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Sept. 10, 1946.
1. J. LUNDAL ETAL
2,407,512
METHOD OF MAKING BUTTER AND BUTTER OIL CbNCENTRATE '
Filed Sept .' 7, 1942
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2,407,612
1. J. LUNDAL ETA]...
METH‘OD ‘OF MAKING BUTTER AND BUTTER OIL CONCENTRATE
Filed Sept. '7; 1942
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Sept. 10, 1946.
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2,407,612
l. J. LUNDAL ET AL
METHOD OF MAKING BUTTER AND BUTTER OIL CONCENTRATE
.
7
Filed Sept. 7, 1942
/2/
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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INVENTORS.
Igg-ée 1f Lundaé'
BY
P'atentecl Sept. 10, 1946
iJNiTEE
2,407,612
STATES
PATENT ‘ OFFICE
2,407,612
METHOD OF MAKING BUTTER AND BUTTER
OIL CONCENTRATE
.
Ingie J. Lundal and Roy P. Robichaux, Chicago,
Ill., assignors, by mesne assignments, of one
half to Cherry-Burrell Corporation, Chicago,
111., a corporation of Delaware, and one-half to
Sugar Creek Creamery Company, Danville, Ill.,
a corporation of Delaware
Application September 7, 1942, Serial No. 457,612
32 Claims.
(Cl. 993-119)
1
2
This invention relates to the processing of lac
teal fluids, such as milk products. More particu
larly, this invention relates to improvements in
the e?icient and expeditious processing of milk
and cream or similar dairy products to produce
concentrated milk fat and butter.
The present accepted method of churning and
working butter from cream containing approxi
mately thirty per cent to forty per cent butter
the milk fat content is in excess of that desired
in the ?nished butter. The concentrated milk fat
product may then be standardized by the addi
tion of other ingredients commonly found in but
ter, such as salt, Water, ?avoring and coloring
matters, etc., until the desired chemical and phys
ical composition has been secured after which the
product is solidi?ed.
One of the apparent reasons for the commer
fat or milk fat and being either sour or sweet l0, cial failure of the hereto-fore developed processes
for continuously manufacturing butter is the in
cream is to subject such cream, which has pref
ability to adapt such former processes to produce
erably been pasteurized and, when sour, neutral
butter having the desired uniform composition
ized, to a batch churning operation usually car
and texture. Another and probably the chief rea
ried out in a conventional drum type of churn
and butterworker. The conventional drum type 15 son for such failure is that the heretofore de
veloped so-called continuous processes of mak
of churn and butter-Worker is generally equipped
ing butter entailed a loss of milk fat substantially
with shelves and butterworkers designed to facil
in excess of the loss of milk fat experienced in the
itate the churning of the cream and the working
conventional batch process of making butter.
of the resultant butter.
Subsequent to the conventional batch churn 20 Such excessive loss of milk fat is apparently due
to the inefficiency of those previously developed
ing and working operations, during which opera
processes, which inefiiciency may be due in par
tons suitable quantities of standardizing mate
ticular to the effect on the cream of the perform
rials, such as salt, water, coloring matter and
ance of certain steps of such processes prior to
?avoring matter, may if desired be added, the
worked butter is removed from the churn and 25 the separation operation, resulting in the loss of
a substantial quantity of milk fat with the sepa
butterworker and packed for use into tubs or
rated skim-milk and more viscous separated prod
molded into blocks or prints of predetermined
ucts other than cream. The excessive loss of milk
size‘and shape. The skillful “ripening” of the
cream, neutralization of excess acid if present
fat experienced in thepreviously developed-con
in the cream, pasteurization and other heat treat
tinuous or substantially continuous processes ob
ments of the cream, as well as the standardiza
viously rendered the same impractical.
The system for the manufacture of butter and
milk fat concentrate is separately claimed in our
divisional application Serial No. 673,136, filed May
29, 1946, and entitled “Butter and milk fat con
tion thereof to secure the desired type and char
acter of churned butter, normally require much
, apparatus and considerable time and skill.
The batch process of churning and working
butter is, of course, very old. More recently vari
centrate system.” The process of standardizing
the dairy product incidental to the manufacture
of butter or milk fat concentrate according to
the present invention is disclosed and speci?cally
dairy product containing milk fat to produce 40 claimed in our divisional application Serial No».
thereby what is conventionally known as a “plas
673,137, filed May 29, 1946, and entitled “Process
tic cream” and then attempting lay-further proc
of standardizing dairy product.” The process of
essing to convert such “plastic cream” into suit
making butter oil from butter is disclosed and
able butter, Such continuous or substantially
separately claimed in our co-pending application
continuous processes of manufacturing butter 45 SerialNo. 676,195, ?led June 12, 1946, as a con
have, however, been unsatisfactory and have not
tinuation in part of the present application and
been adopted commercially.
entitled “Butter oil process.” The system for
Brie?y stated in abstract form, the few previ
making butter oil from butter is separately
ously developed processes intended for use in con
claimed in our co-pending application Serial No.
tinuouslymanufacturing butter, as well as in the 50 676,196, ?led June 12, 1946, as a continuation in
preferred variant of the presently described proc
part of the present application, and entitled “Sys
ess,
cream or dairy product containing milk
tem for making butter oil.”.
fat is concentrated as, for example, by the use
It appears to be impossible in the normal separa
of centrifugal separator. Such concentrate is
tion of cream containing milk fat in the dispersed
' tilized to produce a, separation fraction wherein 55 phase, which type of cream is usually the, raw
ous unsuccessful efforts have been made to pro
--duce butter continuously or substantially con
tinuously by ?rst processing the cream or other
2,407,612‘
3
4
material in the butter manufacturing operation,
matically represented in Figure 1, whereby an
to secure a satisfactory separation of the milk fat
from the skim-milk to enable the economic use
of any of the heretofore developed so-called con—‘
ance of an additional variant of the present inven
a
arrangement is secured suitable for the perform
tion.
‘
Figure 3 is an elevational view, partially dia
tinuous churning processes. It has, however,
been found by extensive experimentation and re
search in the perfection of the instant invention‘
grammatic and partially in broken-away section,
of the preferred type of apparatus usable as a
“prechurn” and also as a churn, illustrating the
that, when the cream or other product contain
ing milk fat and milk solids is ?rst “prechurned”
before the milk solids have been partially set or
features thereof whereby the product passing
therethrough may be heat-treated and processed
under predetermined super-atmospheric pressure
before the physical characteristics of the milkv
in the presenceofa controlled quantity of gas
for a given period of time while being agitated
and maintained at a predetermined desired tem
solids have been changed by a heat treatment
such, for example, as high temperature pasteur~
ization, then the “prechurning” operation brings
about a uniting of a substantial portion of the milk
fat globules normally present in such cream in
the dispersed phase. It has further, been found 7
by the same experimentation that such a f‘pre
perature.
.
Figure 4. is a vertical sectional view of an alter
native design of a “prechurning” apparatus.
Figure 5 is an enlarged diagrammatic illustra
tion of the preferred type of combined sub-at
churned” product containing the united milk fat’
mospheric pasteurizing and deodorizing appa
globules may then be heated, if necessary, to a
suitable separation temperature, at which temperature an e?icient and satisfactory separation
of the milk fat from the skim-milk and other non
. ratus.
'
Figure 6 is a view, partially in broken-away sec
tion, of the preferred type of apparatus for use
in texturating the solidi?ed butter.
fatty viscous material is possible, whereby the re
According to the preferred form of performing
sulting loss of milk fat in the separation process 25
the instant invention, having reference particu
is reduced to the point necessary to enable the
larly to Figure 1 of the drawings, in which draw
economic manufacture of butter by the improved
ings like numerals are used to identify like ele
continuous method set forth in the following
ments in the different ?gures, [0 represents a
speci?cation.
‘liquid storage tank of the type employed in cream
The principal objects of the present invention
eries and other dairy plants for the storage of
are, therefore, to provide improvements in the
milk, cream and similar dairy products. The
methods of processing a dairy product, such as
storage tank it may be of any conventional type,
milk or cream, whereby substantially pure milk
such, for example, of the type illustrated in U. S.
fat concentrate, as well as butter, may be made
Patent No. 1,929,709 and is provided'with an inlet
continuously or substantially continuously, effi
pipe H, a conventional power-driven agitator l2
ciently, quickly, and with a minimum loss of milk
and a conventional heat exchange medium cir—
/ fat and with the use of a minimum quantity of '
culating coil [3 whereby the liquid stored in the
apparatus.
tank is may be slightly agitated and heated or
Further objects of the present invention are to
provide a process by which the product or prod 40 cooled to maintain the liquid at any desired tem
perature readily indicated by the thermometer
ucts, i. e., milk fat concentrate and butter, when
made continuously, may be made in such a man
I4.
physical properties which determine and improve
the ?avor, stability, uniformity, keeping quali
ties,’ texture and composition of the product or
products, and by which such chemical and phys
ical properties may be accurately controlled, regu
lated and varied at will.
Additional objects of the present invention are '
to provide an improved process whereby the milk
fat concentrate, as well as the butter product,
possesses improved keeping qualities, greater im
munity from rancidity and a predetermined ratio
of ingredients, and by which such product or
‘products are substantially devoid of entrained
deleterious gases which, if not removed, may cause
the product or products to deteriorate.
Other objects and advantages, as well as the '
'
I
The valve-controlled pipe [5 extends from the’
ner as to possess various desirable chemical and
1
tank it and is ‘suitably connected to a power
.driven pump #5 for pumping the liquid from the
tank It) into a receiving and excess acid neutral
izing vat H. The vat H is provided with a suit
able heat exchanger, such as a power-driven ro
tatable coil I8, and in general may be similarto
the combined vat and heat exchanger illustrated
in U. S. Patent No. 1,786,819. The .heat ex
changer type of vat i1 is provided for the purpose
of heating or cooling a liquid, such as milk or
cream, supplied thereto to any desired tempera~
ture readily indicated by thethermometer l9.
Suitable material for neutralizing or stand
ardizing the excess acid content of the cream or
milk -in the vat H to any desired decreased de
gree of acidity may be supplied thereto by a
scope of the present invention, will become more 60 valve-controlled‘ pipe Zil'from the neutralizing
agent storage chamber 2!. The heat exchange
obvious to those skilled in the art andwill be
coil 13 is provided in the conventional manner
more completely understood upon consideration
with suitable connections (not shown) for cir
and reference to the accompanying drawings and
diagrammatic illustrations in which:
'
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic representation of
apparatus suitable and well adapted for the per
' formance of the preferred variant of the present
invention. The diagram is in the form of a flow
chart depicting the flow of lacteal ?uid, such as
culating heat exchange medium therethrough. '
A valve-controlled pipe 22 suitably connected
to a power-driven pump 23 extends from the bot
tom of the vat ll to a ?lter 24. The ?lter 24
may, if desired, be of the conventional type of
cream ?lter generally illustrated in U. S. Patent
No. 1,750,997. The conduit 25 is provided to con
milk or cream, in a continuous process in which
such milk or cream is converted into milk fat
vey the ?ltered liquid from the ?lter 24 to the
concentrate and butter.
“prechurn” 26.
Figure 2 is a modi?ed diagrammatic repre
sentation of additional apparatus intended for use
The “prechurn” 26, in the preferred arrange
ment of apparatus for the present invention, is
constructed in accordance with the apparatus
in conjunction with the apparatus diagram-‘
'
.5
9,407,812
illustrated in Figure 3, which apparatus is de
ings. The above numbered standardizing vats
scribed in detail hereinafter. Brie?y stated, the
“prechurn” 25, in the preferred arrangement of
apparatus, comprises a combined agitating and
heat exchange unit in which the product pass
motor-driven agitator ‘48, 49 and 5i! and suitable
ing therethrough is agitated while being heated
are .each‘respect‘ively provided with .a suitable
heat exchange medium circulating jackets 5!, 52
and ‘53, respectively. The heat exchange medi
um circulating jackets El, 52 and 53 are each
provided with heat exchange medium inlet and
or cooled under predetermined super-atmos
pheric pressure and at a predetermined temper
discharge connections which may be connected
ature for a predetermined period of time in the
in series or individually in any suitable manner
presence of a controlled quantity of gas. Gener 10 to a source of the desired heat exchange medium
ally speaking, the apparatus may be of the type
which may either bea heating fluid or a refrig
clearly disclosed in the U. S. Patent No. 2,278,340
erant as desired.
and is preferably equipped with a device for au
Standardizing material may be supplied
tomatically controlling the quantity of gas ad
through conduit 54 ‘to the vats 42, 43 and 44
mitted into the “prechurn” and which device 15 from the standardizing solution supply container
may be similar to the arrangement of elements
55 by means of the individual valve-controlled
shown in U. S. Patent No. 1,907,486. An alter
pipes 55, 5‘! and .58, respectively, which latter
native form of “prechurn” is illustrated in Fig
mentioned pipes communicate with the supply
ure 4 of the drawings.
conduit ‘54. The vats 42,43 and 44 are each con
A conduit 27, to which is suitably connected a 20 nected by valve-controlled ‘pipes 59, 60 and BI,
power-driven pump 28 and a thermometer 29, is
respectively, to a conduit 62, to which a ther
connected to the discharge of the “prechurn” 26
mometer 63 is suitably attached, for conducting
for conducting the “prechurned” liquid to a liq
liquid from any one or more of the standardizing
uid heater 38. The heater 3B is preferably of the
vats 42, 43 and ‘44 to the churn 64. The churn
indirect heat exchange type and may be a tubu
54 is preferably a combined agitator and heat
lar type of heater, such, for example, as the type
exchanger in which the standardized milk fat
of heater illustrated in U. S. Patent No. 1,988,548.
concentrate is agitated while being heated or‘
The heated liquid passes from the heater 3!)
cooled under predetermined super-atmospheric
through a Valve-controlled conduit 3|, to which
pressure to a predetermined temperature in a pre
a thermometer 32 is suitably connected, to a cen
determined period of time in the presence of a
trifugal separator 33. The separator 33 is of the
controlled quantity of gas.
