Патент USA US2407654код для вставки
Sept. 17,1946. 1 ' P. J. cos'rA ' . ‘2,407,652 DETONATION RESPONSIVE MEANS FOR CONTROLLING ’ ' INTERNAL-COMBUSTION‘ ENGINES ‘7 Original Filed June 6, 1942 V ' : 2 Sheets-Sheet 1‘ mmcxrea gum" 2 a 4 . I v ' .- I \ Il . IHHIHWI" ENGINE MITTER HQ. 2 _ uc' nauas‘rog FIGS ‘MIII’ELI ' . haze! . 46 CONTROL UNIT ' ' INVENTOR. PHILIP J. COSTA ‘ Sept. 17, 1946.‘ P. J. cosTA 2,407,652 DE'I‘ONATION RESPONSIVE MEANS FOR CONTROLLING INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES Original‘ Filed June 6, 1942 _/ 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 4 INVENTOR . PHILlP J. COSTA Patented Sept. 17, 1946 . ‘ . 2,407,652 UNITEDSTATES PATENT OFFICE 2,407,652 DETONATION RESPONSIVE MEANS FOR CONTROLLING INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES Philip J. ‘Costa, Franklin Square, N. Y., assignor to Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., a corporation of New York ' Continuation of application Serial No. 446,070, This application February 28, 1944, Serial No. 524,170 20 Claims. (Cl. 123-119) June 6, 1942. . y‘ _ 2 1 ‘ This invention relates to detonation responsive means for controlling an internal combustion en gine. More particularly the invention is con cerned with a‘ detonation responsive system which includes a device for transmitting cyclic movements of variable duration to known in strumentalities for controlling the operation of an internal combustion engine. While the im proved system is useful in the elimination of the occurrence of detonation in the cylinders of any 10 internal combustion engine, it “is particularly adapted to be employed with aircraft engines in which the relatively thin cylinder walls are sub ject to severe damage or complete destruction under such conditions. This application is a con tinuation of my copending application S. N. 446, 070, ?led June 6, 1942. The principal object of the present invention is to provide an automatically operative system by detonation responsive system illustrated in Fig. 1, and. Fig. 5 is an elevation view of the control unit illustrated in Fig. 4 showing the ?xed type of control ‘unit employed in‘ Figs. 2 and 3. _ With reference particularly to Fig. 1, the det onation responsive system is shown to include an internal combustion engine of the radial cylinder type employed in aircraft which is‘outlined sche matically and indicated at N. The carburetor and the air intake tube for the same are desige nated at II and I2, respectively. These parts being of conventional construction are also shown schematically. The means for controlling the working conditions of the engine may co operate to regulate any portion of the engine op erable to suppress detonation, typically as out lined in Van Dijck Patent 2,220,558. The regu lator is herein illustrated, by way of example, as which the time interval between recurrences of 20 the usual fuel mixture control on carburetor H having the usual throttle arm l3 which may con detonating or “knocking” engine conditions is trol a throttle valve (not shown) of the butter?y effectively and controllably delayed. type. This valve provides a means of controlling One of the important features of the invention engine speed or power output by regulating the resides in “the'provision of a combined manual air-?ow toythe cylinders. The throttle control and automatic system for controlling the ratio determines the speed at which the crank shaft of ‘the fuel to air mixture being utilized by the of the engine is revolved, and by a direct link internal combustion engine. . age .(not shown) to the arm the same is posi Another feature of the invention is provided in , tioned manually in a desired manner by the pilot the combination of elements included in the sys of the craft. A fuel mixture valve (not shown) tem which cooperate to obtain the desired result which controls ‘the flow of fuel through the main and consist of an internal combustion engine, metering system of the carburetor and into the a means for controlling ‘the working conditions of air-?ow of tube I2 is also directly controlled by the engine such as the carburetor or ignition the‘pilot by way of pivotal arm l4, connecting timing control device, a detonation pick-up ' links-45 and I5’, and adjustable lever l6 located transmitter or means for detecting detonation in in the cockpit of the craft. the cylinders of the engine and the means or ‘ On most high-powered engines the mixture of device included in the system which is operable fuel to air supplied the engine is regulated by in response to the detonation detecting means. limiting‘ the amount of fuel vaporized in the air Other objects, features and structural ‘details intake tube. [2. By a suitable detent and stop of the invention will be apparent from ‘the fol construction usually provided within the carbu lowing description when read in connection with retor, the arm l4 may be positioned in any one the accompanying drawings, wherein; of four operating positions, shown at‘ the dial Fig. 1 is a schematic view and wiring diagram indications in the’ cockpit of the craft, with ref inwh'ich the preferred form of the invention is 4.5 erence to the settable lever Iii,v as “full rich,” illustrated. ' Fig. 2 is a detail view showing the system em ployed to control the engine by means of an ignition timing device. Fig. 3 is a further detail view showing the sys tem employed to control the engine by means of an additional or auxiliary fuel supply valve. Fig. 4 is an enlarged vertical section showing in detail the internal construction of the rocker “auto-rich,” “auto-lean” and “idle cut-off,” by manual manipulation of the pilot. Provisions of this nature may or may not be incorporated in the‘ improved detonation responsive control‘ system.