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Патент USA US2407634

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Sept- 17, 1946-
L. w. DROEL.
I
2,407,633
RETARDED RELAY
Filed July 15, 1943
INVENTOR.
LOUIS W. DROEL
ATTORNEY
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
2,407,633
UNITED STATES‘ PATNT OFFICE
2,407,633
RETARDED RELAY
Louis W. Droel, Qak Park, Ill., assignor to Auto
matic Electric Laboratories, Inc., Chicago, 111., a
corporation of Delaware
Application July 15, 1943, Serial No. 494,769
5' Claims. (Cl. 175-~372)
1
2
This invention, relates in general to electromag
netic relays and more particularly to relays of the
retarded type having pivotally mounted arma
tures which are retarded. in both their operating
and releasing operations.
An electromagnetic relay of the conventional
hates the objectionable vibratory motions of the
armature from external causes.
springs. operatively associated with the operating
In addition, the retarding spring has an in
clined surface, or offset, over which the operating
arm of the armature must move to thereby in
crease the frictional pressure to retard the opera~
tion of the armature in its operating stroke in its
initial movement.
Other objects and features of the present in
vention will be apparent by reference to the fol—
arm of the armature.
lowing speci?cationtaken in connection with the
type comprises a ?eld structure, a core provided
with an operating winding, a pivotal armature
mounted. on the ?eld structure, and contact
accompanying drawing in which:
It is the object of the present invention to pro
Fig. 1 is a partially perspective view of the
vide an improved retarding means for the relay
relay;
armature which both frictionally retards the
Fig. 2 is aside view of the relay;
movements of the armature and which also elimi~ 15
Fig. 3 is another side view of the relay; and
nates vibration of the armature mass from an
Fig. 4 is a cross-section of the relay taken on
external cause, such as is encountered when the
the lines A—A in Fig. 3.
relay is mounted in a tank, airplane, or other vi
Referring now to the drawing, the electromag
bratory machinery.
Relays having armatures of the pivot pin type 20 netic relay shown comprises a ?eld structure in
cluding a core 6 provided with a winding 4, a
have been extensively used in telephone systems
substantially L-shaped magnetic heel piece I 9 se
and have‘ proved very satisfactory. However, due
cured to the core 55 by means of a screw 35 and a
to manufacturing tolerances between the pivot
movable magnetic armature I 5 having an operat—
pin and the bearing holes for the pivot pin, it
The armature I5 is
has been found that relays of this type, when sub 25 ing, arm 35 and a bushing
pivotally mounted upon the outer end of the heel
jected to constant vibration from an external
piece IQ for cooperation with the core 6.
source, are subject to. stresses not present in the
The armature it carries a pair of upwardly ex
normal use of these relays. Tests. have shown
tending ears 35 provided with aligned holes there~
that the vibration caused excessive wear on either
the bearing surfaces for the pivot pin or upon the 30 in in which the pivot pin it is rigidly secured to
the cars 36 of the armature it.
pivot pin itself, thereby interfering with the norA relay yoke 2% has upturned ears 372 and is
mal operating characteristics. of the relay. The
provided with bearing holes 38 to provide the
analysis of this excessive wear shows that it re
bearing surfaces for the pivot pin it. The yoke
sults from at least two di?erent typesv of motions.
The armature exerts a turnim7 proportional 35. 25! is provided with a slot and by means of the
clamping washer and the maclnne screw 25 is ad
to its mass and the rate and the directions of the
justably secured to the heel piece iii. It is the
vibrations. This tends to produce oscillations of
customary procedure to assemble the armature
the armature transverse to the axis of the pivot
and yoke together and to mount the armature in
pin at a rate corresponding to the vibration rate.
If the vibrations are in a plane which includes 40 operating relation to the core of the relay by
means of the clamping washer i3 and the machine
a pivot pin and the center of mass of the arma
screw 26. The spring assembly comprises an ar
ture, a force is exerted which tends to make the
mature backstop l3 which is placed against the
heel piece I9, the insulators 88, the spring con
A feature of the invention is to retard the op 45 tacts I, 2, 5, and 5, the metal plate 3, all of which
are provided with holes through which the ma—
erating and releasing movement of the armature
pivot pin chatter in the bearing surface at a rate
proportional to the vibration rate.
