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Sept. i?, 1946.
H. EENIOFF
2,407,644
HANGING SYSTEM
TIME-__w
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INvENToR
BY ffl-’y0 genr'off
Sept. E7, 1946.
H. SBENIoI-'F
2,407ß44
RANGIN G SYSTEM
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Patented Sept. 17, 1946
2,407,644
i'i'ED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,644
RANGING SYSTEM
Hugo Benioff, La Canada, Calif., assigner, by
mesne assignments, to _Submarine Signal Com
pany, Boston, Mass., a corporation of Delaware
1
Application llluly 29, 1940, SerialNo. 348,127
9 Claims. (Cl. 177-352)
The present invention relates to a method of
acoustic, supersonic and radio ranging which
may be used in the ñeld of submarine signaling
for the determination of the distance of obstacles
and reflecting surfaces as well as for sound rang
ing in the air at audible, supersonic and radio
frequencies throughout the entire useful radio
range.
In sound ranging at supersonic frequencies,
particularly for submarine signalingr purposes in
determining both direction and distance, it is
2
b. From the point by to a point g the frequency
remains constant after which the frequency de
creases to the starting _point h of the second
cycle. The curve A, just described, is made up
oi a group of straight-line curves.
It should be
noted that other types and _forms of curves for
curve A may be used and that the curve indi
cated in the ñgure might be approximated b_ya
single 'harmonic function or a -combination of
straight-line and exponential function. In >these,
cases it is, of course, necessary to adjust the
quite common to use a submarine signaling pro
scale of the indicator to correspond. These dif
jector from which a Ibeam of oompressional waves
ferent types of curves can be controlled either
at supersonic frequencies is emitted and the echo
mechanically or electrically by control of ca
reflected from a distant object picked up by the 15 pacities and resistances in the driving and re
same or second similar projector to determine
ceiving circuits. It will be noted that the trans
both direction and distance. The impulse Vemit
mitter or projector in accordance with curve B
ted may be at a constant or varying frequency
is only radiating between the points o and b
and for a time interval of the order'of île of a
along the curve 2., since at the point a, as shown
second. in this method of sound ranging it has 20. in curve C, the power comes on substantially
been found that the nearby reflecting surfaces
instantaneously and remains on to the point b.
such as the bottom, the sides o the vessel and
This radiated power, as indicated by the section
the water surface, which return the reflected
3 of the curve C, decreases from an initial maxi
signal, produce reverberatlons which last for a
mum to z_ero approximately exponentially or ac
considerable interval after the projector has 25 cording to some other chosen law. The purpose
ceased emitting its sound beam. These reverber
of this decrease will be more fully explained
later.
sufficient intensity to interfere with the proper
The control of the receiver is also indicated
reception of echoes returning from more distant
in the curves of Fig, 1. In accordance with curve
objects. This is true even where the compres 30 B the tuning of the receiver varies from the point
sional waves are confined in a beam _as a result
c in accordance with the dotted-line section ¿l
of which the possible reiiecting surface is reduced.
of curve B. This variation in frequency of the
ations persist for a _long period of time with
In the present invention the system is so ar
receiver starts with a frequency F2 and Varies to
F1 along a similar curve as the transmitter, which
ranged that these reverberations do not disturb
the operation of the system.
This is accom
starts at F1 and varies to F2. Similarly, the
receiver sensitivity which is indicated in curve
D shows .irl the portion 5 of the curve between
the points c and d that the sensitivity of the
plished principally by cyclic control of both fre.V
quency and intensity of the radiated signal as
Well as the tuning and sensitivity Of the receiving
apparatus.
.
receive;` increases in its cycley from a minimum
The system will be more completely described 4.0 to a maximum in the reverse of section 3 of the
in connection with the drawings in which Fig.
power radiated.
1 shows a group of curves illustrating the cons
trol and cyclic operation of the transmitting and
receiving systems; Fig. 2 shows in block diagram
a transmitting and receiving system for radio
and supersonic ranging; Fig. 3 illustrates a system
adaptable „for acoustic or supersonic ranging in
accordance with the invention; and Fig. 4 shows
a pair of curves of projector resonance and fre
quency variation which may be used in, a modi
fication of the present invention.