_
tTIE/‘live capable of separating substantially concen
The churn 64, in the preferred arrangement of
trated milk fat from skim-milk and from more
apparatus, is similar to the preferred type of
viscous and heavier separation fractions which
“prechurn” 26 and may be a device of the type
consist chie?y of milk solids. The three sepa
' which is generally illustrated in detail in U. S.
ration fractions in the order as mentioned are
Patent No. 2,278,340. The churn .54 is also pro
discharged, respectively, from the separator
vided with‘ van automatically controlled gas ad
through separator discharge ducts 34, 35 and 35a.
mission device which may be of the type similar
The skim-milk and heavier separation frac
to that illustrated in U. S. Patent No. 1,907,486.
tions are conducted by any suitable means (not 40
A conduit 65, having a power-operated pump
shown) to any desired'point of disposal. The
66 and a thermometer 6‘! suitably connected
substantially concentrated milk fat passes from
thereto for indicating the temperature of the
the separator discharge 3% to a conduit 36 to
material being discharged from the churn 64, is
which a suitable power-driven pump 37 is con
provided for conducting material from the churn
nected for pumping the substantially concentrat 45 ‘64 to an aging and crystallizing device or appa
ed milk fat product to a pasteurizing device 38.
ratus 68. The pump 66 may in all instances not
The pasteurizer 38 is preferably of the combined
be required unless the pressure within the churn
pasteurizer and deodorizer type adapted to 0p
613 is not su?ici'ent to force the churned product
erate continuously under sub-atmospheric pres
sure. Such a type of combined pasteurizer and
deodorizer is generally illustrated in the U. S.
Patent No. 2,314,455. The concentrated milk fat
is both pasteurized and deodorized in such a
continuous pasteurizer operating under sub-at
to and through the remaining processing appa
ratus. The aging apparatus 68 is provided with
a suitable heat exchange medium circulating
jacket 69 having ‘the necessary heat exchange me
dium inlet ‘and outlet connections.
The aged and further crystallized product is
mospheric pressure. Such a sub-atmospheric 55 ‘conducted from the aging device 58 through pipe
pressure pasteurizer will be hereinafter more
7!], to which a thermometer “H is suitably con
fully described and is illustrated in more detail
nected, to a texturating device 72. The tex
in Figure 5.
turating device 72 is illustrated in more detail
A discharge conduit 35 suitably connected to
in Figure 6 and may be of the type of agitating
a power-driven pump as having a thermometer
and blending device generally indicated in U. S.
4| for indicating the temperature of the liquid
Patent No. 2,130,113 wherein it is illustrated in
being discharged from the pasteurizer 38 extends
connection with a proportioning or injecting de
from the pastuerizer as to a series of standard
vice. The texturated product passes from the
izing vats 42, 43 and 4d. The pasteurized and
itexturator 72 through conduit 13, to which a
concentrated cream or liquid containing milk fat 65 thermometer is suitably connected, to and through
may be discharged into any one or more of the
a molding and packaging device ‘M from which
respective vats in the order as numbered through
the molded and packaged product is discharged
through the discharge chute 15.
the valve-controlled pipes t5, t5 and 41, each
connected to the pasteurizer discharge conduit
As ‘mentioned above, several heat exchange de
39.
70 vices form part of the apparatus used in connec
tion with this new process. These heat exchange
The standardizing vats '42, 43 and d4 may each
be of any suitable type, such, for example, as the
type generally indicated in the U. S. Patent No.
1,848,957 or similar to the alternative form of
“prechurn” illustrated in Figure 4 of the draw
devices, such as the vat ll, the heater 3B. the
“prechurn” 26,.the churn 64 and the agitating
‘device 68, enable the accurate control of the tem
75 peratures and pressures of the product at the: dif
2,407,612
8
ferent stages of the process. It may be desirable
83 through a continuation of pipe 62, to which
for the regulation of such temperatures to pro
vide suitable automatic controls, such, for ex
ample, as those commonly used in connection
with these devices in commercial practice in or
eter 88 are connected, and is conducted by the
a suitably power-driven pump 81 and thermom- '
' continuation of pipe 62 to the churn 64.
The “prechurn” 29 and the churn E4 diagram
matically illustrated in Figure 1 are constructed
in accordance with the more detailed representa
product during the various stages of the process.
tion of the preferred type of “prechurn" and
Such automatic controls have not been illustrated
churn apparatus shown in Figure 3. For the
' in view of the fact thatgthe application of such
automatic controls to the apparatus used in con 10 purpose of avoiding duplication the description
will be limited to an explanation of the churn
nection with this improved process is well known
64 when connected to the supply conduit 62 and
in the art.
to the discharge conduit 65. The description
.. The arrangement of the apparatus, as above de
of the preferred type of “prechurn” 26 would be
scribed in connection with the disclosure of Fig
the same as that given for the churn 94.
ure 1 of the drawings, is useful primarily in the
continuous or substantially continuous poduc
The fluid. product to be treated in the churn
63 is supplied to the positive-acting, power
tion of butter in which a milk fat content of ap
driven pump 89 from which it in turn passes
proximately eighty per cent is desired._ In some
through connecting conduit 99 to a second pos
instances it may be desirable to produce butter or
a butter-like substance which contains approxi 20 itive-acting, power-driven pump 9|, which latter
pump is preferably of larger capacity than the
mately ninety-?ve per cent to one hundred per
pump 89. A regulated but automatically acting
cent milk fat and having a satisfactory compo
gas admission valve 92a, in order to provide for
sition and texture when solidi?ed. In still other
the difference in capacities of the metering
instances it may be desirable to produce substan
pumps 88 and 91, is connected to the conduit 99
tially pure untexturated milk fat.
to admit thereinto a predetermined quantity of
It is advisable, in the event that a product con
sisting of substantially pure. milk fat is to be made,
gas, such as air or nitrogen or carbon dioxide,
to supplement the de?ciency in the ?uid sup
to augment the apparatus shown in Figure l of
the drawings. Such apparatus may be aug
plied by pump 89. The operation of the inter
mented by the inclusion in the arrangement of 30 connected metering pumps 89 and 9| and of the
the apparatus illustrated in Figure 1 of the addi
automatic gas admission valve 92a is so adjust
able and so balanced by the regulation of the . I
tional apparatus illustrated between the broken
capacities of the pumps and the control of tHe
lines of Figure 2. When such additional appa
valve 920. as to secure the admission of a con
ratus, as is illustrated in Figure 2, is to be in
cluded in the arrangement of apparatus illus 35 trolled and predetermined quantity of gas
through the valve 92a into the conduit‘ 90. The
trated in Figure 1, then the conduit 62, through
gas so admitted into the conduit 99 in turn is‘
which the standardized milk fat solution flows to
intermingled by pump 9| with the metered and
the churn 64, is broken immediately ahead of the
predetermined quantity of the product supplied
churn 64, as illustrated in Figure 2, and the stand
ardized' product being discharged from one or 40 by pump 89. The intermingled gas and liquid
is forced by pump 9| under super-atmospheric
more of the vats 42, 43 and 44, passes through a
pressure through conduit 92, to and through. the
power-driven pump 76, through a continuation
processing chamber 93 of the churn 64, all of
of pipes 32 into a second centrifugal separator 18.
which may be done in a manner similar to that
ri‘he separator 18 is similar to the separator 33
set forth in detail in U. S. Patents Nos. 1,907,486
but is particularly well adapted for the centrifu
gal separation of a substantially concentrated
and 2,278,340.
j
The processing chamber 93*is surrounded by
milk fat containing product to produce a substan
concentric heat exchange medium circulating
* tially pure milk fat which is discharged from
jackets 94 and 95 operatively connected with
the separator through the discharge duct 19.
heat exchange medium supply and discharge pas
Like unt‘o the separator 33, the separator 18
sages 96 and 91, respectively. In the preferred
is also provided with means for separately dis
embodiment of the invention the fundamental
charging the remaining fractions of the separa
arrangement of the heat exchange medium jack
tion products, such as skim-milk and viscous milk
ets and the supply and discharge connections,
solids, which are discharged through the duct
which may be used for the circulation of heat
89‘. The substantially pure-milk fat passes from
the separator discharge connection 19 through a
exchange medium, such, for example, as a re
frigerant, for cooling the processing chamber 93,
continuation of pipe 62, which is provided with a
is in keeping with the general arrangement set
power-actuated pump 82, to a moisture extractor
or evaporator 83. The evaporator 83 consists of
forth in U. S. Patent No. 2,132,932.
der to assure the proper heat treatment of the
an enclosed chamber provided with a heat ex
change medium circulating jacket 84 and a gas
discharge or evacuating connection 85 which may
be connected to any suitable source of vacuum
(not shown).
A simpli?ed arrangement which
has proven satisfactory in the modi?cation em
60
‘It should be noted from an examination of
Figure 3 that the heat exchange medium'jackets
94 and 95 do not extend through the entire
length of the processing tube 93. The portion
of the processing tube or chamber 33 at the head
65 end thereof is not subjected to the actionof the
bodying the elements shown in Figure 2 involves
heat exchange medium in the heat exchange me
dium jacketsv and the product which passes
the deletion of the pasteurizer 38 ahead of the
tanks 42, 43 and 44. For convenience the evap
through the processing chamber 93 before leav
ing the chamber passes through a portion thereof
orator 83 may consist of a vacuum pasteurizer 3B.
The concentrated milk fat solution introduced 70 immediately adjacent the discharge end in which
into the upper portion of the moisture evaporat
it is further processed without being subjected
ing chamber 83 passes downwardly therethrough
to further substantial heat exchange.
by trickling or flowing in‘ thin ?lms over b-a?le
The precise. proportionate length of the heat
plates 86. The concentrated milk fat is with
exchange chamber which is not subjected. to the
drawn ‘from the lower portion of the chamber 75 effect of heat exchange medium depends en
2,407,612
10
tirely upon the type of agitation to which the
product being processed therein may be subjected
after leaving the portion ofthe processing cham
U. S. Patent No. 2,278,340. ‘The front end of
the processing chamber agitator is ‘concentrically
supported within the processing chamber by a
ber 93‘ in which it is cooled or heated so as to
front stud shaft H! which is carried in ,a dis
permit the further completion of the effect of
such cooling or heating before the product is dis
placement spider H2 housed in the front cylin
der head NM.
charged from the processing chamber through
discharge connections 95!. The heat exchange
The product to be treated is pumped to and
through the processing chamber 9.3 by the pump
medium jackets 94 and 95 are insulated or jack
95 and, while being cooled or heated within the
eted in any conventional. manner. The entire 10 chamber 93 as desired, is processed under super‘
atmospheric pressure at a predetermined tem
arrangement of processing chamber 93 and heat
perature for a predeterminediperiod of time in
exchange medium jackets 94 and 55 is supported
upon the base 99 in the vmanner as clearly shown
the presence of a controlled quantity of‘ gas in
in Figure 3.
troduced into the product through valve 92a in
The rear head it!) of the processing chamber 15 termediate pumps 89 and 9|. As the material
and the intermingled gas passes through the
93 is attached thereto in any conventional man
processing chamber 93 it is forced into engage
ner, such as by screw threads or welding, and is
provided with a laterally extending opening to
ment with the surface of the cylinder 93. from
which it is repeatedly scraped by the scraping
blades H38 and forced through the openings I01
centrally into the processing chamber t3 and 20. into. the interior of the outer agitator member
R66 to be severely agitated by the inner agitator
through which the stud shaft 50!, which is ?xed
receive the conduit 92. The rear head I09 is
also provided with an axial opening which opens
to the rear portion of the processing chamber
agitator, passes. The front end of the heat ex
change medium jacket arrangement is closed and
sealed to the processing chamber 93 by front end
plate M2 to which is fastened a jacket head "it.