‘ Such an arrangement, having proven satisfactory, is provided for in the instant case by a relatively ?xed holding piece I’! having four notches in the under-surface of the same and a spring urged detent 18 that engages the notches. type of control unit'included in the improved 55 Deten-t I8 is situated on a vertical arm l9 which‘ ' 2,407,652 3 4 extends from the casing of the control device or unit 23 which itself, in this instance, is mounted to rock about a ?xed pivot point 2!. Link I5 is ventional construction may also be energized by' the output of the ampli?er 23 by way of leads 28. The automatic detonation contro1 unit 20 is ,in pivotally connected to the end of the rod of a Qluded in. the circuit completed by the relay 21, in this instance, vthe circuit : being energized by a piston element contained within the unit 20, and hereinafter more particularly described. Also, link I5’ is pivotally connected to the casing of suitable source of'energy such as battery 29.' If desired, the control unit 20, hereinafter more par the unit 25] so that the unit is included as an ticularly described could be actuated directly by the output of the schematically shown detonation the valve positioning arm 14 is controlled. Arm 10 pick-up transmitter 22 thereby obviating the use It may be termed the gas to air mixture control of the relay 2‘! and the independent circuit which in this embodiment of the invention. the same closes upon occurrence of detonation in With respect to the various positions in which any of the cylinders of the ,prime mover. As integral portion of the linkage system by which the linkage system may be manually set by the ' - shown in’ Fig. l, the single ?exible cable so in pliot, it may be considered that when the craft _‘ takes off the throttle of the carburetor is fully open and the mixture control is set at “full rich” cludes separate leads for completing the circuit containing the relay 21, source 29 and control de vice or unitv 29. It will be understood from the foregoing description that operation of the sys surrounding obstacles. If the craft is still climb tem is effected by the detonation pick-up trans ing, the pilot can then set lever it to the “auto 20 mitter 22 which transforms the high frequency rich?’ position which moves arm M to open the vibrations in the cylinder in which detonation is position until the craft is at a safe height above valve slightly. The valve, in turn, permits less occurringinto, electrical impulses. These pulses are ampli?ed in the instant caseby means creasing the richness of thefuel toair mixture of amplifier 23 and the output of the ampli?er entering the cylinders. Throttle arm‘ [3 is moved 25 is utilized to. both effect illumination of the indi independently of the lever lt'and is adjusted as cator 25; and close the relay ‘2'! controlled circuit. fuel to be vaporized in theair tube l2, thus de desired by the pilot. When the craft reaches a which includes the, in this instance, pivotally desired altitude and is traveling under normal mounted control unit, 29. By- suitably controlling straight ?ight conditions, the engine may be ad justed to obtain maximum economy of operation by-setting the mixture lever to. the “auto-lean” position. As the economy of operation of the prime mover is increased, the frequency of occur the sensitivity of the ampli?er 23, the pick-up transmitter may be rendered as sensitive as; de sired. Both the control unit and indicatorof the system are preferably rendered, operable upon that approach of detonating conditions in-the rence of detonation in the cylinders of'the same also increases so that due to engine failures and the inability to determine a safe operating point above that providing most economical operation, the pilots have been warned by engine and car buretor manufacturers against the danger in using- the “auto-lean” position. With the present ' cylinders of the engine known as incipient dot-,7 35 onation, characterized by’ several occurrences per minute and not apparently harmful to engines; even for prolonged periods. With particular reference to Figs. 4, and 5, the illustrated control unit or device 20 is shown in the form of a cylinder element having- a casing 3i and end walls 32 and 33. In Fig; 4, the cyl system, the mixture control lever can be safely set in the “auto-lean” position