In Fig. 1 curve A shows the control of the
master oscillator frequency plotted against a
time axis. _At the point a in the time axis the
' From what has been described above, it will be
seen that between the points b and c no power _is
radiated and no signal is received. This deter
mines tlîle minimum time-interval measurement
and distance of the operation of the apparatus,
since lthe shortest time interval between the 0p
eration of, the transmitter and the operation of
the receiver is deiined by the distance bc on curve
50 A .so that the minimum signal. renee is equal to
45
,
U
[26.5
Here, bc is equal to the Shortest time interval
frequency increases along the curve I to the point 55 between the operation of the transmitter and thiD
2,407,644
3
earliest instant that the receiver becomes opera
tive, while 'D is equal to the velocity of the signal
wave. The frequency received at the minimum
distance will be the high frequency at b and
4
trolled either by means of some standard fre
quency oscillator or through a standard and con
stant driving system, as, for instance, where the
condensers for varying lthe frequency are of the
rotor type and driven synchronously or on a
common shaft.
since this signal energy travels only a short dis
tance before reflection, the power radiated at this
The receiving system is made up of a receptor
point in the cycle is made small and the .sensi
which may be a radio receiving antenna or in a
sound sysœm a sound receiver of the sonic or
tivity of the receiver is correspondingly `keptrlat
a low value.
For signals returning at a greater
supersonic type. The signal received by the re
distance the power output is increased and the
ceiver is impressed upon an amplifier which may
receiver sensitivity is raised as indicated by the
operate in the high frequency range where the
curves C and D, sections 3 and 5, respectively.
signal is in that range or in any other range
Further selectivity and freedom from interference
corresponding to the range of variations of the
are obtained by simultaneously varying the fre»
signals to be received. Corresponding to the am
quency of the transmitter and receiver to cor
plitude control of the transmitter is a sensitivity
respond so that the receiver is progressively in
control of the receiving amplifier which may be
condition to receive signals as they arrive from
by control of a grid bias or by any of the other
given distances without being sensitive tothe
systems and methods commonly used. The am
arrival of signals from other distances, that is
pliñer is also cyclically controlled through a fre
to say. when the receiver is adjusted to the fre 20 quency control shown in the diagram which may
quency at œ, the receiver will be in condition to
be of the usual frequency modulation receivers
receive the same frequency radiated at œ' and
adaptable for .the desired range of reception.
the distance will be established by the interval
With the use of very high frequencies the fre
between :1: and œ'. At the point y on the curve “ quency may be controlled through the variation
of the receiving frequency the only distance
of tuning of the tube of the “klystron” type.
measurable will be yy' so that for each point on
the curve, the frequency at which 'the receiver
In the receiving system there is also shown a
detector and a beat frequency oscillator ampli
will respond, correspondsto a single measurable
, fier. The beat frequency oscillator amplifier per
mits the use of a beat frequency range indicator
30
E in Fig. 1 where the elapsed time of travel of the
distance. This is illustrated more clearly in curve
in the present invention, the range being indi
cated by the corresponding frequency established
through the beating of the beat frequency oscil-lator andthe received signal. In addition to the
received signal is plotted against the time axis.
Curve rF in Fig. 1 shows the beat _frequency
obtained by the beating of a constant master
oscillator at a frequency as indicated in curve A,
Fig. 1, with the received signal. This curve may
be made to increase or decrease with range, de
35
distance and elapsed time being determined in
this Way, an elapsed time indicator may also be
provided, the indicator in this case being driven
pending upon what frequency is chosen for .the
through the cycle control and being operated by
master oscillator. As the receiver tuning drops
the signal received by the receiver. The elapsed
from that of the master oscillator, the beat fre
quency increases corresponding to the elapsed 40 time indicator may be a rotating disc carrying a
neon light which is illuminated when the signal
time and gives a definite frequency vas .a measure
is received.
of the time and distance.
A system adaptable for acoustic and supersonic
The system may be operated by the arrange
‘systems is indicated diagrammatically in Fig. 3.
