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Патент USA US2407666

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4 .Sept E7, 1946.
c. G. HoLscHuH ETAL
Filed Aug. 1, 1940 `
5 Sheets-Sheçt 1
:SPEED Moron
l'lolsc 'uh
sept. T7, 1946.
c. G..Ho|_s'cHuH ETAL
Filed Aug. 1, 1940l
47 o.;
3 sheets-sheet 2
Sept W, 3945 .
C. G. HoLscHUH Ei- Al.
Filed Aug. 1, 1940
's sheets-sheet 3
F“ E
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Patented Sept. 17, 1946
Carl G. Holschuh, Wood-Ridge, N. J., and David
Fram, Brooklyn, N. Y., assignors to Sperry
Gyroscope Company, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., a
corporation of New York
Application August 1, 1940, Serial N0. 349,336
.6 Claims.
(Cl. 235-61.5)
This invention relates to apparatus for direct
ing gunfire at an aerial target from an attack
ing aircraft and refers more particularly to a
sighting and computing device adapted to direct
gunfire from a high speed pursuit airplane in an
The sighting and computing apparatus is pref
erably housed in a single housing adapted to be
ñXedly mounted on an airplane with the axes
of the instrument in fixed relationship to, and
preferably coincident with, the axes of the plane.
attack on a slower plane, for example, a bomber.
The optics of the sighting apparatus comprise a
The present invention constitutes a modiñca
prism I rotatable in azimuth and elevation in
tion of and improvement in the apparatus dis
which the line of sight experiences one total re
closed in the copending application of Earl W.
fiection, a prism 2 in which the line of sight is
Chafee, Serial No. 211,550, iiled June 3, 1938, and 10 twice totally reflected, a dove prism 3 rotatable
assigned to the assignee of the present inventors,
about an inclined axis in which a single reflec
which application discloses an automatic sight
tion occurs, range ñnding optical wedges 4, 4' and
and computer comprising apparatus adapted for
eye piece 5. When a target is in the field of view
sighting and tracking an aerial target together
and a suitable adjustment of the wedges 4, 4' has
with range finding means and a computing mech 15 been made, an observer with his eye placed at
anism for obtaining from target azimuth, eleva
Si sees two separate images of the target plane,
tion and range data and the indicated air speed
a normal and a displaced image, these images
of the attacking plane the proper angle for posi
being upright and unreversed as to right-left
tioning a gun relative to the line of sight. The
components and adjacent Wing tips of the two
plan of attack for which the device of the above 20 images apparently just touching one another so
application is adapted is one in which the ñring
that the center to center distance is equal to the
plane having the superior mobility of the two
wing spread. The positioning of said two images
craft, trails the target on a parallel course and
in the just described relationship by the operation
at a chosen range which is maintained constant.
The present invention provides apparatus of
the general character previously disclosed which
is not limited in its functioning to a single con
stant range but which has means for obtaining
and introducing into the computer variable range
data and for performing the more complicated
computations incident thereto.
Another object of the present invention is to
provide means for setting up and automatically
introducing into the computer a rate of change
of range.
of the range setting control or controls eifects a
range setting, the value of the range so set being
introduced into the computing mechanism.
The training -of the line of sight on the target
in- elevation is accomplished by means of eleva
tion (En) displacement knob 'i and elevation
rate knob 8 and in azimuth by means of azimuth
(Ao) displacement knob 9 and rate knob lil. The
motion of elevation displacement knob 'l is trans
mitted by spur gears I I and bevel gears I2 to one
arm of mechanical differential I3, a second arm
of which is connected to shaft I4 which, in turn,
Still another object is to provide in apparatus
of the above character simplified sighting and
range ñnding controls whereby adjustments may
is connected by bevel gears I 4’ to one arm of
mechanical differential I5. A second arm of
diiîerential I5 drives shaft I6 which in turn ro
be made and automatically continuing changes
tates prism I about horizontal shaft I9’ by means
of adjustment set up without shifting the hand 40 of bevel gears I1, worm drive I 8, spur gear Il',
from one control member to another.
freely >rotatable about tubular member I5', its
A further object is to provide apparatus of the
meshing pinion I9 and bevel gears I8’.
above character which is adapted to be used as
Besides the means for tracking the target in
a bombsight and also for obtaining a measure
of ground speed.
Other objects and advantages of this invention
will become apparent as the description proceeds.
Referring to the drawings,
Fig. 1 (in two Parts, Fig. 1A and Fig.lB) is a
schematic diagram of an improved sight, range
ñnder and computer according to the invention.