and an indicator observed to ascertain the frequency of occurrence inder element is divided into two ?uid containing compartments 3.4. and 35 by» a ?xed central wall of; detonation in the engine. If such occurrences 36 and a solenoid or coil 31 having a side de?ning appear too frequently or are heavier in nature, 45 plate 3,8. The solenoid 3'! is included in the relay ' than desired, the position of the relative ?xed controlled circuit whose cable 30 is ?xed, to the holding piece ll may be changed slightly by a casing 3| by a suitahleg connection, A piston suitable’ adjustment- and the mixture arm reset member for the cylinder element is indicated at to slightly enrich the ratio, of fuel to air being 40., the same de?ning one wall of the compart supplied the engine to maintain detonation below 50 ment 35. This piston performs the function of a predetermined maximum level of severity. In an actuating member for the control unit to auto this manner, the prime mover may be controlled matically position the instrumentalities employed to, obtain the greatest operating economy con in controlling the working conditions of operation sistent with engine safety, When‘ in the “idle. cut-off” position the mixture valve, by special internal design, actually closes again to. richen up the, mixture, even though the-lever is put into a diiferent position. Further, with reference to Fig. 1, each of the of the internal combustion engine. , In the rocker 55 type control unit in Fig. 4, such controlling move mentisimparted to lever I5 byway of the piston rod 4,], for piston Ml.v A. Spring 42" or other suit.-. able means is effective to restore the piston ac, tuatingmember to, a normal or vinitial position cylinders of the internal combustion engine is 60 against stops d3 situated on the face of ‘?xed provided with a means for detecting detonation, dividing wall 36‘. In the form of the control unit one of such detonation'pickeup transmitters be shown‘ in Fig. 5, the casing 3| is suitably mounted ingv indicated at 22. This transmitter which is in a ?xed position on a bracket piece 46. illustrated schematically in the drawing may be In both of' the types of' control units 20 shown of the type particularly described in U. S. Letters in the drawings, the solenoid 31 provides a part Patent No. 2,275,675, issued March 10, 1942, to of the electromagnetic means employed for- ef C. S; Draper et al. The output of the transmit fecting unidirectional movement of the ?uid to ter may be fed to a suitable ampli?er indicated the piston member wall de?ning‘ compartment. schematically at 23 by way» of leads Z4. The am 35 to cause movement of the piston actuating pli?er is energized from a suitable source of elec 70 member. It will be understood that this result trical energy (not shown) and the output of the occurs in response to energization of the solenoid same may be employed to illuminate a neon tube when the relay controlled circuit is closed by indicator 25 situated in the cockpit of the craft, the detection of detonation at the. pick-up. trans the circuit leads for this purpose being shown at mitter. A hollow electromagnetic core piece 48 2,6,. A separate circuit-closing relay 21 of con of cylindrical form cooperates with the solenoid 2,407,652 5 and is mounted for axial movement within a‘ cylindrical wall de?ning element 43 whose longi tudinal axis is arranged in coaxial relation to the central axis of the solenoid. The core piece 48 has a valve-controlled passageway 50 therein, the valve being represented in the form of a ball 5| which is normally pressed against its seat. by 6 transmitter 22 ‘for each, of the cylinders of the engine and generally causes a number of pulsat ing movements of the core 48, each movement e?ectingdisplacement of the piston member over a predetermined ‘minor portion of the full oper ating range of the piston. When thesolenoid is no, longer energized, the return movement of? the control device‘ occurs underin?uence of the spring 42, the fluid being forced to return to the‘ aspring 52 situated within the hollow core 48. The electromagnetic plunger or‘ core 43' is posi tioned within the cylindrical wall de?ning ele 10 compartment 34, under normal‘ circumstances, by way of passageway 59 which contains the ad ment 49 by means of a spacing spring 53, which justable valve 60, operating as an escapement to the plunger 48 compresses when it moves through delay the return‘ movement. On each return in?uence of the energized solenoid, and an op movement of the core 48, ?uid from the compart-' posing spring 53’. The extent of axial move ment permitted the core is de?ned by a stop, as. 15 ment 34 is admitted to the chamber‘de?ned by the cylindrical wall member 49 and the interior indicated. at 54, situated at the end of a hub piece on the central wall 36. > ‘VA valve-controlled passageway is included in the structural provisions shown in the drawing for connecting the interior of the fluid. contain ing ‘chamber de?ned by the cylindrical wall 43 and the chamber 35. In this instance, this con