ment shown in Fig. 2 in which the elements are
given their proper legends. The signal radiated
from the radiator, which may be an antenna or
a submarine signaling radiator or projectory is
Here the transmitter I0 sends out a signal in ac«
cordance with curves A and B of Fig. 1, the tun
ing or frequency of .the signal being controlled
by the variable rotating condensers I I and I2 and
the power radiated being controlled by variable
excitation in the input grid circuit of the oscil
oscillator is controlled in accordance with curve 50 lator I3 by means of the rotating potentiometer
A of Fig. 1 by the frequency-control element
arm I4. In the receiving system the receiver I5
which may be a condenser Whose capacity is
impresses the signal received into the receiving
altered by a sinusoidal vibration of one of its
circuit I6 which goes through a cyclic tuning
plates or by any other suitable method, as, for
stage effected by the rota-tion of the condensers
instance, cam control or capacity variation with
I'I and I8 for tuning the receiving circuit. The
the use of a condenser having a rotor and a stator
sensitivity
of the receiving system is controlled
element or the frequency may be controlledby
by means of the rotating potentiometer arm I9
any one of the methods used in frequency modu
which varies the bias on the grid 2i! of the receiv
lation for long and short waves, as, for instance,
in the manner shown in the pa-tent to Hansell, 60 ing tube. The signal received is made to operate
the neon indicator 2I mounted on‘the rotating
No. 1,830,166, issued November 3, 1931.V A “klys
disc 22. In the system above described the rotat
tron” type tube may be used for this purpose in
ing disc 22 and all of the other rotating elements,
which the resonant element may be mechanical
such as II, I2, I4, I1, I8 and I9, are rotated either
ly, magnetically, electrically or magnetostrictively
on the same shaft or at the same speeds by means
operated. The frequency may also be controlled
of synchronous motors or positive driving con
by the use of a piezoelectric crystal. The am
nections. In these cases the various elements
plitude of the radiated signal, which is controlled
are phased to produce the cyclic operation de
in accordance with section 3 of curve C, is con
scribed
in connection with Fig. 1.
trolled by means of the amplitude control con
A different method of obtaining the radiating
nected to the amplifier. Various methods of am 70
power output curve may be employed by using
plitude control may be used, as, for instance, the
Ithe resonance curve of the projector or sound
control of variation of excitation or by variation
supplied with power through the master oscil
lator and amplifier. The frequency of the master
of grid and plate potentials. The complete cycle
control is indicated by the legend “Cycle control”
and may be electrically or mechanically con
transmitter. A resonance curve of this type is
shown in curve B of Fig. 4 where the power am
plitude is plotted as an ordinate against fre
2,407, 644
5
quency as the abscissa. It will be noted that the
projector need not have a dat characteristic overV
the frequency range and that as a matter of- fact
6
formity to a determinable curve, means for pro-_
gressively decreasing the signal amplitude from
a maximum to zero contemporaneously with the
frequency modulation and means for adjusting
jector is advantageously used. By varying the CII the tuning and sensitivity of the receiving means
frequency between the peak f1 of Fig. 4 and the
to follow substantially the same determinable
point f2 in accordance with section 2 of curve
curve but in reverse direction to that of the signal
B of Fig. 1 the power output will decrease as
sent out with regard respectively to frequency
indicated by the section Sii of curve B of Fig. 4
and amplitude.
similar to that of section 3 in curve C in Fig, l. 10
4l. A standby system for obstacle detection and
This system may particularly be employed with a
distance measurement comprising means for
submarine signaling projector. For this purpose
sending out a signal modulated linearly with in
any fairly sharp transmitter may be used as. for
creasing frequency during at least a portion of
instance, a so-called Fessenden oscillator, or a
a repeated cycle in conformity to a determinable
tuned diaphragm device magnetically or dynami 15 curve. means for progressively decreasing the sig.
cally operated or any of the Well-known devices
nal amplitude from a maximum to Zero during
of which there are many. As references the
said same portion of the repeated cycle and
applicant refers to the Fessenden Patent No.
means for adjusting the tuning and sensitivity
1,167,366, issued January 4, 1916, and the Hecht
of the receiving means to follow substantially the
in the present case the resonance of the pro
et a1. Patent No. 1,604,693, issued October 26, 20 same determinable curve but in reverse direction
1926.
to that of the signal sent out with regard respec
This provides a distinct advantage over the
tively to frequency and amplitude.
visual indicating system in that it need not be
5. A standby system for obstacle detection and
watched continually to indicate Whether an ob
distance measurement comprising means for
ject is within range and, further, the pitch of 25 sending out a signal modulated linearly with re
the audible signal will thus be an indication of
spect to frequency during at least a portion of
the distance of th-e object.