A front cylinder head 584 for the processing
members I09 and, H0, thence ‘to pass out again
from the interior of the member H16 through the
openings ! ill into re-engagement with the. heated
or cooled surface of the processing chamber 93
from which it is again scraped and the entire
agitating operation repeated.
While passing through processing chamber 93
tube 93 is securely fastened in any suitable de'
tachabl'e manner to the end plate Hi2 and is pro 30 of preferred proportions, the product contained
vided with a discharged aperture associated with
in the interior of the processing chamber isof
the processing chamber discharge conduit 9s. A
such a quantity measured in cubic inches and
the inner heat exchange surface of the cylinder
discharge pressure control valve iii-5 is adapted
to regulate the pressure within the processing
33 is of such an area measured in square inches
chamber 93 by restricting the flow of the proc
that the ratio of the heat exchange surface in
essed product being discharged through the consquare inches to. the cubical content of the
product within the chamber 93 varies between
1:1 and lzll/z. The capacity of the processing
chamber 93 and the rate of supply of the pump
ure 3.
40 9i through the conduit 92 to the processing
chamber 93 are of such‘ relative proportions that
A compound agitator or “mutator” of two or
the product requires approximately from one to
‘more relatively movable elements is housed in
duit 98. The discharge valve H15 consists pri
marily of an adjustable spring-biased plunger of
conventional design, as clearly depicted in Fig
the interior of‘ the processing chamber 53 and
extends longitudinally throughout the entire
four minutesto pass through the entire process
ing chamber while‘being processed therein.
The. apparatus disclosed in Figure 3, which has
just been described in the preceding paragraphs
length thereof. The agitator,
its preferred
embodiment, is comprised of a tube-like outer
as a churn to be inserted in the processing sys
element 596 which is somewhat less in diameter
than the internal diameter of the processing tube
tem between the conduits 62 and 65, may also be
93‘ and rotatably supported concentrically within
.used as the. “prechurn” 26, as previously indi
the cylinder 93.
to cated. When the described device illustrated in
A suitable spider means is provided in the rear
portion of the hollow outer element 93 for con
necting the same to the stud shaft lei which is
supported for rotation in the rear head ME} and
which stud‘ shaft is powered by‘ any suitable ‘'
means, such as a variable speed source of power
of conventional design (not shown). The outer
tubular agitator element 108 is provided with
four sets of elongated apertures ml’, each set
being disposed at an angle of ninety degrees to
the adjacent set. The outer agitator member
N36 is also ‘provided with scraping blades Hi8
Figure 3 is used as ‘a churn then the heat ex
change function thereof is, primarily, cooling.
However, when the device is used as the “pre
churn” 2i5,.it may be used either as a combined
refrigerating and agitating device or as a com
bined heating and agitating device, In each
instance, when the combined agitating and heat
exchange device is used either as the “prechurn”
2B or churn 611, the quantity of gas, such as air,
or other suitable gas, such as nitrogen or carbon
dioxide, introduced through the gas valve 92a
must be regulated by the proper adjustments of
which may be. detachably a?ixed to the outer
the relative capacities of the positive-acting
metering pumps 89 and 9| and the adjustment
member H36 in a suitable manner, as, for ex
ample, the manner clearly shown in U. S. Patent 65 of the automatic valve 92a, whereby a suitable
quantity of gas is supplied to ‘the liquid being
No. 2,278,340. The scraping blades 59-8 extend
substantially throughout the entire length of the
forced to and through the processing chamber
processing chamber and are positioned to over
lie alternate sets of the elongated openings H31.
Two inner agitator‘ elements are and iii! are
provided on the interior of the outer agitator
element “16. The elements Hi9 and H6 are con
centrically supported within the outer agitator
element H36 by a suitable arrangement of bear
ings, for example, in a manner as shown in the
under super-atmospheric pressure and in the
presence of ‘a controlled- quantity of gas. The
period of time ‘during which the product is proc
essed in the churn or “prechurn” device shown
in Figure 3 depends upon the adjustment of the
valve M5, the size of the cylinder 93 and the
capacity of pump 9|.
Although in the preferred embodiment of the
2,407,612
11
.
12
V
‘steam, is quickly heated to pasteurizing tem
arrangement and typeof apparatus for the‘prac
tice of the present invention, as shown in Fig
ures 1 and 2, applicants have indicated the use
of a “prechurn” of the type shown in Figure 3, it
has, however, also been found that an alterna
tive type of “prechurn,” such as shown in Fig-'
ure 4, may be used satisfactorily. It should,
however, be noted that the alternative type of
"prechurn” shown in Figure 4 cannot be sub
stituted for the churn 64 but the alternative
perature, which temperature is accurately con
trolled by the degree of exhaust to which the
chamber IE3 is subjected. The intermingled
milk fat concentrate and steam ?ows from the
lower portion of the chamber I25 through con
duit I28 past a spring-biased pressure equalizer
valve I29 into the upper portion of a partially
evacuated deodorizing chamber I30. The deodor
izing chamber I30 is provided at its upper end
type of “prechurn” may, however, also be used 7
with a gas exhaust connection I3I connected to
as the standardizing vats 42, 43 and 44. The
any ‘suitable source of ' vacuum (not shown),
whereby a desired predetermined degree of sub
atmospheric pressure is readily maintainable
vat illustrated in Figure 4 consists primarily'oi
an inner liner H3 supported within an outer 15 within chamber I30. Through conduit I28 and
by means of equalizer valve I29, a lesser degree
' jacket H4 by the spaced heat exchange medium
of exhaustion is readily maintainable within the
directing ribs II5 which so position the liner
alternative type of “prechurn” and standardizing v
H3 within the jacket H4 as to form a heat ex
change
medium
circulating
passage
chamber I 26.
,
The intermingled milk fat concentrate and
there
A suitable heat exchange medium supply con
nection I I6 and discharge connection II'I are
20 steam condensate passes from the conduit I28 in
the form of a thin ?lm down the wall of the de-‘
odorizer chamber I30 to accumulate in the lower
provided. There is also provided within the vat
portion thereof from which it is discharged
. between.
through pipe I3Ia into the liquid seal I32. The
liner an agitator having a plurality of blades I I8
supported for rotation. on agitator shaft H9. 25 product passes from the liquid seal I32 through
?oat valve I33 into conduit I34 from which it
The blades I I8 are joined at their outer [periph
passes into the upper end of a third partially
eries by yoke I20. The agitator shaft II 9 is
evacuated chamber I35 to flow down the wall
thereof in the form of a ?lm. The chamber I35,
in a conventional manner to a suitable drive 30 like unto the chamber I30, is provided at its upper
endwith a suitable gas exhaust connection I30’
mechanism I22.
suitably pivoted within the vat liner I I3 on pivot
I2I' and at its upper end is disengageably keyed
It should be pointed out that, when the alter
native type of "prechurn” shown in Figure 4 is
used as a “prechurn.” it is necessary to drive the
Imulti-bladed agitator at such a speed as to 35
achieve the desired “prechurning.” The spacing
of the agitator blades I I8 along the shaft I I 9 with
respect to the level of the product being agitated
and heat-treated withinthe “prechurn,” in or
connected to a suitable means of vacuum (not
shown), by means of which the sub-atmospheric
pressure within chamber I35 may be suitably,
controlled.
The interminigled fat concentrate, steam con
densate and steam introduced into chamber I35 1
from the conduit I34 is spiraled down‘ the walls
of the chamber I35 in the form of a ?lm to ac
der to facilitate and expedite the “prechurning,” 40 cumulate in the lower, portion of the chamber 7
from which it is pumped through conduit 39 by
is preferably such as to enable the ready incorpo
positive-acting pump 40. Both ofthe partially
ration of a suitable quantity of air or other gas
evacuated chambers I30 and I35 are provided
‘ into the product being agitated. When the al
with heat exchange medium circulating jackets
ternative type of “prechurn,” as shown in Figure
4, is used as a standardizing vat, then obviously 45 I31 and I 31a, respectively, The jackets I31 and
I3'Ia are provided-with suitable heat exchange
the desirable degree of agitation, to which the
medium supply and discharge connections for the
product is subjected while being standardized,
circulation of heat exchange medium through
may be either more or less than the degree of agi
said jackets I31 and I3‘Ia. The milk fat con
tation to which the product is subjected when
centrate,in the passage thereof through the com
the device is used as a “prechurn” depending
bined pasteurizer and deodorizer as just described
upon the characteristics of the product. Accord
and of the type illustrated in Figure 5, is pas
ingly, the speed with which the agitator is driven
teurized and deodorized without substantially
by the unit I22 must be appropriately controlled
changing the quantity of milk fat concentrate
by the selection of the proper power unit I22.
The arrangement of apparatus, described with 55 supplied to the combined pasteurizing and dc‘
odorizing apparatus.
respect to the diagrammatic illustration shown
Although the combined pasteurizer and de
in Figure 1, includes a pasteurizing unit 38. The
odorizer, as shown in Figure 5 and as just de
preferable type of pasteurizer 38 is illustrated in
scribed, is the preferred type of pasteurizing ap
more detail in Figure 5 and constitutes a com
bined pasteurizer and deodorizer adapted to op 60 paratus for use in the instantinvention, other
suitable combined pasteurizing and deodorizing
erate continuously under sub-atmospheric pres
devices, such, for example, as that illustrated_ in
sure. As shown in Figure 5, the milk fat concen—
U. S. Patent No. 2,130,643,‘may be used. Obvi
trate ?owing through the conduit 36 is discharged
ously, it is not always necessary to deodorize the
into an atmospheric supply chamber I23 from
which it is discharged into a distributing pan I24 65 milk fat concentrate in the practice of the in
stant invention and in such instance a less com
through ?oat valve I25. The distributing pan I24
plicated pasteurizing apparatus, such as, for ex
ample, the type illustrated in U. S. Patent No.
1,693,034,'has been found to prove satisfactory.
One of the ?nal steps in the instant invention
form of drops, from the distributing pan I24 in 70
involves the texturating of the substantially com
the presence of steam provided to the upper por
pleted butter product. The texturator designat
tion of the chamber I26 through a valve-con
ed by the numeral ‘I2 in the preferred arrange
trolled steam supply conduit I2'I.
ment of apparatus, as illustrated in the diagram
The milk fat concentrate, while passing
matic representation of ‘Figure 1, is illustrated in
‘through the chamber I 25 in the presence of
is positioned at the upper extremity of a partially -
I23 through
which the milk is precipitated, preferably in the
> evacuated
pasteurizing
chamber
2,407,612
,
greater detail in Figure 6. The texturator, as
shown in Figure 6, consists primarily of an outer
14
ported for rotation within the outer jacket I38 by
with the metered cream a predetermined and
controlled quantity of gas, such as air or nitro
gen or carbon dioxide, admitted into pipe 90
through the automatic air inlet valve 92a. The
pump 9| forces the metered quantities of cream
and intermingled air or gas through the pipe 92
under super-atmospheric pressure to and
a front spider I42 and by an apertured rear head
through the processing chamber 93 of the “pre
jacket I38 provided on its inner surface with sta
tionary agitator prongs I 39 which co-act with the
rotatable agitator prongs M0 carried by the agi
tator shaft Mi. The shaft MI is centrally sup
I43 through the aperture of which the shaft Ml
churn” 26. The “prechurned” cream is dis
extends. The shaft MI, at its rear extremity, is 1.0 charged from the discharge conduit 93 of the
suitably connected to a driving motor M4. The
“prechurn” 26 past. the automatic pressure con
texturator jacket I38 is provided adjacent its rear
extremity with an inlet connection I45 and is also
provided at its front extremity with a discharge
connection I66.
To illustrate the aspect of the present invention
which relates to the improved process of making
butter by the use of the preferred arrangement
and type of apparatus diagrammatically illus
trated in Figure 1, lacteal ?uid or a dairy product,
such, for example, as sourcream, having a milk
fat content in the dispersed phase varying be
tween approximately twenty per cent to forty per
cent and having an acidity varying between ap
trol valve I65 into the pipe 2?. While passing
through the processing chamber 93 of the “pre
churn” 26, the cream for a suitable period of
time is subjected to violent agitation under su
per-atmospheric pressure in the presence of a
controlled quantity of gas while at a tempera
ture varying between thirty degrees Fahrenheit
and one hundred ten degrees Fahrenheit which
expedites or permits the ready uniting of fat
globules of the milk fat product.
