounds per square inch, in the presence 45 pylene in gaseous phase and in a reaction zone
under alkylating conditions, with an alkylation
of an alkylation catalyst consisting essentially
catalyst consisting essentially of carbon diom‘de,
of carbon dioxide, in amounts varying between
and controlling the concentration of the propyl
about 3% and about 20% with respect‘ to the
ene
so that alkylation is the principal reaction.
total volume of the charge.
11. The process of manufacturing triptane, 60
WILLIAM A. STO'VER.
of the propylene so that alkylation is the prin
cipal reaction; the improvement which comprises
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