a repeated signal cycle in conformity to a deter
In the system which has just been described
minable curve, means for progressively decreasing
it should be noted that .the reverberations of
the signal amplitude from a maximum to zero
the high-'powered signal initially sent out will not 30 during said same portion of the repeated cycle
affect the receiver when it is put in condition to
and thereafter maintaining a zero amplitude un
receive the signal, for not only is the tuning of
til the said same portion of the cycle is repeated
the receiver such .that the receiver is unable to
and means for adjusting the tuning and sensi
handle this signal, but also it is some time later
tivity of the receiving means to follow substan
before the receiver is in proper condition to be
operated.
tially the same determinable curve but in reverse
direction to that of the signal sent out with regard
The minimum measuring distance, as has been
respectively to frequency and amplitude.
stated. is determined by the time interval repre
6. A standby system for obstacle detection and
sented by the points b and c. The maximum
distance measurement comprising means for
time interval is determined by the time interval 40 sending out a signal modulated in frequency pro
represented between points a and d. By using a
gressively in repeated cycles in conformity to a
compartively slow modulation of frequency and
determinable curve, means for progressively de
intensity the system may be made to cover a
creasing the signal amplitude from a maximum
range from the minimum to the maximum to
to a zero value down a portion of said cycle and
which the energy will travel and be reflected.
maintaining the amplitude at substantially zero
Having now described my invention, I claim:
until said portion of the cycle is repeated, means
l. A standby system for obstacle detection and
for receiving the signal sent out after reflection
distance
.easurement comprising means for
from an obstacle or distant reflecting signal and
sending out a signal modulated in frequency and
means for varying the timing and sensitivity of
amplitude progressively in repeated cycles in con 50 the receiving means to follow substantially the
formity to a determinable curve. means for re
same determinable curve but in reverse direction
to that of the signal sent out with regard respec
an obstacle or distant reflecting surface and
tively to frequency and amplitude and means
means for adjusting the tuning and sensitivity
providing a constant frequency for producing a
of the receiving means to follow substantially the
beat note with the signal received, said beat note
same determinable curve but in reverse direction
being adapted to establish the distance to be
to that of the signal sent out with regard respec
measured.
tively to frequency and amplitude.
'7. A standby system for obstacle detection and
2. A standby system for obstacle detection and
distance measurement comprising means for
distance measurement comprising means for 60 sending out a signal modulated in frequency pro
sending out a signal modulated in frequency pro
gressively in repeated cycles in conformity to a
gressively in repeated cycles in conformity to a
determinable curve, means for progressively de
determina-ble curve, means for progressively de
creasing the signal amplitude from a maximum to
creasing the signal amplitude from a maximum
a zero value down a portion of said cycle and
ceiving the signal sent out after reflection from
to zero contemporaneously with the frequency
modulation and means for adjusting the tuning
and sensitivity of the receiving means to follow
substantially the same determinable curve but in
reverse direction to that of the signal sent out
with regard respectively to frequency and am 70
maintaining the amplitude at substantially zero
until said portion of the cycle is repeated, means
for receiving the signal sent out after reflection
-from an obstacle or distant reflecting signal and
means for varying the tuning and sensitivity of
the receiving means to follow substantially the
3. A standby system for obstacle detection and
distance measurement comprising means for
sending out a signal modulated linearly in fre
to that of the signal sent out with regard respec
plitude,
same determinable curve but in reverse direction
tively to frequency and amplitude and time
measuring means synchronously operated with
quency in a portion of a repeated cycle in con 75 said cycle for indicating the elapsed time between
2,407,644
the transmission of a portion of the signal cycle
and the receipt of its reflected echo.
8. A method of obstacle and distance measure
ment which comprises transmitting a signal vary
8
9. A method for obstacle detection and distance
measurement comprising sending out periodically
signals linearly modulated in frequency and de
creasing in amplitude from an initia1 maximum
ing both in frequency and amplitude according to
a determinable curve, receiving the signal after
value to zero according to a determinable curve,
refiection from the obstacle or distant reflecting
creasing the sensitivity of reception and varying
surface, varying during the receiving period tun
ing and sensitivity of the receiving system ac
receiving said signals sent out at a time interval
later than the end of the transmitted signal, in
the tuning thereof linearly according to said curve
but in reverse progression from that employed in
cording to said determinable curve but in reverse 10 the transmission of the signal whereby the listen
direction corresponding to a time schedule for
ing area is progressively swept away from the
the return of reflected signals from the nearest
listening point, and indicating by the frequency
to the most distant object in the range to be ob
of the received signal the distance being meas
served whereby the receipt of the signal and its
corresponding frequency identity determines the 15 ured.
HUGO BENIOFF.
distance of the object.
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