Such agitation of the tempered cream while
passing through the “prechurn” causes a uniting
of a substantial portion of the milk fat globules
proximately two~tenths per cent to one and ?Ve— 25 of the cream, either when the cream is heated
tenths per cent, is supplied through the supply
pipe II to the storage vat It. The sour cream
in the storage vat I0 may be heated or cooled, as
desired, and maintained at a predetermined
temperature of preferably ?fty degrees Fahren
or cooled, as above stated, and thereby changes
the phase of
least a substantial portion of the
milk fat content of the cream. The cream is
agitated within the “prechurn,” which may be
change medium through the heat exchange unit
of the preferred type or alternative type, for a
sufficient period of time and to a sufficient degree
to cause a uniting of the major portion of‘ the
heit by the circulation of the desired heat ex
I3 of the tank Iil while the sour cream product is
fat globules contained therein, whereby the
being agitated by the agitator I2. The tempera
physical characteristics of the cream are so
ture of the cream within the storage tank It is
changed that the major portion of the fat con
tent thereof is no longer in the dispersed phase
readily indicated by the thermometer I4.
The cream is pumped from the storage tank Ill
by means of a power-driven pump I6 through the
valve-controlled pipe I5 into the receiving or
forewarming. and acid-neutralizing vat I'I. It isv
desirable in the preferred procedure to standard
ize or neutralize the excess acidity of the sour
cream supplied to the vat H to an acidity of ap
proximately .0 to 30% titratable acidity calcu
lated as lactic acid.
as it is in normal cream.
The heating or cool
ing of the cream within the processing chamber
93 is effected by the circulation of heat exchange
medium, suchas hot water or steam-or other suit
able heat exchange medium, provided with a heat
exchange circulating space defined by the jackets
and‘ 95 thrcugh the supply ducts 96,- from
which heat exchange jackets it is again dis
The neutralization of the 45 charged through the discharge conduit Q'i.
excess acid is accomplished by the introduction
he “prechurned” cream is discharged from
into the vat ll of a suitable quantity of acid
the “prechurn” it through the pipe 2? and, by
standardizing or neutralizing solution, such as
means of the pump 28, is forced to and through
sodium hydroxide or potassium solutions, lime
a heater, such, for example, as a tubular heater,
in which the temperature of the “prechurned”
water or other desirable alkaline neutralizer.
The acid neutralizer may be stored in supply tank
cream is raised to approximately one hundred
2! and provided to vat I‘! through the valve-con
twenty degrees Fahrenheit, all as readily indi
trolled pipe Zil. The sour cream, to which the
cated by the thermometer 32 in the valve-con
neutralizer has been added, is agitated in the vat
trolled pipe 3i through which the cream is dis
I‘! by the stirring coil I8 for a period‘of time 55 charged from the heater 3% to the separator 33,
sufficient to permit the substantial completion of
preferably a centrifugal type of separator.
the neutralization of the excess acid condition of
The separator 33 is preferably of the type
the sour cream.
The temperature of the cream
which, by centrifugal action, is capable of sepa
supplied to the vat I‘! is preferably heated or
rating the cream into three fractions. The
cooled to, or maintained at, a suitable working 60 skim-milk fraction containing the major portion
temperature, which temperature is readily indi
er the ‘products of neutralization is discharged
cated by the thermometer IS.
through the duct 35 to any convenient point of
The heated and suitably neutralized cream is
disposal and likewise the remaining milk solids
‘pumped from the vat I‘! by means of the pump
and sediments are discharged with a small quan
23 through the valve-controlled pipe 22 to and 65 tity of skim-milk through the duct 35a.
through the ?lter 24 from which the ?ltered
The puri?ed milk fat separation product con
cream passes through the pipe 25 to the “pre
training a milk fat content preferably in excess of
churn” device 26. The preferred design of the
eighty per cent is discharged from the separator
“pre-churn” 26 is shown in more detail in Fig
33 through the duct 34% at a temperature of ap
ure 3.
70 proximately one hundred twenty degrees Fahr
The ?ltered cream passes from the conduit 25
enheit into the conduit 3% through which it is
through the metering pump 89, through the con
duit 9i] and through the second metering pump
9| which is preferably of a slightly larger capac
ity than the pump 89 and which intermingles
pumped by the pump it? into a suitable cream or
milk fat pasteurizer and deodcrizer 38.
The preferred type and arrangement of the
pasteurizer‘38 for use in the practice of the pres
2,407,612;
15
~
ent invention is diagrammatically illustrated in
Figure 5 ofthe drawings.
16
dure of ‘?lling, testing and emptying the stand
,The concentrated milk fat, while being pas-V
teurized and deodori'zed, is precipitated in the
form of droplets through the partially evacuated
ardizing vats 42, 43 and M is in rotation and for
this purpose the standardizing solutions con
tained in the receptacle 55 may be conducted at
will and as required, in view of the results of
chamber :26. It is rapidly heated by direct con
tact with steam supplied through. conduit I27
tests, through the pipe 54 and through the valve
to the desired temperature of approximateiyrtwo
of the'vats 152, 43 and M, respectively. Each of
the standardizing vats d2, 43 and M is construct
controlled outlets 56, 5'! and 58 into one or more
hundred degrees Fahrenheit for the necessary
period of time to e?ect the pasteurization of the 10 ed in substance in accordance with the previous
cream. The manner of controlling the tempera
ly described arrangement shown in Figure 4 and
ture of the milk fat concentrate, while being
is so provided with a jacket for the circulation of
pasteurized and deodorized in the preferred type
heat exchange medium and a power-driven agi
of pasteurizer, has been previously explained.
tator that the standardized milk fat concentrate
The commingled steam, condensed steamv and
may be either heated or cooled or maintained at
milk fat concentrate passes into a second, par
a predetermined temperature. Such predeter
tially evacuated and water-jacketed chamber “it
mined temperaturepreferably varies between one
in which the pasteurized milk fat concentrate is
hundred degrees Fahrenheit and one hundred
subjected to further action under sub-atmos
twenty degres Fahrenheit and is maintained
pheric pressure which results in the liberation of 20 while the standardized product is being suitably
some of the entrained gases and moisture, there
agitated for a sui?cient period of time to permit
by e?'ecting the substantial deodorization and
the substantial completion of the standardizing
partial cooling of the milk fat concentrate. The
operation. For example, while the pasteurized
pasteurized, deodorized and partially cooled milk
milk fat concentrate is being supplied to vat 42,
fat concentrate passes from such second cham 25 the milk fat concentrate previously supplied to
ber I36 of the pasteurizer 38 through a conduit
vat 43 is being tested and standardized and the
containing a liquid seal 532 to a third partially
already standardized product in vat 4a is being
evacuated and water-jacketed chamber I35. In
drawn therefrom through pipe 6| into conduit 62.
this chamber the product is subjected to the
The standardized .milk fat product or concen
effect of intense sub-atmospheric pressure or vac 30 trate'containing approximately eighty per cent
uum to further cool and in like manner further
milk fat and a total of twenty per cent of one
deodorize the cream or milk fat concentrate and
or more ingredients, such as milk solids, starter
remove therefrom the remaining excess mois- »
solutions, salt, water, coloring and flavoring mat- '
ture, some of which may have been introduced
ters, passes from the pipe 62 to the churn 64.
thereinto by the condensing of steam in the 35 The churn 641 includes the positively driven me
cream in the pasteurizing chamber of the com
. tering pump 89 from which the standardized milk
bined pasteurizer and deodorizer, and to further
cool the pasteurized, deodorized and partially
cooled milk fat concentrate by the effect of fur
fat concentrate is discharged into the connecting '
conduit 93 and from which it flows into the sec
ond metering pump 9| of slightly larger capacity,
ther evaporation, as well as remove remaining 40 together with a controlled quantity of gas, such
entrained gases.
as air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide or other suitable
The cream or milk fat concentrate is dis
gas, which has been introduced into pipe '99
charged from the combined pasteurizer and de
odorizer to the conduit 39 at a temperature above
the melting point of the milk fat content of the
cream or oil.
The normal temperature of dis
charge from the pasteurizer 38 is approximately
one hundred ten degrees Fahrenheit.
The milk
through the automatic gas inlet valve 92a.
The
positively driven metering pump 90 commingles
' such gas and standardized milk'fat concentrate
drawn in from pipe 9% and forces the commingled
product under super-atmospheric pressure
through the conduit 92 to and through the proc
essing chamber 93 from which it is discharged
fat concentrate is pumped from the pasteurizer
38 through‘ the conduit 39 by the pump 40 into 50 through the discharge connection 98 past the
automatic pressure control valve I65 into the
the standardizing vats 42, 43 and 44 through the
conduit 65.
'
valve-controlled pipes 45, 46 and 41 communicat
ing with the conduit 39. These standardizing
The standardized milk fat solution which con
vats arev thus ?lled in rotation one at a time. It
tains all of the ingredients of butter in the same
is necessary at this point in the process of manu 55 predetermined proportionate quantities is sub
jected in the churn 64 to violent agitation under
facture of butter to add to the milk fat concen
trate received from the pasteurizer 38 the desired
super-atmospheric pressure, preferably in excess
quantities of standardizing materials, such as
of twenty pounds per square inch gauge, while
said solution passes through the processing
salt, coloring, ?avoring, starter solutions and in
some instances additional acid neutralizing solu 60 chamber 93 in a period of time varying between
tions and water. Obviously, to maintain the de
one and four minutes and in the presence of a
sired percentage of milk fat and the relative pro
controlled quantity of gas, preferably not in ex
portions between the various ingredients of the
cess of twelve per cent, which gas is substantially
standardizing solutions and the milk fat, it is es
uniformly intermingled with and‘ distributed
sential that the product supplied to the stand 65 throughout said solution, mostly in the form of
ardizing vats 4'2, 43 and 44 be suitably and accu
minute air pockets, while the solution is being
rately tested at this point in the process. Such
super-cooled to a temperature varying between
testing and standardizing operations require time
thirty degrees Fahrenheit and ninety degrees
and, therefore, the three standardizing vats have
Fahrenheit. While such agitation is progressing
been provided so that, while one vat which has 70 the standardizing materials previously added to
been ?lled and suitably standardized is being
the solution are also substantially uniformly dis
tributed throughout the solution.
‘
'
emptied into a churn, as hereinafter described,
the product which has been ?lled into the second
The heat exchange medium which, in ‘the in
vat may be tested and standardized while the
stance of the churn 64', is a refrigerant, such, for
third Vat is being filled.‘ Obviously, the proce 75 example, as anhydrous ammonia, is supplied
2,407,612;
17
18‘
through the. duct 96 and through the refrigerantv
jackets 9'4 and 95 which surround the processing
chamber 93;- After passing through the space‘
formed bythe heat exchange jackets 94 and 95,
from the churn 64 which may, if desired, be aided
The process just described is employed primar
ily in the manufacture of butter when his ‘de
the gaseous refrigerant, in such instances where
. sired to produce butter having a milk fat content
anhydrous ammonia‘ is used, is discharged
through the discharge conduit til’ of the cooling
in connection with the description of the appara
‘
by the pump 661 in the pipe 65.
‘
‘
of approximately eighty percent. As mentioned
7
tus diagrammatically illustrated in Figure .2, it
While passing through the processing. chamber
may at times be desirable to produce a substan
93, the standardized cream solution is rapidly 10' tially pure milk fat product containing approxi
system for the churn 6t.
chilled and super-cooled to a. temperature vary
ing between thirty degrees Fahrenheit and sev
mately ninety-nine per cent milk fat. It is de
sirable in such instances to further purify the
enty degrees Fahrenheit, thereby solidifying in
milk fat prior to the introduction thereof into
excess of ?fty per cent of the milk fat content
the churn 64, for which purpose the additional
thereof. That portion of the milk fat content of 15 apparatus illustrated in Figure 2 is connected in
the product which adheres to the inner surface of
to the conduit 62 in the manner illustrated in
the cylinder 93‘ which de?nes the processing
Figure 2 to thereby supplement the apparatus
chamber is quickly scraped therefrom by the
diagrammatically illustrated in Figure 1.‘ How'
scraping blades I98 and is forced into the inte
rior of the outer agitator member IE6 and vio
lently agitated therein by the compound agitat-i
ing members I09 and I l E}, whereby any entrained
ever, as previously mentioned, the vacuum pas
teurizer 38' may be eliminated entirely or substi
tuted in place of the evaporator 83. The proc
essing of. the milk fat concentrate in this second
gas and material other than milk fat is uniform
variant of the instant invention, i. e., the produc
1y dispersed throughout the milk fat content of‘
the product.