Fig. 2 is a diagram illustrating the method of
computing range.
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of the wind resolv
ing unit.
elevation provided by elevation displacement
knob l, provision is made for automatic tracking
at al constant rate by rotating prism I from the
Output of a variable speed device 23 controlled by
elevation rate knob 8. The rotation of knob 8
transmitted to shaft 20, rack and pinion 2IA and
push rod ZI’ displaces ball carriage 22 of this
device and the position of the balls retained in
'carriage 22 and driven by disc 24, rotated by con
stant speed motor 25 by way of shaft 2B, deter
mines the speed at which cylinder 2l rotates, this
55 speed being proportional to the displacement of
cned View of the target where the path of the
target is offset from that of the pursuit plane,
the angle in azimuth the line of sight takes with
arriage 22 from the center of disc 24. The mo
ion of cylinder 21, introduced into a third arm
f differential i3 by way of gearing, results in a
reference to the longitudinal axis of the pursuit
ontinuous rotation of shaft i4 and hence of prism
about its horizontal axis at a rate proportional CW craft is introduced.
Wingspread knob E5 rotates a three-dimen
o the displacement of knob B. Knobs 1 and 8 are
sional cam 64 in accordance with target dimen
voaxial and are arranged on their shaft and sleeve,
sions. The cam is translated by means of gear
yespectively, so that they may be grasped simul
and rack mechanism 61 which is controlled by
aneously with one hand. This is of considerable
mportance since by “double gripping” an oper
ttor with practice can adjust both the. displace
10 gears 5E on shaft 35, the angular displacement
nent and rate of change of the line of sight with
iut having to shift his hand from one control
:nob to another. In order to prevent disturbing
of shaft 35 being proportional to the azimuth
angle of the line of sight measured from the lon
gitudinal axis of the aircraft. Cam 64 is laid
out so that when actuated as just described its
'.he position of rate knob 8 whenv displacement 15 lift pin is displaced in proportion to the product
of target dimension and the cosine of the angle
rnob ‘lis turned, a detent 23 is provided acting
Ythe line of sight makes with the fore and aft
in shaft 2E). Also to prevent rotation of the dis
line of the aircraft. The lift pin displacement
-Jlacement knob by a feed-back of the motion of
thus obtained, when divided by the product of
;he cylinder 21 through differential I3, a fric
;ion brake 29 is provided on the displacement 20 the sine of the angle through which the prisms
are turned and a constant C is equal to range as
drive which provides friction loading for the arm
explained in detail in the above-mentioned co
3f the differential to which the displacement
pending application. The latter operation is ac
control is connected,
As above mentioned, training of the line of
sight on a target in azimuth is accomplished by
rotation of azimuth displacement knob 9 and
rate knob l0. The rotation of knob 9 is intro
duced into one arm of mechanical differential 30
by way of spur gears 3l and bevel gears 32, while
the output or the motion of a second arm of
said differential is transmitted by gearing to
shaft 33 and thence by Way of bevel gears 34 to
shaft 35 and by another pair of bevel gears 35
to shaft 31. Motion of shaft 31 through gear
ing 3E! rotates prism l about a vertical axis. In
order to prevent the azimuth motion from af
complished byV means of cam
which is trans
lated by lift pin 53 of cam 64. Cam 6G is rotated
by long pinion 5i and gear 62 driven from shaft
5l which is displaced by a range rate mecha
nism described further on. The lift pin of cam
6E! is used to effect the range adjustment of the
optical wedges, the cam being so laid out that the
movement of the lift pin is proportional to the
sine of the angle through which the wedges are
displaced and the required rotary movement of
the cam for this displacement is equal to slant
range, Do. Coaxial range displacement and
range rate knobs are provided which enable the
operator to make range settings in the same man
ner in which elevation and azimuth settings are
made. The motion of range displacement knob
diiferential I5 which functions as a compensat
ing or “unwinding” differential. The rotation of 40 41 by means of spur gears 43 and bevel gears 49
is introduced into mechanical differential 5o by
shaft 31 also rotates prism 3 by means of gears
fecting the elevation setting, the motion of shaft
31 is transmitted by gearing to a third arm of
38’ and thereby prevents the change of position
of the image which would otherwise be caused
by the rotation of prism l. Azimuth rate control
way of one arm and a second arm of the differ
into diiferential 30 by Way of a third arm and
appears at the output as a rotation of shaft 33,
motion is introduced into a third arm of differ
ential 50 and appears at the output as a rota
ential is connected by gearing to shaft 5l. Ro
tation of range rate knob 52, transmitted by way
of shaft 53 and rack and pinion 54, displaces ball
is obtained by an arrangement similar to the ele
carriage 55 of variable speed device 55 having
vation rate control. The movement of azimuth
disc 51 driven from constant speed moto-r 25 by
rate knob lo is transmitted by shaft 39 and rack
way of shaft 26 and gearing 58. Cylinder 59 of
and pinion 45 tov ball carriage 4| of variable
speed device 56 has imparted to it a rate of ro
speed device 42. This> device has a disc 43 driven
by constant speed motor V25 by way of shaft 26 50 tation proportional to the displacement of ball
carriage 55 from the center of disc 51, which
and a cylinder 44 whose motion is introduced
this motion being combined by the differential
with the rotation of displacement knob 9. A
detent 45 is provided on rate setting shaft 39
and a friction brake 46 on the displacement drive
tion of shaft 5|, the differential combining this
motion with that of displacement knob 41.