and to eliminate the above mentioned motions of
chine screws 2'5 extend through to threaded holes
(not shown) in the heel piece for securing this
the armature produced by external vibrations of
spring assembly to the heel piece in the position
a relay by tensioning a spring against the operat
50 shown in Fig. 3.
ing arm of the armature at right angles to its
A retarding spring assembly is mounted on the
movement. The tension applied by the spring to
heel piece 19 between the relay yoke 20 and the
the operating arm has two effects: one is to fric
spring assembly. This assembly comprises a
tionally retard the operating and releasing move
spring mounting bracket 2! secured to the heel
ments of the armature in accordance with the 55 piece by means of the screw 29 and the shake
proof Washer 3!. The retarding spring I1, is
amount of tension in the spring; and the other is
to exert a twisting action or torque on the arma~
mounted on the upper portion of the bracket 2|
by means of the screw 28, the washer ‘l and the
ture bearing pin at its associated bearing holes in
shake-proof lockwasher H. The spring I‘! is
the relay yoke. This twisting action maintains
the pivot pin in constant engagement with the 60 mounted at right angles to the movement of the
armature arm 35, and the spring IT is tensioned
bearing surfaces of the bearing holes and elimi
2,407,633
3
4
against the operating arm for two purposes; one
is .to cause a twisting action, of the pivot pin in
tions indicated by arrows D and E with the right
hand portion of the pivot pin l4 pressing against
the back surface of the bearing hole 38 in the
chattering or motion of the armature from ex
right-hand ear 3‘! while the left-hand portion of
ternal vibratory causes; the other is to provide Cl the pivot pin presses against the front surface of
the bearing holes of the relay yoke to prevent
frictional resistances to the operating arm so as
the bearing hole in the left-hand ear 3‘! of the
to retard the operating movement of the arm 35.
yoke 20. When this latter play is taken up due
‘to the tension of the spring I‘! against arm 35
there is an additional twisting action of the ar
mature as indicated by arrows F~F due to the
location at which the pressure is applied to the
arm 35. This cumulative twisting action, al
though insufiicient to materially affect the nor
mal operation of the relay is sumcient to take up
It will be noted in Fig. 4 that the spring I‘! has
an offset 34 which is positioned adjacent to the
operating arm so that on the initial movement
of the arm 35 the inclined portion of this offset is
encountered thereby increasing the frictional re
sistance on the initial movement of the arm
when the arm begins to move over this inclined
surface. Due to this inclined surface and the
movement of the arm the tension against the
arm 35 is gradually increased to have a retarding
effect on the operating stroke of the armature.
Once the armature is operated, however, and the
armature arm has moved over this inclined sur
the play which may occur as a result of manu
facturing tolerances and is sufficient to prevent
undesired movements of the armature when
such a relay is mounted on an object subject to
vibration.
20
face (or form) the force of this spring (l1)
tending to maintain the armature in its original
position is removed. But with the relay arma
ture in its operated position the friction of this
spring against the armature, then tends to retard
its release.
The relay is of the well-known horizontal type
which has been used extensively in telephone sys
tems and the improvement consists of the addi
tion of the spring H which retards the operating
and restoring strokes of the armature during con
trolled operations, due to the frictional pressure,
and which also prevents the armature from os
It will also be noted that the arm 35 is en
gaged by spring I‘! and is moved across the
surfaces of spring I‘! during its operating and
releasing strokes. The movement of the arm
35 across the surface of the spring I‘! is retarded
by frictional pressure in accordance with the
amount of tension in spring l1. As seen in
Fig. 4, the arm 35 is normally engaged by spring
I‘! at the lowermost part, or the beginning, of
the inclined surface, or offset 35. The purpose
of the offset 34 is to increase the frictional re
sistance on the initial movement of arm 35 so as
to retard the initial movement of the armature
to make it somewhat slow-to-operate and to as
cillating or chattering due to external vibratory
sist in preventing it from operating accidentally
causes.
It is well-known that in mass production of a
when the relay is subjected to vibration or shock.