struction is provided by valve plate 55, valve ball 56 and the open ended, screw-threaded plug 51. of the hollow core 48 by way of the unidirection ally acting valve controlled by spring-loaded ball 5!. The adjustable valve 53 provides a means for regulating the duration of the return move ment affected by the control unit which functions as a cyclic actuating means having initiating and returning movements. In the combined manual and automatic control system illustrated A spring 58 normally holds the valve ball 56 25 in Fig. 1, .the automatic mixture control‘unit functions when necessary upon occurrence of against its seat in the valve plate 55. Compart detonation in the cylinders of the engine at ments 35 and 34 are connected by a passageway either manual position 2 or 3, it being presumed 59 situated in the wall of the casing 3!. An that no detonation will occur at either of ‘the. adjustable valve element 5!] is located in a posi tion in the casing 3| to restrict the flow of ?uid 30 other manual settings for the system. When operative, the device functions to enrich the fuel passing from compartment 35 to compartment to air mixture supplied the engine u'ntil detona 34. ‘In addition to passageway 59, a further pas tion ‘ceases, after which it slowly restores the sageway‘is provided in the wall of‘ the casing system to the original conditions of operation 3|, as indicated at 6|, the same connecting the at which the same was manually set by the pilot. area 34' ‘of the cylindrical casing to the rear of It is apparent that by setting valve ‘60, as desired, the piston member 40 to compartment 34. There the duration of the restorative portion of the is no valve situated in passageway 6! so in effect cyclic actuating means may be extended to ap- ' the connected compartments 34 and 34’ form a proximately control cyclic recurrence of detona single compartment. The ‘end of the passageway 6| in the wall of the cylinder element 3| adja 4-0 tion in the engine atsuch spaced intervals as to provide safe operation of the craft at the cent compartment 34' is of su?icient longitudinal “auto-lean” mixture setting. Incipient detona dimensions, the same being formed of greater tion of the order of several occurrences per min length than the thickness of the piston member ute may be maintained steadily when the return 40, to provide an operative position‘limit for the movement of the piston member within the cyl 45 movement of the piston requires somewhat over 10 seconds. Normal operation of the automatic inder element. This position is indicated by the control system thus is indicated by several flashesv dotted line position of the piston member 40 in perminute on the signal device or indicator 25. Fig. 4, in which the passageway BI is shown as directly connecting both compartments 35 and 34. The entire cylinder element 3i is preferably ?lled with a ?uid such as oil and a pressure responsive means such as bellows unit 62 is pro vided for the structure, the same compressing Rapidly recurring ?ashes de?nitely indicate trouble in the automatic control, and warn the operator to shift the manual control lever l6 as an emergency measure in a direction to suppress detonation, e. g. byenriching the fuel mixture. It will be apparent that while the manual control upon expansion of the fluid due-to temperature changes and expanding upon shrinkage in the 55 lever always is operable to enrich the fuel mix ture and eliminate detonation, its effectiveness volume of fluid when the temperature condition in the reverse direction is limited by the effect affecting the device causes such to occur. on engine operation, since the automatic control In operation, the energized solenoid 31 of this becomes operative when detonation conditions unit effects movement of the magnetic core 48 arise‘; to preclude manually setting the engine to the left, as viewed in Fig. 4, against the action 60 regulator beyond a position corresponding to a of spring 53. A portion of the fluid within the maximum allowable detonation severity. chamber de?ned by the cylinder wall 49 and the The ?xed type of control unit, as shown in Figs. interior of the hollow core 48 is consequently 2 and 5, is mounted on a bracket 46 situated in forced-past the valve ball 56 into the compart ?xed position‘ with respect to the body of the 65 ment 35. Valve ball 55 permits unidirectional engine. In the instance shown in Fig. 2, the unit movement of the ?uid into the compartment 35 is employed to initially retard the timed occur only, such movement resulting in displacement rence of ignition in the operation of the internal of the piston member 40 and consequent sup combustion engine. In this fully automatic ar pression of detonation, e. g. by movement of the rangement, a pair of linked magnetos of conven mixture control arm of the carburetor. This, in tional construction illustrated schematically at turn, causes enrichment of the fuel mixture sup 63 are controlled from the unit 20 by the con plied the engine by the carburetor to automati necting link arm 64. The