The standardized milk fat solution containing
the various ingredients of butter in a predeter
tion of a substantially‘ pure milk fat, is in sub
stance the same as‘ previously described in’ con
nection with the making of butter by the im
proved p-rocess until the milk fat concentrate is
discharged in rotation, as previously mentioned,
mined desired proportion requires: approximately
into the standarizing vats 42, 43 and 44, except
from one to four minutes for its passage through
the processing chamber 53. During such passage 30 the possible. pasteurization ahead of the stand-r
ardization in said vats. The milk fat product
the product is converted into a partially solidi
containing approximately eighty per cent‘ to
?ed, super-cooled, homogeneous product which
eighty-?ve per cent milk fat as supplied to the‘
is ‘discharged from the processing chamber 93
standardizing ‘vats 42, t3 and M is further neu-~
through the discharge connection 98 into the
pipe 65 at a temperature preferably varying be 35 tralized in the standardizing vats in this second
variant of the present invention by‘adding' to
tween thirty degrees Fahrenheit and seventy de
grees Fahrenheit. The pump 85, when the dis
charge pressure of the churn 64 is low, may be
used to force the super-cooled product dis
charged from the churn 54 to and through an 40
aging and crystallizing chamber 83.
The super-cooled product introduced into the
chamber 68 under the pressure of the product
being discharged from the churn St or under
the pressure of the pump 65 is permitted to fur
ther crystallize for a period of time varying be
tween one and eight minutes depending on. the
temperature of the product under controlled
temperatures and pressure conditions within the ‘
chamber 68. The control of the temperature is ‘
effected by the circulation of heat exchange me
dium through the jacket 59 and the temperature
thereof is such that the aged and further crystal
lized product is discharged from the aging cham
ber at a temperature of approximately forty-?ve '
degrees Fahrenheit. When so discharged there
from, the butter product passes through the con
duit 10 at a temperature of approximately forty
?ve degrees Fahrenheit to and through the tex
turating device 12. In the texturating device the
butter product is suitably agitated and worked to
produce the desired texture and body. The pre
ferred type of texturator is disclosed in Figure 6
of the accompanying drawings.
The butter product is discharged from the
texturator 12 through the conduit 13 to and
through a suitable molding or printing and
wrapping device ‘M, from which device the ?n
ished butter is discharged through the passage
15.
>
The flow of the product through the pipe 65,
the aging device 68, the texturator ‘l2 and the
printing and molding device i4 is all e?ected by
the pressure of the product being discharged
the milk fat concentrate at this stage ‘of the proc
ess a suitable quantity of excess acid neutralizing
solution of the type previously mentioned. ‘The
neutralizing agent may be stored in the tank 55
and supplied to the vats through the conduits 54
and the valve-controlled outlets 55, 57 and 58.
The milk fat concentrate, to which the neutralize
ing solution has been added, is then agitated for
a suf?cient period of time in the particular vat 42,‘
43‘ or 44 until the neutralization thereof is com»
pleted ‘and the acidity reduced to approximately
.0%. The neutralized ‘concentrated milk fats
product is then heated to approximately one hum’
dred seventy degrees Fahrenheit in the vats 42,
43 and 44 and discharged thereform: into the con
duit 62 through the corresponding valve-control
led outlet and is vpumped'by the pump 16 through
a continuation‘ of the conduit 62 into the separa
. tor 18 at a temperature of approximately‘one
hundred seventy degrees Fahrenheit to which
temperature the milk fat concentrate was heated
in the standardizing vat into which it was dis
charged from pipe 35. Such heating obviously
will effect the pasteurization of the product.
Similar to the separator 33, the separator ‘58
is of the centrifugal type capable of centrifugally
separating the concentrated cream product. The
skim-milk separation product or phase is dis
charged through the duct‘ 80 to any suitable point
of disposal.
'
The substantially pure milk fat product is dis
charged from the separator 18 through the duct
‘l9 at a temperature of approximately one hun
dred seventy degrees Fahrenheit into a continu
ation of the pipe 62, through which it is pumped
by the pump 82 into a partially exhausted chami
ber 83 or the pasteurizer 38 if the latter has been
substituted for chamber 83. Chamber 83 is pro
.vided with an exhaust conduit 85 connected to a
2,407,612
19
20'
suitable source of vacuum (not shown) capable
of maintaining a degree of exhaust in said cham
ber sufficient to remove from said milk fat‘con
centrate any entrained gas and moisture. The
substantially pure milk fat concentrate passes
product containing milk fat to produce butter,
that the raw material was made up of sour cream
containing approximately twenty per cent‘ to
forty per cent milk fat in the dispersed phase.
>
It was pointed out that the excess acid of the
sour. cream should be suitably neutralized in the
through the partially exhausted chamber '83 by
gravitationally ?owing downwardly over' the
staggered baiiles 86, whereby the entrained gas
I forewarming or receiving vat H.
Although it
'
may be preferable to neutralize the sour cream at
that stage of the improved process, it has been
and any remaining moisture content of the sub
stantially pure milk fat is expelled from the milk 10 found that satisfactory results may also be ob
tained by. neutralizing the milk fat containing
fat. Such expulsion of entrained gas and mois
product prior to churning. For example, the ex
ture puri?es the milk fat concentrate to a con
cess acid of the cream may also be neutralized
immediately prior to the "prechurning” opera- '
centration of approximately ninety-nine per cent.
The pure milk fat which collects in the bottom of
the chamber 83 is pumped therefrom through a 15 tion. Satisfactory‘ results have also been se
cured by neutralizing the excess acid of the sour
further continuation of the pipe 62 by the pump
cream immediately after the ?rst separation
81 and forced to the churn B4. In the event that
thereof but prior to the pasteurization of the milk
the pasteurizer 38 has been substituted for the
fat product.
evaporator 83, then the reseparation product is
pasteurized and partially dehydrated and de 20 It will be evident from the foregoing descripw
tion that the present improved process provides
odorized in the pasteurizer 38.
a means for continuously or substantially con
It should be noted at this point that, in .the
tinuously producing a more stable butter having.
event it is not desired to further work the sub
the desired and controllable texture and accue
stantially pure milk fat obtained by this second
variant of the instant invention, then such sub 25 rately regulated chemical and physical proper
_ ties which determine the composition of the
stantially pure milk fat may be withdrawn from
the vacuum chamber 83 and conducted to any
butter.
/
I
.
r‘
The texture of the improved product may be
suitable package or container. ‘If, however, it is
controlled to some extent by the incorporation
desired to produce a butter-like product from
the substantially pure milk fat_ then the milk 30 into the product of a predetermined quantity of
gas of the type previously mentioned. The loss
fat may be conducted through the churn 64, the
of milk fat from the commencement of the’ im
aging cylinder 68, the texturator 12 and the
proved process to the completion of the ?nished
molding and packaging device 14 in the same
butter is generally of the nature of oneand one
manner as previously described in connection
with the processing of the standardized cream or 35 fourth per cent. The overall loss of milk fat
during the entire operation of the conventional
milk fat concentrate for the manufacture of but
batch process of churning and working butter,
ter according to the improved process of this in
which involves the use of churns, forewarmers,
vention.
It has been pointed‘ out in the process consti
tuting the instant invention that the pasteuri
zation of the milk fat product and the deodoriza
pasteurizers, “ripening” and neutralizing tanks,
40 etc., amounts to approximately one and one-half
tion thereof is achieved by the use of a‘ device of
the type shown in Figure 5 of the drawings. 11;
should be mentioned that, although thisyis the
preferred type of combined pasteurizer and de
odorizer, other types of apparatus, such, as, for
example, the type disclosed in U. S. Patent No.
2,130,643 and other similar devices, may readily
be_used. When the milk fat product being proc
essed does not require deodorization then a more "
simpli?ed pasteurizing apparatus, such, for ex
per cent to two per cent. It is, therefore, obvious
that the instant invention constitutes a sub
stantial improvement in the art of making but
ter, not only in view of the improved e?iciency
secured by reducing the loss of milk fat below
that normally incurred in the conventional batch '
process of manufacturing butter, but also by the
provision of a process in which the manufacture
of butter may be carried on continuously and
by which the various characteristics of the but
ter, such as texture, composition, spreadability,
ample, as the type shown in U.'S. Patent No.
keeping qualities, coloring, ?avoring and relative
1,693,034, may be used instead of the more com
proportion of ingredients therein, may be accu
plicated combined pasteurizer and deodorizer
previously described.
The‘ description of the preferred manner of
' practicing the variant of the process constituting
this invention includes thef‘prechurning” of the
rately and satisfactorily regulated)»,
In the preceding description of the improvedl'"
process and in the following claims various ex
pressions common in the dairy industry have
been used.
Such expressions as, for example,
“milk fat” and “butter fat” are intended to de?ne
of the type shown in Figure 3. It should, how 60 the fat content of cream or milk. “Milk fat
concentrate” has been used in a somewhat more
ever, be remembered that the “prechurning” op
flexible manner and is used generally to de?ne
eration may be carried out in a vat, such as is
cream which is preferably done in a “prechurn”
the liquid which contains an abnormally high
percentage of milk fat. In referring to the
tating the milk fat product while controlling the 65 “standardization” of milk fat concentrate it
is intended to include by such expression any
temperature thereof during its passage through
shown in Figure 4, when such vat is provided with
suitable means as illustrated for violently agi
consists of an apparatus, such as is shown in Fig
one or more of the operations by which the
percentage of milk fat in the milk fat concen
ure 4, then the ?ow of the product therethrough
trate, water content, acidity, color, flavor'and
would not be continuous as would be the case if
the “prechurn" consisted of a device, such as
salt. content may be adjusted. More commonly,
. the apparatus.
When, however, the “prechurn” ,
shown in Figure 3.
'
the adjustment of an excess acid condition is
referred to as “neutralization.” vThe coined ex
‘ It was implied in the description of the pre
pression “prechurn” identi?es the mechanism for
ferred manner of practicing the instant inven
the performance of the operation which has been
referred to as “prechurning” and which involves
tion, i. e., the ‘improved manner‘of processing a
l'iniay-i‘obvi‘ously”;consist‘ of_ gravity “separations-jin
the~violent~ agitation "of >~a 1 dairy product, such
a
t as milk or'cream, for'a-s‘uf?c'ient periedrof time
at a suitable temperature varying e'betweenl'thirty
degrees Fahrenheit and one hundred: ten‘d'egiees
“Fahrenheit to: bring-about the‘ uniting'ofra'sub
stantial quantityiof ‘the milk‘ fat‘ globulesl'nor
“stead; 1of the preferred ‘centrifugal ‘ ‘separations.
=‘Sin'iilarly‘L the‘inilk I‘ fat" containing“ product; ‘may
‘ be"-h'eatéd‘ ' to rai-‘sliitable "separation temperature
v5 7'prior1t0 ‘--‘prechurhing” thereof immediately- pre
'ceding"theiseparation‘ cpera'tion._ _
. mally contained in: the milk For cream" in the 2dis
. persed “ phase. Such "a ";‘prechurning”'- operation
. tends to destabilize at‘ {least a-sub's'tantial "portion
‘of themilk fati content -of lthe‘ milk ‘or Icre'a’m.
"The: reference to ‘.‘pasteurization” ‘in the; pre
.
‘
_
{Further Variations’ may obviously be madam
‘l0 7and peri‘bidsbfitime ‘Tor-‘performing certain pp
ceding description relates = to ‘ a heat ‘ treatment
-operation of the milk or‘ cream *orini’lk‘ fat icon
-- rations "of ‘the I‘ proeessgani of_
h determine
»the1.~phy'siéal”and':chemicalicharacteristicscf ' ‘
"product 5 produced. ‘1 Obviously ‘such “dete ’
lcentrate during which :the ‘product-‘is; heated 1-to
‘elements "of ‘1 the ip'roc'ess v'as ‘ ‘temperatures
’
Ia _predetermined temperature ‘for la ipredete‘r 4155 sures and periods of time faorfper‘forming" cer
..mined period ‘of > tiinara-ll ‘1 as we'll" established-‘by
“conventional practice.
-
a
.‘The ‘.‘churning” ‘ operation I ‘referred 'to =he'rei-n
' contemplates ‘the ia'gitationiandfsuf?cient ‘Work
in'gZof the product ‘containing the milk~ fatico‘n
centrate, which .product vhas ‘preferably been
standardized to rsecure‘the‘ desired ' proportionate
ratio? between the?ngredientsthereof, which‘ agi
tation and working icausesla uniform blending
:and‘disp'ersio'n :of ‘all of the ingredients ‘bf the (25
product ? beingehurned, as iwell as the ' solidi?ca
iti‘on' or-s‘uper-coolin'g'and ‘conversion ofithelp'r‘o'd
not into butter.