The relationships of the quantities entering
into the computation of range are shown dia
grammatically in Fig. 2. It is assumed that the
wing spread of the target is known by the oper
ment settings, as described in connection with
60 ator of the device. In practice he will be pro
the elevation rate control.
vided With a table of wing spreads. Range may
The method of determining range by means
therefore be computed. from the projection of
of oppositely rotated optical Wedges is fully de
this wing spread perpendicular to the line of
scribed in application No. 211.550, previously re
sight and the angle (0) subtended by this pro
ferred to, and only the present means for eifect
ing this rotation will be here described. It is 65 jected wing spread at the sight. Since 6 is usu
ally a small angle, range (Do) is taken to be
assumed that a dimension of the target, for in
equal to projected wing spread divided by 0. Pro
stance, wing spread, is known. This value is set
jected wing spread is obtained from actual tar
into the sight by adjusting wing spread knob 65
get wing spread by multiplication by the cosine
with reference to a suitable scale, not shown.
of the azimuth angle (Ao) between the flight
As described in the above-mentioned applica
axis and the line of sight.
t is assumed that
tion, slant range Do is equal to the target wing
the longitudinal axis of the craft coincides with
spread divided by the product of the sine of the
the flight axis, that is, that no side drift occurs.
angle through which the optical wedges are dis
To simplify the figure, since 0 is small, Ao is
placed and a constant C.
Shown as the angle between one side of 6 and the
In order to take into consideration a foreshort
prevents interaction of the rate and displace
flight axis. An approximation of negligible im
portance is made in showing the base angle of
the small right angle triangle which includes
wing spread as equal to Ao.
The motie-n of shaft 5|, representing slant
range of the target (Do), is transmitted by bevel
gears 69 to shafts 'I9 and '||, the former of these
two shafts feeding range to azimuth prediction
cam 'I9 and by Way of the latter shaft to eleva
tion prediction cam 12.
The means by which motions proportional to
the azimuth, elevation and slant range of the tar
get are introduced into the computer have been
described. From the rates of change of these
quantities and from ballistic data for the projec
tiles used, the deflection angles of the gun in ele
vation and azimuth are computed, that is, the
angular offsets between the line of sight and axis
of the gun bore in two perpendicular planes.
Each deñection angle is considered as being made
up of two parts: (1) the predicted relative an
gular motion of the target during the flight of
the projectile from the gun to the target, and
(2) the angular offset necessary to compensate
for change of trajectory of the projectile due to
“wind” acting upon it during its time of flight.
The “wind” which deflects the projectile both in
azimuth and elevation is considered to be the rel
index on said dial to match a corresponding
index on a dial 89 actuated by air speed indi
cator 99. The motion of knob 87 is introduced
into air speed resolving unit 9| by way of shaft
92, bevel gears 93, one arm of mechanical differ
ential 94 and shaft 95. This resolving unit Oper
ates on> the same principle and may be similar
in construction to the resolving unit described
in aforementioned application Serial No. 211,550.
Fig. 3 of the present application is similar to Fig.