cyclic movement trans cally change the operating conditions of the mitting device or unit 20 operates in themanner engine so that detonation is overcome. The solenoid 3'1 is energized by the detonationpick-up 75 previously described in response to the means for 21,407,652" 7 detecting detonation in the cylinders of the en gine. , In Fig. 3, a further modi?cation of the‘ inven tion is shown in which a ?xed type of control unit 20 is operative to control the mixture valve for-the carburetor by which ‘the ratio of pre heated and‘ cold air admitted thereto is regulated in a desired manner. In this instance, the car buretor includes a conventional air temperature controlling valve (not shown) which is automati cally regulated by a unit 20‘ through means of thepivotally mounted arm 65 and link 66. This form of utilization of’ the control device is slower in. response in overcoming detonation but is equally eifective. Since many changes could be made in the above construction and many apparently widely differ ent. embodiments of this invention could be made without ‘departing from the scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the above , description or shown in the accompanying draw‘ ings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in. a limiting sense. What is claimed is: 1. The combination of an internal combustion engine ‘having means for controlling its working conditions of operation, a linkage system. by which said controlling means is positioned, means in which said‘ unidirectionally operable" means is provided by a solenoid, energized by the detonation pick-up transmitter, and a movable, ?uid receiving, hollow core piece, cooperating with said . solenoid, having a valve controlledv passageway therein. 8. A device responsive to a detonation pick-up transmitter for controlling internal combustion engines comprising a cylinder element‘ having two ?uid containing compartments, a piston‘ ac tuating member for the device de?ning a wall for'one of said compartments, electromagnetic means, responsive to the detonation pick-up transmitter, operable unidirectionally to supply : ?uid to the piston member wall de?ned compart ment and thereby effect movement of the piston member, means for restoring the piston member to an. initial position, a passageway for said cyl inder‘ element through which the ?uid moves from said piston member wall de?ned compart ment to said other compartment, and means situ ated in said passageway for controlling the: rate of movement of the ?uid. ‘ 9. A device of the character claimed in claim 8, in which the electromagnetic means is provided by a solenoid, energized by the detonation pick up transmitter, and a movable ?uid receiving, hollowing core piece, cooperating with said sole for detecting detonation in the cylinders of said noid, which receives ?uid from the other of said engine, and cyclic actuating means included in compartments and supplies ?uid to the piston said linkage system for‘ automatically operating 30 member wall de?ned ‘compartment. the controlling means for‘ the engine responsive 10. The combination of elements claimed in. to‘ said detonation detecting means. claim 1, in which the means for controlling the 2.. The combination of elements claimed in’ working conditions of operation of the. internal claim 1, which includes means for controlling the 35 combustion engine is provided by an ignition tim— time interval in which the return portion of the. ing control device, and the cyclic actuating means cycle of operation of said actuating means is operates to initially retard the timed occurrence. effected. ' of ignition in the operation of the engine. 3. The combination of elements claimed in 11. A device for regulating internal combustion claim 1, in which the means for controlling the engine is a carburetor having a valve positioned 40 engines comprising means for controlling the by said‘ linkage system by which the ratio of fuel to air supplied the engine is regulated. 4. The combination of an internal combustion engine having a carburetor with a fuel regulating valve therein, a linkage system by which said regulating valve is manually positioned, means for detecting detonation in the cylinders of said engine, and a device, included in said linkage sys tem, responsive to said detonation detecting means and operative to automatically change the‘ engine, a linkage system bylwhich said control ling means is positioned, means for detecting det~ onation in the cylinders of the engine, and actu ating‘ means included in said linkage system for automatically operating the controlling means ‘for the engine responsive to said detonation detect-r ing means in a manner tending to reduce the' occurrence of detonation. 12. A device for automaticallyoperating a posi tionable fuel~air mixture determining means as sociated with the carburetor of an internal com position of said valve to control the engine. 