It is therefore necessary for the relay to build up
large number of parts which are to be assembled
together, manufacturing tolerances within cer
enough magnetic ?ux to overcome the increased
frictional resistance offered by the offset 34 be
tain limits are resorted to in order to speed up
fore the armature is initially moved from its nor
production to allow interchangeable assembly 40 mal position, thereby effecting a delay in the op
and to reduce the cost of manufacturing such
parts. For example, since relay parts are manu"
eration of said armature.
factured in large numbers, manufacturing tol~
ually depressed thereby increasing the frictional
As the arm 35 moves
upward, as viewed in Fig. 4, the spring I‘! is grad
erances are allowed on both the pivot pin is and
resistance between arm 35 and spring I1. After
the pivot pin bearing holes 38 in the ears 3?. It 33 the arm 35 has moved over the top of the offset
has been found that in manufacturing the pivot
34, the armature has by this time moved closer to
pin l4 it may be oversized or undersized from the
the core, thereby increasing the magnetic pull so
desired diameter and that the bearing holes 38
that the frictional pressure, which has decreased
may be also oversized or undersized from the de
as the arm moved over the offset, has very little
sired diameter. In view of the above, it can be ,> effect on the further movement of the armature.
seen that a minimum diameter pivot pin may be
It should also be noted that the tension of
assembled in a maximum diameter bearing hole
spring I‘! also has a retarding effect on the arma
of the relay yoke. Consequently, there may be
considerable play between the pivot pin and the
bearing hole. In the event that a relay is as- =,
sembled with a pivot pin of minimum diameter
mounted in a bearing hole having a maximum
ture during its release stroke to normal position,
thereby rendering the relay somewhat slow-to~
release. When the magnetic flux gradually dies
down, the frictional pressure of spring I‘! against
arm 35 delays, somewhat, the time at which the
armature starts its restoring stroke. In addition,
diameter, and the relay is mounted on an object
subject .to vibrations, such as may be encountered
as the armature of arm 35 starts the slide down
in an airplane, tank, automobile, or other vibra 60 the offset 34 during its release stroke, the fric
tory machinery, the vibration of the armature
tional pressure rapidly decreases and a restoring
will cause a gradual wearing of the pivot pin or
component force is introduced by the upward
peening of the bearing hole or both, and thereby
tension of the sloping surface of the offset 34 at
gradually increasing the play between these parts
this critical point with the result that the releas
to such an extent that the operating character~
ing movement of the armature is speeded up. It
istics of the relay will be materially affected.
is at this critical point and during the speeded
According to the present invention the pressure
up release of armature l5 that the make springs
applied at right angles to the operating stroke of
I and 3 are quickly separated. This quick separa
the operating arm 35; as indicated by the arrow
tion of springs I and 3 is desirable to prevent
C, causes the armature to take up the play be 70 arcing or burning of the spring contacts. Thus,
tween the right-hand ear 35 of the armature, the
in addition to initially retarding the restoring
washer l0, and the right-hand ear 3'! of the yoke
stroke of the armature I5, the spring 11 with its
20 as shown in Fig. 1. After this play is taken
offset 34 speeds up the release stroke at the criti
up the pressure of the spring I‘! against arm 35
cal point in the armature movement where cer
causes the armature I 5 to be twisted in the direc 75 tain of the springs control circuits.
2,407,633
5
6
Having described the invention, what is con
at right angles to each other until all play be
sidered new and as desired to have protected by
new Letters Patent is speci?cally pointed out in
tween said pivot pin and bearing holes is taken up
and said pivot pin is tensionally held against the
the following claims.
What is claimed is:
bearing surfaces of said bearing holes as a result
of the force applied, and said spring also fric
tionally retarding the operating and releasing
1. In a non-locking relay, an L-shaped heel
piece, a magnet mounted on said heel-piece, an
L-shaped armature comprising an operating arm
and a pivot pin, a yoke having bearing holes thru
movements of said armature without maintain
ing said armature locked in any operated posi
tion to make said armature somewhat slower to
which said pivot pin extends, means for securing 10 operate and to release.
4. In a non-locking relay, an L-shaped heel
said yoke to- said heel-piece thereby pivotally
piece, a magnet mounted on said heel-piece, an
securing said armature to said heel-piece to com
L-shaped armature comprising an operating arm
plete the magnetic circuit including the core of
and a pivot pin, a yoke having bearing holes thru
said magnet, said heel-piece and said armature,
a spring mounted on said heel-piece and normal 15 which said pivot pin extends, means for securing
said yoke to said heel-piece thereby pivotally se
ly tensioned against said operating arm to create
curing said armature to said heel-piece to com
a torque or twisting action between said arma
plete the magnetic circuit including the core of
ture bearing pin and the bearing holes in said
said magnet, said heel-piece and said armature,
yoke thereby preventing vibration of said arma
ture from external causes while in normal posi
20 a spring mounted on said heel-piece and normal
ly tensioned against said operating arm, the
spring pressure applied by said spring to said arm
being in a plane parallel to the plane of the pivot
armature without maintaining or looking said ar
pin and causes, ?rst, the endwise movement of
mature in any operated position to make said
armature somewhat slower to operate and to 25 armature in a plane parallel to pivot pin until
stopped by the yoke, and second, the twisting of
release.