2 of said prior application and illustrates the con
struction of the resolving unit,
The resolving mechanism as a whole is ori
ented in azimuth from gun azimuth shaft 96,
whose positioning vn‘ll be laterdisclosed, by way
of bevel gears 91, shaft 98 and worm 99 meshing
with teeth on the periphery of disc or gear 9| ' on
which the mechanism is mounted. The two com
ponent velocities into which the air speed is re
solved are those in the horizontal plane across
and along the line of fire. Shaft 95 which is
angularly displaced in accordance with the air
speed, turns shaft |16 through worm drive |15 to
position rack bar Il?, by means of pinion |16’
engaging a rack thereon, proportionally to air
speed. rThe plate | 'll' on which bar |'|1 is mount
ed is movable in guide |l'8' secured to the face
of disc 9|’ and rotating therewith. Plate |11’
ative velocity of the airplane and the air and is
has a hole engaged by a pin |78 on slider |79.
taken as numerically equal to the indicated air 30 By a. connection to differential 94 the displace
speed (IAS) shown by an air speed meter,
ment of shaft 98 is combined with that of shaft
For computing the first part of the elevation
92 to remove the effect of the turning of disc 9|',
deflection angle, rod l2', which is connected to
in azimuth, upon the position of shaft 95 and
ball carriage 22 and has a displacement propor
hence upon the radial position of rack bar |'|'|.
tional to the rate of change of elevation angle, 35 Differential 913 functions as a compensating dif
is lcaused to translate three-dimensional cam 'l2
ferential. The-slider |19 is mounted for trans
and this cam is rotated in accordance with slant
verse movement in a lateral slideway in the ver
range (Do) from shaft ‘1| through bevel gears
tically movable T-shaped member |39 through
'i3 and pinion 'I4 meshing with a gear on the
which extends an elongated pinion |8| mounted
cam. The prediction component 'of the eleva 40 on shaft |83 and meshing with rack teeth |82 on
tion deflection angle is equal to the rate of change
the rear of slider HS. -Up and down movement
of elevation angle multiplied by the time of flight
of member |89 is transmitted to a pinion |84
(T) of the projectile, and since this time may
meshing with rack teeth |85 on the rear thereof,
be taken as a function of range (Do), cam 12 is
the pinion being mounted on shaft lill. It will
positioned according to D@ and En rate to obtain
be apparent that the horizontal wind velocity
as the lift of the follower T5 the prediction angle,
introduced from shaft |76 is resolved into two
that is,
components, which, due to the orientation of
disc 9|’, are head wind and cross wind, referred
to the line of ñre. These components are both
_ functions of the azimuth angle Ag through which
This displacement is introduced by means of rack
and pinion 'F6 and shaft 'Il into one arm of me
chanical differential 18, a second arm of which
is driven in accordance with the second part of
the deflection angle, that is, the ballistic correc- "
tion, determined in a manner described herein
The azimuth prediction component of the total
azimuth deflection angle is obtained in a man
disc 9|’ is turned. The head wind or horizontal
component of the air speed along the line of fire
is obtained as a rotation of shaft |99, geared to
shaft |83, while the component across the line
of lire is taken from the resolving unit as a ro'
tation of shaft IUI. Shaft |99, through rack
and pinion |92, translates three-dimensional cam
|93 which is rotated in accordance with gun or
quadrant elevation (corrected for departure from
level by means to be described) from shaft |04,
Whose positioning will also beV disclosed later.
ner similar to the elevation prediction by trans (it)
lating three-dimensional cam 19 in accordance
with rate of change of azimuth angle from push
Cam | 03 is so laid out that the lift of its follower
rod 8i) connected to ball carriage 4|. This cam
m5 represents the ballistic correction at a fixed
is rotated in accordance with slant range (Do)
range as a function of wind velocity and eleva
from shaft 70 by way of bevel gears 8| and pinion
tion angle and to introduce the further factor of
82 which meshes with a gear 0n the cam. The
lift of cam follower 83 is the azimuth prediction
angle which is introduced into one arm of me
chanical differential 84 by way of rack and pin
variable range, cam pin |05 translates a second
three-dimensional cam M36 which is rotated in
accordance with slant range (Do) by shaft |97
driven from shaft -5| by bevel gears I B8. The
O lift of cam follower |99, positioned by cam |06,
ion 85 and shaft 86, a second arm of said differ
ential receiving the azimuth ballistic correction. is the elevation ballistic correction taking into
For computing the ballistic corrections in ele
vation and azimuth, indicated air speed (IAS) is
introduced into the computer by turning air
account head wind, quadrant elevation and
range. This lift is converted into a rotation by
means of rack and pinion |||l and introduced
speed knob 81, geared to a dial 88, to cause an 75 into mechanical differential 'I8 by means of bevel
follower |53 which is positioned by a second
three-dimensional cam |52. Cam |52 is rotated
gears ||| actuating one arm of the differential,
where it is combined with the elevation predic
from shaft lil? by way of p-inion |93’ and a gear
tion introduced by shaft 'l1 and the combined
on the cam in accordance with gun elevation (Eg)
displacement positions one arm of mechanical
(corrected for departure of the sight from a
differential H2, a second arm of which is posi
condition) and is translated in accordance
tioned by cylinder l|3 of variable speed device
with range (3D0) from shaft |61 by way of rack
Hä, this speed device functioning as a torque
and pinion i511. The lift of follower |5| on cam
läíl therefore combines functions of cro-ss Wind,
Torque or force amplification is desirable at
and range and represents azimuth bal
this stage of the computing operation since the 10 elevation
listic correction which is fed by way of rack
two components of the deflection angle (predic
and pinion |56, shaft |55, bevel gears |51 and
tion and ballistic corrections) are obtained as
shaft |5d into differential 64, Where it is com
lifts of cam followers and these followers nor
bined with the azimuth prediction angle to give
mally can exert insufñcient force to drive the
total azimuth deflection.