‘
I
V
g
' The “texturating”foperation ref'erredit'o in ‘the
preceding description :ipreferably contemplates
the further mechanical ‘Working of the churned
‘product, “whereby “certain characteristics "of 1the
texture of 'thep‘roduct may ?-be varied at will.
Said texturating‘may be ‘accomplished by pass
ing theproduct through a mechanical agitator,
‘such as “shown in "Figiur'e'TS, but‘mayfals'o be ‘ac
complished rbysu‘bjectintg Ethe l‘p‘ro'duc‘t to ‘a “wire
drawing” operation ‘by :passing the product
through restricted ‘ori?ces; or by ‘the Iagi'tation
incidental to the molding or extruding 76f Ethe 40
‘?nished butter, or by the pas‘s'a‘geojf‘the product
through a suitable length ‘of ‘conduit ‘in the lab‘
sence of agitation. The “aging” and “crystal
‘t’eiin ‘operations ' must ‘10f-necessity“vary’vvithithe
chemical ‘and physical mannerisms ‘of ‘the
"is-tics in urn'varyl'ofineciessity *with'theis'ea is
‘munity fr-Or'nithic'hthé rawjmaterial ‘i
‘milkioricreafrn, lislsecufed, The opti
con
ditioiis desirable 'iiri‘der Itlie varying metric
stances ‘may lre'aniiy "be ‘determined ‘by é’xiiéh:
“of the E'y‘e‘ajr“'ai1d"t-“o“" a3gr'e'atextent ‘with the c m‘
'méntal‘tests.‘
A
_
‘
_
‘
‘Accordingly, “thef'preseni; invention fis‘no to
be 'li'niitedp‘t‘o the illustrated Eprocess)‘and
‘scribed? F ar'atus ne‘r‘eip ‘mentioned. numb‘ ii‘
éationshomir'i'g *‘ivit-liiht'lie scope or the p
pended claims._
_
_,
I
The invention: is ‘hereby ‘ciaimea
_
_
.
_
‘follows; _ A v
1. The 'i'ne'tripe “of producing‘ butter 'ym'igh
comprises the "steps vof re?nishing “a dairyprod
not ‘containing ‘milk "fat‘globule's ‘to agitation suf
?cierit 'to"'s'ecu're the 'lunitingfof ‘a ‘“ substantial p0“;
tion ‘bf said milk Z‘fat igl'obulés ‘in said agitated
dairy product, Jatt‘eiicpering “ the agitated ‘product
to i'a suitable separating temperature, separating
the product to produce ‘a separation “product
having ‘a ?'milk 'fa‘t eoa‘ceatrauea in ‘ei'r'c'ess ‘of
eighty ‘per "cent, subjecting ‘ said ' separation ‘prod
u’ctto’the'effe‘ct dfreaupea atmospheric ?re ‘re
and
‘temperature for sufficient ‘?e.
lizing” ‘operation contemplates 'a substantially
quiescent resting of the churned and normally
ridd‘of time Ito eff'e'ét the seeds-mason and vpas
super-cooled product ‘for a sufl‘icient‘ vperiod ‘or
‘téiiriz'a’ n ‘of
separation product, stand;
time to permit the heat of crystallization to
a-r‘dizin'g i d‘s'eiiai’a‘tmn product to sfécure'a milk
substantially ‘re-establish thelphysical and chem
rat “co-men ration ‘in the product equivalent to
ical balance of the ‘product. Suchduies’cehtires'te
that
desired “in'the ‘?nished butter, and “subject?
ing may be accomplished by ‘the passage ‘or the 5%) mg "the
“standardized premier to simultaneous
‘product through a suitable length ‘of be“
it‘at
agitation "and cooling ‘su'?icierit to "solidify a sub
a suitable ‘velocity in the absence of 'a’g'itaion,
sandal portion “or the ‘milk ‘fat'vc'ontent and to
or by temporary storage in a container.‘ "The
disperse the "material other ‘than milk ‘fat
remaining ‘expressions,
as “milk”
(1
throughout "the milk fat content ‘or the product.
herein.
“cream,” are used in the conventional
‘
The foregoing description of the preferred type
of apparatus to be used in the instant invention,
as well as the description ‘of the improved ‘proc'-‘
ess, is merely illustrative and the invention-is
not to be limited thereto. It will be obvibu
the
to those
process
skilled
may in
be varied
the arttothat
some"various
extent "st
andirel
‘.
2. The method
"producing was"; "which
comprises the ‘steps ‘of ‘subjecting ‘cream to agi
tation 'su?ieient to ‘secure the ‘uniting' @fD a‘ e151
sta'nuai Tp'ortioh 6f the milk rat “globules in the
cream, heating ‘said ‘agitated product to a tern;
per'ature above the melting point ‘of the 'n?lk
fat in said agitated ‘produce
‘arming, iijé
product to produce separation product hemp-g
a high min; fat ‘concentration; subjecting the
arranged in sequence. For example, in "the ‘event
separation prbduc't to the ‘effect "of ‘iedueea at;
that an ‘open vat “prechurn,” ‘such
'sh‘ojinrin 65
rn'd'spheric pressure and iner'éase'd té?irivérat'gifé
Figure 4, is used in the performance of ‘this
for a s'u?i'ciént period/‘or time to 'e?ebt‘tifié "as;
process, then obviously the product, such
's‘diii‘
cream, may also be neutralized in the same ‘fat.
In such a procedure the cream would be sass
plied to the alternative form or “prechurn” fr‘ti‘in
the storag'etank, neutralized in the Vat type ‘or
“prechurn” and, ‘while being agitated to ‘complete
the neutralization operation, would be suiiicient:
ly agitated to also bring about “prechurning.”
The various separation operations referred to
odorization and pasteurization‘ 6f "the senai‘at '11
product; star-reasoning said separation praise;
to sebum a mini fat qnnbfentrat n. equivalent to
that desired in the finished butter; "and suiijectg
ing the standardised product 139 s inane‘ =s‘
agitation aha eeeli?g sentient to s ify a sub:
stantial portion or the my: fat ‘content and to
disperse _ the matenai other than‘ iiiilk fat
thfo'ii'ghbut the i?ilk fat "cciritent 6f the distinct:
‘2,407,612
"23
12. The
.24
i?ed product to further agitation to'control the
method, of >~ producing ; concentrated
milk fat which comprises the steps of subject
ing a dairy product containing milk fat globules
in the dispersed phase to agitation su?icient to
inter-crystalline structure of the milk fat'con- ’
tent of the product. , '
secure the uniting of a substantialportion of '
the milk fat globules of said dairy product,-at-_
tempering said agitated product to a suitable
separating‘ temperature, separating said heated
_
7. The method of producing solidi?ed milk fat
concentrate Which comprises the steps of neutral
izing creamto reduce the acidity thereof, sub
jecting the neutralized cream to agitationsu?i
~cient to securethe uniting of a substantial 'por
product to secure a separation product having a
tion of the milk-fat globules in the‘creani, heat
high milk fatgconcentration, standardizing said 10 ,ing the neutralized and, agitated“ product to a
separation product to secure a substantially. neu
suitable separating ‘temperature, separating the
tral acidity therein, and reseparating saidstand
heated product to secure a separation: product
having a high milk fat concentration, standardiz
ardized separation product to secure a resepara
"tion product containing in excess ofninety-?ve
per cent milk fat.
_
.
'
ing said separation product to secure a substan
15
v
tially neutral acidity therein, reseparatingi'said
I 4.. Thermethod of producing concentrated milk
standardized separation'eproduct to secure a re
lat which comprises the steps of subjecting a
dairy product containing milk fat globules in
separation product containin‘gin excess of nine
ty-?ve per cent milkfat, and'subjecting‘ there
separation product toiagitation and attempering
the, dispersed phase to agitation su?icient to se
cure the uniting of a substantial portion of the 20 sui?cient to'solidify a substantial portion of the
milk fat globules of said dairy product, heating
milk fat'content of said reseparation' product.
said agitated product to a suitable separating
'. v 8. The method of producing butter from cream
‘temperature, separating said heated product to
which comprises the steps of adding an acid‘neu
tralizing agent to the cream to ‘reduce the acidity
secure a separation product having a high milk
fat concentration, subjecting said separation 25 thereof to the desired point, subjecting the‘ cream I
to agitationsuf?cient to secure the uniting of a
product to the e?ect of sub-atmospheric pres
substantial portion of the milk fat‘globules in the
sure and increased temperature for a suf?cient
cream, heating the agitated product to-atemper
period- of time to effect-the deodorization and
ature' above the-melting point of the milk fat in
pasteurization of said separation product, stand
the ‘agitated product, separating the product to
ardizing said separation product to secure'a sub
produce a separation product having a milk'i'ia't
stantially neutral acidity therein, and resepa
concentration in eX'cess‘ofV eighty per cent, sub‘
rating‘ said’ standardized separation product to
jecting the separation product to the effect of
secure a reseparation product containing in eX
sub-atmospheric pressure and increased tempera“;
cess of ninety-five per cent milk fat. '
5. The method-of producing concentrated milk ,
fat which comprises the steps of subjecting a
dairy product containing milk fat globules in
the dispersed‘phase to agitation sufficient to se
cure the uniting of a substantial portion of the
ture fora suf?cient period of time to e?ect ‘the
deodorization and pasteurization of the separa
tionproduct, standardizing said separation prod
uct to secure a milk fat-concentration equivalent
to‘that desired in the ?nished butterfand sub;
milk/fat globules of said dairy product, heating 40 jecting the standardized product to simultaneous
said agitated product to a temperature above
the melting point of the milk fat in said agi
tated product, separating said heated product to
secure a separation product having a high milk
fat concentration, standardizing said separation
agitation and‘ cooling sui?cient to‘solidi'fy ‘a sub
stantial portion'of the milk fat content and to
disperse
the
material , ‘other
than
milk " fat
throughout the milk fatcontent of the product.
9. The'method of producing butter which com~
product to secure a substantially neutral acidity
prises the steps of subjecting cream'to agitation ‘
therein, reseparating said standardized separa
sui?cient'to secure the uniting of a substantial
portion of the milk fat globules in the cream,
tion product to secure a reseparation product
containing in excess of ninetye?ve per cent milk
fat, and subjecting said separation product to
the-effect of sub-atmospheric pressure and in
creased temperature ‘for a, su?icient period of
time to effect the deodorization and pasteuriza
tion of’ said separation product and to extract
volatile ingredients therefrom.
,,
'
heating the agitated product to a temperature
above the melting point of the milk fat in the agi
tated product, separating the product’ to produce
a separation product having a milk fat concen= "
tration in :excess of eighty per cent, adding an
acid neutralizing agent to reduce the acidity of
the separation product, subjecting the separation
product to the effect of sub-atmospheric pressure
6.~ The method of producing butter which com
and increased temperature for av suf?cient period
prises the steps of subjecting cream to agitation
of ‘time to e?ect the deodorization and pasteurizae
suflicient to‘secure the uniting of a substantial
tion of the separation product, standardizing said
portion of the milk fat globules in the cream,
heating the agitated product to a suitable sepa 60 separation product to secure a milk fat-concen
tration equivalent to that desired ingthe ?nished
rating temperature, separating the product to
butter, and subjecting the standardized product
produce -a separation product having a high milk
to simultaneous agitation and cooling suf?cient
fat concentration, subjecting the separation
to solidify a substantial portion of the milk fat '
product to the effect of sub-atmospheric pressure
and increased temperature for a su?icient period 65 content and to disperse the material other than
milk fat throughout the milk fat content of the
of time to effect the deodorization and pasteuriza
tion- of, the separation product, standardizing said
10. The method of producing butter from cream‘
separation product to secure a milk fat concenwhich comprises the steps ‘of subjecting cream to
tration equivalent to that desired in the ?nished
butter, subjecting the standardized product to si 70 agitation suilicient to secure the uniting of'a sub
stantial portion of the milk fat'globules in the
multaneous agitation and cooling sufficient to so
cream, heating the agitated product to' a suitable
lidify a substantial portion of the milk fat con
separating temperature, separating the agitated
tent and to disperse the material other than milk
product to produce a separation product having:
fat throughout the milk fat‘ contentof the prod;
a milk fat concentration in excess of eighty per»
uct, andlsubjecting the cooled and partially solide
product.
'
.