5... A. device responsive to a detonation pick-up bustion engine comprising‘ a linkage system by transmitter for controlling internal. combustion engines, comprising a cylinder element having two ?uid containing. compartments, a piston ac-~ ally'positioned, means for detecting detonation. in tuating member for the device situated in said cylinder element, means responsive to the deto nation pick-up transmitter, operable unidirec tionally to supply fluid to one of said compart -ments- and eifect movement of the piston actuat ing member, means for restoring the piston mem ber‘to an. initial position, and means for resisting the action of said restoring means, comprising a. which the mixture determining means is manu a cylinder of the engine, and means operatively connected in said linkage system, responsive to saiddetecting means for automatically changing the position of the mixture determining means in a manner tending to reduce‘ the occurrence of detonation. ' 13. A device for regulating an internal com bustion engine, comprising means adapted‘. to control detonation occurring in said engine, man ual means for setting said detonation control fluid restricting valve contair-iingv passageway which connects the ?uid supplied compartment 65 means in a desired operating position, and auto matic means for modifying the: setting of said‘ with the other compartment. detonation control means in response to engine 6. A device of thecharacter claimed-in claim.5,. detonation. in which the compartments of the cylinder ele 14. A device for regulating an internal com ment are ?lled with; fluid, which. includes: pres--v ‘ bustion engine, comprising means adapted to sure responsive means for compensating for regulate detonation occurring in said engine, changes: in volume of thelfl-ui'd due. to. variances in manual control means for setting said detonation temperature conditions in which the‘. device regulating means in a desired operating position, and. automatic control means for modifying sucl'r 7. A device of the character claimed in claim 5, 75 setting in response to engine detonation, said operates. " w 2,407,652 10 responsive to a predetermined maximum level of detonation severity to operate said regulator so as to suppress detonation, emergency manual control means operative on said regulator to eliminate detonation, and signal means for indi cating when said automatic control means is in operative. actuating said engine regulator, manual control means for also actuating said engine regulator, and a warning indicator for showing when opera tion of said manual control means is required. 16. Automatic detonation suppression appa ratus for an internal combustion engine of the type having an engine regulator operative to vary the detonation tendencies of said engine, said apparatus comprising a manual ‘controller for said regulator, and automatic control means re sponsive to engine detonation for rendering said manual controller ineffectual to adjust said regu lator in a manner to aggravate engine detonation when said detonation reaches a predetermined maximum level of severity. 17. Automatic detonation suppression appa ratus for controlling a fuel-air mixture regulator of an internal combustion engine, comprising manually operable means for setting said regu lator at a desired operating position, and auto matic control means responsive to a predeter mined intensity of detonation in said engine for > regulator operative to vary the detonation tend encies of said engine, automatic control means automatic control means including means for urging said detonation regulating means toward its original manual setting. 15. Detonation suppression apparatus for an internal combustion engine, comprising an engine regulator adapted when actuated to suppress det onation occurring in said engine, automatic con trol means responsive to engine detonation for 10 19. An automatic detonation suppression appa ratus for an internal combustion engine, compris ing an engine regulator operative through a pre determined range to vary detonation tendencies in said engine, and an automatic controller re 15 sponsive to each engine detonation of predeter mined intensity for effectively adjusting said reg ulator by an amount corresponding to only a minor fraction of its effective range, in a direc tion to suppress detonation. 20. An automatic detonation suppression appa 20 ratus for an internal combustion engine compris ing a fuel mixture regulator operative over a pre determined range to vary the detonation tend encies of said engine, and an automatic controller 25 responsive to each engine detonation of at least a predetermined intensity for shifting said regu lator a distance corresponding to a portion of its entire range in a direction to suppress detonation, 30 limiting the minimum fuel-air ratio position of said regulator. 18. Detonation suppression apparatus for an internal combustion engine, comprising an engine 35 said controller including escapement means for restoring said regulator to its original. position during a time interval substantially equal to the reciprocal of the desired incipient detonation, frequency. ‘ , ‘ PHILIP. J. COSTA.