said armature in two planes at right angles to
2. In a non-locking relay, an L-shaped heel
each other until all play between said pivot pin
piece, a magnet mounted on said heel-piece, an
and bearing holes is taken up and whereby said
L-shaped armature comprising an operating arm
and a pivot pin, a yoke having bearing holes thru 30 pivot pin is tensionally held against the bearing
surfaces of said bearing holes as a result of the
which said pivot pin extends, means for securing
cumulating twisting force applied in said two
said yoke to said heel-piece thereby pivotally se
planes to prevent vibration of said armature
curing said armature to said heel-piece to com
while in normal position, said spring having
plete the magnetic circuit including the core of
suf?cient tension to frictionally retard the oper
said magnet, said heel-piece and said armature, :
ation of said armature during its operating stroke
a spring mounted on said heel-piece and normal
to thereby make said armature somewhat slower
ly tensioned against said operating arm to create
to operate, the shape of said spring and the ten
a torque, or twisting action, between said arma
sion thereof being insu?icient to maintain or look
ture bearing pin and the bearing holes in said
said armature in operated position, and said
yoke thereby preventing vibration of said armai
spring tension being su?lcient to retard the re
ture from external causes while in normal posi
leasing movement of said armature during its
tion, the force exerted on said arm by said spring
release stroke to thereby make said armature
causing rotation of said armature in two planes
somewhat slower to release.
'
at right angles to each other until all play be
tion, and said spring also friotionally retarding
thev operating and releasing movements of said
tween said pivot pin and bearing holes is taken '
up and said pivot pin is tensionally held against
the bearing surfaces of said bearing holes as a
result of the force applied, said spring having
su?icient tension to frictionally retard the oper
5. In a non-locking relay, an L-shaped heel
piece, a magnet mounted on said heel-piece, an
L-shaped armature comprising an operating arm
and a pivot pin, a yoke having bearing holes thru
which said pivot pin extends, means for securing
ation of said armature during its operating stroke 50 said yoke to said heel-piece thereby pivotally se
curing said armature to said heel-piece to com
to thereby make said armature somewhat slower
plete the magnetic circuit including the core of
to operate, the shape of said spring and the ten
said magnet, said heel-piece and said armature,
sion thereof being insuiiicient to maintain or
a spring mounted on said heel-piece and normal
lock said armature in operated position, and said
ly tensioned against said operating arm, the
spring tension being su?icient to retard the re- ,.
spring pressure applied by said spring to said arm
leasing movement of said armature during its
being in a plane parallel to the plane of the pivot
release stroke to thereby make said armature
pin and causes, ?rst, the endwise movement of
somewhat slower to release.
armature in a plane parallel to pivot pin until
3. In a non-locking relay, an L-shaped heel
stopped by the yoke, and second, the twisting of
piece, a magnet mounted on said heel-piece, an
said armature in two planes at right angles to
L-shaped armature comprising an operating arm
each
other until all play between said pivot pin
and a pivot pin, a yoke having bearing holes thru
and bearing holes is taken up and whereby said
which said pivot pin extends, means for securing
pivot pin is tensionally held against the bearing
said yoke to said heel-piece thereby pivotally se
curing said armature to said heel-piece to com- If
plete the magnetic circuit including the core of
said magnet, said heel-piece and said armature,
a spring mounted on said heel-piece and normal
ly tensioned against said operating arm to create
a torque or twisting action between said arma
ture bearing pin and the bearing holes in said
yoke thereby preventing vibration of said arma
ture from external causes while in normal posi
tion, the force exerted on said arm by said spring
causing rotation of said armature in two planes 75
surfaces of said bearing holes as a result of the
oumulating twisting force applied in said two
‘planes to prevent vibration of said armature
while in normal position, and said spring also
frictionally retarding the operating and releas
ing movements of said armature without looking
said armature in any operated position to make
said armature somewhat slower to operate and
to release.
LOUIS W. DROEL.
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