'
'
25
cent, ‘adding a suitable acid neutralizing agent to
said separation product to reduce the acidity
thereof to‘ a desired concentration, pasteurizing
the neutralized separation product, standardizing
2e
?c'a'tion cf the milk fat content commences, heat
ing ‘the agitated product to a'suitable separating
temperature, and centnrugany ‘separating the ,
heated product to produce a separation product
said pasteurized separation product to secure a 5 having a high milk fat content, whereby the per-4 '
milk fat concentration equivalent to that desired
centage of milk fat remaining in other separated
in the ?nished butter, and subjecting the stand
ardiz'ed product to simultaneous agitation and
cooling su?icient to solidify a substantial portion
fractions of the heated product is substantially
content of the product.
the uniting of a substantial portion of the milk
reduced.
_
j
V
15. The method or ‘prceessine a product con
of the milk fat content and to disperse the mate 10 taining inilk fat in the dispersed phase compris
rial other than milk fat throughout the milk fat
ing the steps of agitating the product to secure
»
i
I
11. The method of producing butter from
fat content thereof, said product while being agi
cream which comprises the steps of subjecting
tated being at a ‘temperature below the temperae
cream to agitation suf?cient to secure the uniting 15 ture at which solidi?cation of the milk fat con;
of a substantial portion of the milk fat globules in
tent commences‘, heating the, agitated product
the cream, attempering the agitated product to a
to
a temperature above the solidi?cation tempera
suitable separating temperature at which the
ture“
of the milk fat content thereof, subjecting
milk fat in the agitated product is melted, sepa
the heated and agitated product to the effect of
rating the agitated product to produce a separa 20 sub-atmospheric pressure and increased tempera;
tion' product having a milk fat concentration in
ture for a?suf?ciennt period of time to effect the
excess of eighty per cent, and subjecting said sep
deodorization and pasteurization of the heated
aration product to simultaneous agitation and
and agitated product, and centrifugally separat
cooling sufficient to solidify a substantial portion
ing the heated product to produce a separation
of the milk fat content thereof and to disperse
product having a high milk fat content, where
the material other than milk fat throughout the
by the percentage of milk fat remaining in other
milk fat content of the product, said separation ' ‘separated fractions of the heated product is sub
product being pasteurized and standardized at
any step in the process prior to said simultaneous
stantially reduced.
'
16. The method of producing a product con;
agitation and cooling to secure thereby a milk fat
taining milk fat in the dispersed phase compris
concentration in the product being processed to ing the steps of agitating the product to secure
equivalent to that desired in the ?nished butter.
the uniting of a substantia1 portion of the milk
12. The method of producing butter which com
fat content thereof, said product While being agi
prises the steps of subjecting cream to agitation
tated being at a temperature below the tempera
sufficient to secure the uniting of a substantial " ture at which solidi?cation of the milk fat con
portion of the milk fat globules in the cream,
tent commences, heating the agitated product to
heating the agitated product to a suitable sep
a temperature above the solidi?cation tempera
arating temperature, separating the product to
ture of the milk fat content thereof, separating
produce a separation product having a milk fat
the heated product to produce a separation prod
concentration in excess of eighty per cent, sub 40 uct having a high milk fat content, whereby the
jecting the separation product to the eifect of
percentage of milk fat remaining in other sep-;
sub-atmospheric pressure and increased tempera
arated
fractions of the heated product is sub
ture for a suf?cient period of time to effect the
stantially reduced, and subjecting the separation
deodorization and pasturization of the separation
product to the effector subea‘tmospheric pressure
product, standardizing said separation product to 5 and
increased temperature for a sufficient period
secure a milk fat concentration equivalent to that
of
time
to effect the deodorization and pasteuri
desired in the ?nished butter, and subjecting the
zation of the separation product.
standardized product while under super-atmos
17. The method of processing a product con
pheric pressure and while in the presence of a
taining rnilk fat in the dispersed phase compris
controlled quantity of gas to simultaneous agi 50 ing the ‘steps’ of agitating the product to secure
tation and cooling suiiicient to solidify a substan
the uniting" of a substantial portion of the milk
tial portion of the milk fat content of the stand
fat content thereof, said product while being
ardized product and to disperse the material other
agitated being at a temperature below the tem-'
than milk fat throughout the milk fat content
perature at which solidi?cation of the milk fat
of the product.
55 content commences, heating the agitated prod
13. The method of processing a product con
uct to a suitable separating temperature, adding
taining milk fat in the dispersed phase compris
an acid neutralizing agent to said heated and
ing the steps of agitating the product to secure
agitated product to reduce the acidity thereof to
the uniting of a substantial portion of the milk
a desired point, and- separating the heated prod
fat content thereof, said product While being agi 60 not to produce a separation product having a
tated being at a temperature below the tempera
high milk fat content, whereby the percentage
ture at which solidi?cation of the milk fat con—
of milk fat remaining in the other separated
tent commences, heating the agitated product to . fractions of the, heated‘ product is substantially
a suitable separating temperature, and centrifu
gally separating the heated product to produce a
18. The“ method of‘ processing? cream contain-vv
separation product having a high milk fat con
ing. milk fat in the dispersed phase which com:
tent,- whereby the percentage of the milk fat
prises the‘ steps of adding an acid neutralizing
remaining in other separated fractions of the
agent to cream to reduce the acidity thereof to
heated product is substantially reduced.
a desired point, agitating the neutralized product
14. The’ method of processing a product con 70 to effect the coalescing of- a substantial portion
reduced‘.
taining milk fat comprising the steps of agitat
ing the product to secure the uniting of a sub
stantial portion of the milk fat content thereof,
said product while being agitated being at a tem
perature below the temperature at which solidi
,
,
.
of the milk fat content’ thereof, said product
while being agitated being at a temperature be
low the temperature at which solidi?cation of the
' milk fat- content commences’, heating the agitat
75 ed product to‘ a temperature above the solidi?+
2,407,612
28
27':
product to secure a separation product-having a
milk fat content in excess of eighty per cent, sub
cation temperature of the milk fat content there
of, and separating the heated product to pro
jecting the separation product containing milk
duce, a-separation product having a high milk
fat‘ content, whereby the percentage of milk fat
fat to the effect of reduced atmospheric pressure
and increased temperature for a sufficient period
, in other separated fractions of the heated prod
not is substantially reduced.
of time to effect the deodorization and pasteur- . -
,
ization of the separation product, standardizing
19. The method of processing cream contain
ing milk fat in the dispersed phase which com
said pasteurized product to secure the desired "
prises the steps of adding an acid neutralizing
composition of the ?nished butter, subjecting
said standardized product to sufficient agitation
to disperse the standardizing agent and to main
tain said dispersion of the standardizing agent,
subjecting the standardized product to simul
taneous agitation and super-cooling while under
super-atmospheric pressure to solidify a sub-.
stantial portion of the milk fat content of the
product and to uniformly disperse the material
agent'to the cream to reduce the acidity thereof
to'the desired point, agitating the neutralized
product to secure the uniting of a substantial por
tion of the milk fat content thereof,rsaid product
while being agitated being at a temperature below
the temperature at'which solidi?cation of the
milk fat content commences, heating the agi
tated product to a suitable separating tempera
ture, and separating the heated product to pro
duce a separation product’ having a high milk fat
content, whereby the percentage of milk fat re
maining in‘ the other separated fractions of the
heated product is substantially reduced.
other than milk fat throughout the milk fat con
tent of the product, permitting the super-cooled
product while under super-atmospheric pressure
secure'the uniting of a substantial portion of the
to rest in a substantially quiescent state to per
mit further crystallization of the milk fat con
tent thereof, and subjecting the further crys¢
tallized product to further agitation to control
the inter-crystalline structure of the 1 milk .fat
content of the product.
24. The method of producing butter compris
comprising the steps of agitating the cream at a
of the milk fat content thereof.
temperature below the temperature at which 60
25. The method of producing butter comprise
ing the steps of agitating a liquid dairy product
containing milk fat in the dispersed phase, said
agitation beingsuf?cient to cause the uniting vof
, 20. The method of processing a creamery prod
uctjcontaining milk fat in the dispersed phase
comprising thesteps of agitating the product in 25,
theepresence of a controlled'quantity, of gas to
ing the steps of agitating a liquid dairy product
milk fat content thereof, attempering the agi
containing milk fat in the dispersed phase at a
tated product to a desired separation tempera~
ture, and separating the attempered product to 30 temperature below that atwhich the milk fat
content thereof commences to solidify, said agi
produce a separation product having a high milk
tation being sufficient to cause the uniting of a
fat content, whereby the percentage of ,milk fat
substantial portion of the milk fat globules in
remaining in other separated fractions of the
said product, heating said agitated product to a
product issubstantially reduced.
21. The method of processing a product con 35 temperature above the solidi?cation tempera
ture of the milk fat content thereof, separating
taining milk fat in the dispersed phaselcompris
the heated product to secure a separation prod
ing thesteps of agitating the product‘to secure
uct having a milk fat content in excess of eighty
the uniting of a substantial portion of the milk
per cent, subjecting the separation product con
fat content thereof, said product while being agi
tated being at a temperature below the tempera 40 taining the milk fat to the effect of sub-atmos
pheric pressure and increased temperature for a
ture at which solidi?cation’ of the milk fat con
su?icient period of time to secure the deodoriza
tent commences, heating the agitated product to
tion and pasteurization of said separation prod
a temperature above the solidi?cation tempera
uct, standardizing said pasteurized product to
ture of the milk fat content thereof, separating
secure the desired composition of the ?nished
the heated productto produce a separation prod
butter, subjecting said standardized product to
uct having a high milk fat content, whereby the
suf?cient agitation to disperse the standardizing ,
percentage of milk fat remaining in the sepa
agent and to maintain said dispersionof the
rated fractions of the heated product is substan
standardizing agent, subjecting the standardized
tially reduced, pasteurizing the remainder of the
product to simultaneous agitation and super
heated product, and adding an acid neutralizing =
cooling while under super-atmospheric pressure
agent to said product containing milk fat to re
to solidify a substantial portion of the milk fat
duce the acidity thereof to any desired point, said
content of the product and to uniformly disperse
acid neutralizing agent being added to said prod
the material other than milk fat throughout the
not containing milk fat at any stage of the proc
milk fat content of the product, and permitting
ess prior to pasteurization thereof.
the super-cooled product while under super
22. The method of reducing the percentage of
atmospheric pressure to rest in a. substantially
loss of ,milk fat in’ the process of centrifuging
quiescent state to permit further crystallization
cream containing milk fat in the dispersed phase
solidification of the milk fat content thereof com
mences, said agitation being, su?icient. to, cause
the uniting of a substantial portion of the milk
a substantial portion of the milk fat globules in
, fat globules in said. agitated cream, heating the
agitated cream to a temperature above the solidi
?cation temperature of, the milk fat‘ content.
thereof, and centrifuging said heated cream.
23. The method of producing butter compris
~ ing the steps of agitating a liquid dairy product
65
said product, heating said agitated product‘to a
temperature above the solidi?cation temperature
of the milk fat content thereof, separating'the
heated product to 'secure a separation‘ product
having a milk fat content in excess of eighty’
containing milk fat in the dispersed phase, said 70 'per cent, subjecting the separation product to the
effect of sub-atmospheric pressure andincreased
agitation being suf?cient to cause the uniting of
temperature for a su?icient period of time to 'ef
a substantial portion of the milk fat in said prod
uct, heating said agitated product to a tempera
feet the \deodorization and pasteurization of the
separation product, standardizingv ‘said pasteur
milk fat content‘ thereof, separating the heated 75 ized product by the addition of’ standardizing
ture above the solidi?cation temperature of. the
29..
zeaiela
agents. tor secure a milk ‘at ,conqentration equiv;
30.‘
mailkiiat content thereoftfseparating the ‘ heated .;
ai'er'nt 'td that ‘desired in‘thej ?nished buttei'l‘sub-j prqductjte secure" a ~ separationprdductjhay"“"_ a'j,
agitation t6? dis‘p'e i'se “ the standardizing fagents ‘ mil fat ‘cont, ntdin‘le'xc of} eightyfper cent,"
o .0. mg WQ‘S'BPMWOH ,rr‘qdllc‘tltq libel“ e?ebtg
and’ to maintain ‘saidfdi'slpersion otsaidpstand-f 5 _ of_ “reducedfatmospherici"prcsslll‘ef'3Y1d"3iniii"€a$e§
'
jetting "' said ‘ standardized product to (su‘?icient'f
ardizirn‘g‘ agents,“ subiecting jthe‘ standardiged' A
tern erature: for‘ afsui?'cient period rjof time ‘to .
site 7 he, éje?orizationand pastéunzati
product" to “simultaneous agitation“ and ‘super; ‘
co’oiihg‘whiyle under lsupereatrnospheric ‘pressure “
to‘solidi'frii‘a‘substantial‘portion of the milkjfatf“
content ‘of the product‘ and t'o'uniformly' disperse‘
the "r‘na‘t'eri‘all "'othénthan' milkpfat" throughout“ the
ed;
\ g that
, jnrej‘fa
desiredimthej‘?nished
milk ‘ljfat‘ concentration‘ie
butter, .sub:.;'
milki‘fat‘ "content of the ‘product’; permitting‘ the“
vjsetid
"llstandall'dizefd
‘product-“t0.
sll?'icielltM
superlcdoled product whilefunder super-atmos‘g
pher'i ~~pressure~tq rest] "in 'a substantially J ‘ jz‘in'gfh
maintain
agents,“
to “dispersefg'vthe
"subjecting‘jtheN
said dispersion
‘1 standardizing
_' ofStandar
thef'sta'ri
Hagen " '
quie cent state‘ to permitjf'urther crystallization 15, ‘are of1911;
of"the’""m'ilk fat content thereotysubjecting the :
further ‘crystallized ‘product to‘ ‘further agitation Y
“to (‘simultaneous agitation and’
“when ,_
.
cooling? while under.‘ super-atmospheric."pressii
to'control ithersiinter-crys'talline growth vof‘ the
in“ ‘the Presence ‘of a‘ controlled‘ ‘quantity of, g‘
for'a 's'uf?’cient period of timefto,‘ solidifya sup‘
wastage; r'tio‘n: of; the milk, ‘fat,’ content ‘of; '
uc't’to reduce'theacidity thereof to any‘ desired _
milk rap ‘content of "the product‘; and‘ adding an
acid neutralizing‘ agent to said ‘liquid‘dairy prod-_
point, said acid" neutralizing ‘agent being’added
to“sai‘dv‘ liquid dairy produlctfat‘any' stage'of the
process‘ prior to the‘ simultaneous" agitation and ‘
manager th?‘ separation product‘. _‘
‘26; jfI'h‘e *method‘ of producing ' butter comprise
ing the ' steps‘pf “agitating ‘ a‘f‘liquid dairy 'prod
uc’t‘“c'ontaining milk fat in the dispersed phase,
saidfagitation being sufficient to cause‘ a uniting‘
of'a"'sub's_tantia1 portion of ‘the milk fat globules
‘
‘
4*:
the‘ minaret content“ thereof; and‘ subjec gp'thei ;
furthe ‘crystallized product to, furtherlagita‘tion :1'
to; cont'rbl‘th'e interjecrystalline structure or the“?
in"‘said"product, ‘heating’ said 'agitat'ed‘produc‘t" 30mm ijllkjffatrcbntentof‘the’prQduct,
1234:9111? . meihesipfi prpducihg. i built‘?! i eomnris
" '
to‘ a temperature above the solidi?cation “tem
ins
i
e.
ste'i‘esib'fgag'itaung'
a"
liquid;
dairygprwd
pérature or the milk fat content thereof, sepa
rating the; heated product“ td'jse'cure a separation
product havinga milkjfa‘t ‘content in,‘ excess of
containi
iesaid'egnation being suf?cienlt to clause
eighty per cent; sub-jecting‘t'the' separation prod-n 35 lenh
uni
qr substantial-1, “ pdl'tt‘icn of: tnelmilk“ fa‘ "
uct‘to" the"effejct of increased‘ ‘temperature for
a "si'l?icient period‘ of ‘ timeto? effect the pasteure '
ization- of'lslaid siépar'ationproduct, standa‘rdizé '
globules in‘lsaidjp‘roduet', “heating said "agitate .,
predicate a tempeiatnre aboye ‘ eightye?ve He‘: ,1
'
hrenheit; ‘separating the?hea'ted, product;
ing'said‘pr’oduct’byl the addition of standardizing
aboye‘eightyé?iiedegrees Fa-hie‘f
agents't'o secure-‘a Inilkfat ‘concentration equiv 40 at'a'tem'perature
enheit‘ltowsecure‘ a; ‘separation product ‘having. a
alenfto‘itha?desir'e'd in the ?nished butter, sub
milkilfatpdontentlinekcess ‘of ‘eightyper cent,‘ subjecting‘ said standardizedproduct‘ to sufficient
jectln'g‘jthel'separation“
product to ‘the effect of‘,
agitation tddispefrse ‘the ‘standardizing agents
reduced atmospheric pressure‘ y'paridfincreased, '.
and‘ to "maintainfsaid" dispersiono'f the stand; 45 temperature “for a su?icientqp‘e‘riod efnmeto e‘fj- '
ardi‘zing) a‘g'entsf'subjecting" the standardized ‘
fectkthe d‘eod‘ori'zation‘ and pasteurization meant,
n product,‘ angling ‘said ' deodorjifz‘e‘dp and‘ "I
eat lzedj' separatien Product. to fa temperature‘;
product‘ to simultaneous agitation and‘ super?
sep“ a
for a sufficient period 0 1’ timeto solidify" a sub- '
of ‘less ‘than one hundredtwenty ‘degrees Fahren-jv
cooling’whil'e under super-atmosp/h‘eric ‘pressure
stant‘ia-l portion ‘of ‘the‘milkffat ‘content ‘of ‘the
heitandereater thanninetyldégr'ees' Fahrenheit;
product and to uniformly disperse the material ‘ 50 ‘stahfolyardizingghsaid,cooledproduct
to ‘secure, a":
other-"than "milk ‘fat ‘ throughout“ the“ milk fat
milklf‘at concentrationjo'f approkimatelygeighty j
content of the product, permitting ‘the; super
cool'éd'product While under" ‘super-atmospheric 7 per.‘ cent‘gsubiectina said standardized tnrbauct. to‘ ;
suf?bieritas'ita?en at a temperature ‘inexcessi of;
pressure to ‘rest in a‘s‘ubstantially ‘Quiescent state 55 ninety
degrees: Fahrenheit ‘to disperse the stand: ‘w v
to_permit"_furthe'r crystallization of the milk fat
‘argi
g"
agent'anatp maintain said dispersion L
content thereof, subjecting the’ further 'crystal- "
of thevs'tandardizin'g'pfagent‘, subjecting the stand- v '
lizedf'product to 'further agitation to control'the
ardiz'ed'and agitated vproduct‘,foriffurther agita- ‘
intericrys'talline structure of theumilk fat‘ con
tionliand simultaneous super-‘cooling ata temy-v
tent 'of 'the"product,'and adding an acid neue 60 perature
betyveenthirty “degrees Fahrenheit and tralizing agent to said liquid dairy product to
"Seventy
is skltiieqiag
degrees‘
15b isupelrretmqspheriq‘pressure’
Fahrenheit ;Wh_l1e_ the; product
111 9X7. i
reduce ‘the excess acidity ‘thereof to any desired
point‘,v said'acidneutrali'z'ing agent being added
cess of twenty pounds per square inch gauge to
to said liquid dairy product at any stage of the
thereby solidify a substantial portion of the milk
process prior to the simultaneous cooling and 65 fat content of the product, permitting the super
agitation of said separation product.
cooled product while under superatmospheric
27. The method of producing butter compris
pressure to rest in a substantially quiescent state
ing the steps of agitating a liquid dairy prod
for a period of time .varying between one and
uct containing milk fat in the dispersed phase
eight minutes to thereby permit further crystal
at a temperature below that at which the milk
7() lization of the milk fat content thereof, and sub
fat content commences to solidify, said agitation
jecting the further crystallized product to fur
being su?icient to cause a uniting of a substan
ther agitation to control the inter-crystalline
tial portion of the milk fat globules in said prod
structure of the milk fat content of the product.
uct, heating said agitated product to a tempera
29. The method of producing butter compris
ture above the solidi?cation temperature of the 75 in g the steps of agitating a liquid dairy product
2,467,6i2
31
containing milk fat in the dispersed phase while
in‘the presence of a controlled quantity of gas,
said agitation being su?icient tocause a coales
cing of a substantial portion of the milk fat glob
ules in said product, heating said'agitated prod
32.?
teur‘izedseparation product to a temperature of ‘
less than one hundred twenty degrees Fahren
heit and greater than ninety degrees Fahrenheit,
standardizing said cooled product by the addi- .
tion of standardizing agents to secure a milk fat
uct to 'a temperature above eighty-?ve degrees
Fahrenheit, spearating the heated productat a
temperature above ‘eighty-?ve degrees Fahren
concentration of approximately eighty per‘ cent, .
irig the separation product to the e?ect of sub
atmospheric pressure and increased temperature
standardizing agents, subjecting the standard
ized and agitated product to further agitation
subjecting said standardized product to su'?‘icient
agitation at a temperature in excess of ninety de
grees Fahrenheit to disperse the standardizing
heit to secure a separation product having a milk
fat content in excess of eighty per cent, subject 10 agents and to maintain said dispersion of the _
and simultaneous super-cooling at a temperature
between thirty degrees Fahrenheit‘ and seventy
product, cooling said deodorized and pasteurized 15 degrees Fahrenheit while the product is subject
for a su?icient period of time to effect the deo-,
dorization and pasteurization of the separation
separation product to a temperature of less than 7
one hundred twenty degrees Fahrenheit and
greater'than ninety degrees Fahrenheit, stand
ardizing said cooled product by the addition of
ed to super-atmospheric pressure in excess of
twenty pounds per square inch gauge in the pres
ence of a controlled quantity of gas to thereby so
lidify in excess of ?fty per cent of the milk fat
content of the product and to uniformly disperse
the gas and material other than milk fat
tration of approximately eighty per cent, sub
throughout the milk fat content of the product,
jecting said standardized ‘product to suf?cient
permitting the super-cooled product while under
agitation at a temperature in excess of ninety
super~atmospheric pressure to rest in a substan- s
degrees Fahrenheit to disperse the standardiz
ing agents and to maintain said dispersion of the 25 tially quiescent state for a period of time varying
between one and eight minutes to thereby permit
standardizing agents, subjecting the standard
further crystallization of the milk fat; content
iz‘ed and agitated product to further agitation
thereof, and subjecting the further crystallized
and simultaneous super-cooling at a temperature
product to further agitation to control the inter
between thirty degrees Fahrenheit and seventy
degrees Fahrenheit for a period of time varying 30 crystalline structure of the milk fat content ‘of
the product.
‘
between one and four minutes while the product
31. The method of producing butter which
is" subjected to super-atmospheric pressure in ex
standardizing agents to secure a milk fat concen
comprises the steps of heating cream to a suit
cess' of twenty, pounds per square inch gauge to
able separating temperature, subjecting said
thereby solidify a substantial portion of the milk
fat content of the product and to uniformly dis 35 heated cream‘ to agitation su?icientto secure the
uniting of a substantial portion of the milk fat
perse the material other than milk fat through
globules in the cream, separating the “pre;
out the milk fat content of the product, permit
churned” product to. produce a separation prod
ting the super-cooled product while under super
uct having a high milk fat concentration, pas
atmospheric pressure to rest while in a substan
tially quiescent state for a period of time varying 40 teurizin'g said separation product, standardizing
said pasteurized product to secure a milk fat con
between one and eight minutes to thereby permit
centration equivalent to that desired in the ?n
further crystallization of the milk fat content
ished butter, and subjecting the ‘standardized
thereof, and discharging the further crystallized
product to simultaneous agitation and cooling ‘
product into a container.
' '30. The method of producing butter compris v45 su?icient to solidify a substantial portion of the
milk fat content and to disperse the material
ing the steps of agitating a liquid dairy product
other than milk fat throughout the milk fat con
in' the dispersed phase while at a temperature,
tent of the product.
below eighty-?ve degrees Fahrenheit and while
132. The method of processing a creamery prod
in‘ the presence of a controlled quantity of gas,
said agitation being su?icient to cause a coalesc 50 uct ‘containing milk fat in the dispersed phase
comprising the steps ofattempering the product
ing of a substantial portion of the milk fat glob
to a suitable separating temperature, agitating
ules in said product, heating said agitated prod
the product in the presence of a controlled quan
uctto a temperature above eighty-?ve degrees
tity of gas to secure the uniting of a substantial
Fahrenheit, separating the heated product at a
temperature above eighty-?ve degrees Fahren 55 portion of the milk fat content thereof, and sep
arating the attempered product to produce a sep
heit to secure a separation product having a milk
aration product having a high milk fat content,
fat content in excess of eighty per cent, subject
whereby the percentage of milk fat remaining
ing the separation product to the effect of re
in other separated fractions of the product is’
duced atmospheric pressure. and increased tem
perature for a su?‘icient period of time to effect 60 substantially reduced.
INGIE J. LUNDAL.
thedeodorization and pasteurization of the sepa
ROY P. ROBICHAUX.
ration product, cooling said deodorized and pas
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