succeeding elements of the computing mecha 15 theFor
supplying suñicient torque to position suc
nism. The action of the variable speed device
members in accordance with total azi
l ill as a torque amplifier is as follows: Disc ||5 is
muth deflection angle, variable speed device |39
driven at a constant speed from motor 25 by
is connected to operate in a manner similar to
way of shaft 28 and gears lit. The elevation
variable speed device lid and receives the com
prediction angle introduced into differential T8
azimuth prediction and ballistic correction
as the displacement of shaft 'El and the eleva
angles from differential 3ft by way of differential
tion ballistic correction intro-duced into the same
US5 and transmits this motion as a displacement
differential by way of bevel gears HI are addi
of shaft HH, bevel gears |42 and shaft |43 to
tively combined by the differential and intro
duced into one arm of differential ||2 by gear 25 mechanical differential |124, where it is added to
the present azimuth of the target, introduced
A second arm of said differential is con
nected to cylinder H3, while the resultant dis
placement of the third arm is transmitted by
means of rack and pinion H8 and displaces ball
carriage H9. Increasing displacement of ball 30
carriage il@ from a central position causes cyl
inder l i3 to be rotated at an increasing rate un
til the rotation of the differential shaft mount
ing gear lll’ is at the same rate as that of the
shaft mounting gear lil’ by means of which the
combined prediction and ballistic corrections are
introduced into differential it?. The angular
displacement of shaft |25), mounting gear |28’
into differential It@ from shaft 33 by Way of bevel
gears M5 and shaft |45. The output of differen
tial ifiëë representing the sum of the present tar
get azimuth and the azimuth deilection angle,
i. e., the gun azimuth (Ag), is transmitted by
shaft ¿it to high and low speed gun azimuth
transmitters H38 and líiû, respectively, rotating
relative to one another at the ratio of gears |41.
As in the case of the elevation transmitters, these
transmitters are preferably of the self-synchro
nous or “selsyn” type adapted to actuate self
synchronous receivers |48’ and Mil' at the gun
or guns through suitable transmission lines.
meshing with gear H1', therefore represents the
The theory of operation of the computer in
total angular correction, and since the power for
computing ballistic correction angles is based on
driving shaft |20 comes from disc H5 by way of
the assumption that the axes of the optical sys
the balls of ball carriage ||9 and cylinder H3,
tem are truly horizontal and vertical. The effect
a considerable load may be imposed upon this
of head Wind, for example, is computed as a func
Shaft |20 by way of bevel gears |2| and shaft f; tion of the elevation of the gun from the hori
zontal~ If the craft is climbing or diving, its
|22 drives one arm of mechanical differential
axis is tilted relative to the hori
|23, a second arm of which is driven from shaft
zontal and the elevation angle fed to the ballistic
Ul by way of bevel gears |2¢l and shaft |25. lThe
computing cams, which is an angle measured
sum of the motions of shafts |25 and |"| ap
to the craft, cannot be used directly for
pears as the rotation of shaft |26 driven from
ballistic correction computation. A correction
the third arm of the differential. Since the
factor must be introduced and means for intro
motion of shaft I4 is proportional to the present
ducing this factor are provided by level knob
elevation angle of the target, the addition of
§32 geared to ball level indicato-r |33, having an
the prediction and ballistic correction angles, i. e.,
arcuate tube |34| adapted to be rotated about a
the elevation deflection angle, causes the dis
horizontal axis parallel to the craft’s lateral axis
placement of shaft |26 to be proportional to the
by rotation of knob |32` When the ball indi
angle at which the gun should be elevated (Eg).
cator |3¿l’ is not centralized, thereby indicating
The displacement of the shaft |25 is trans
that the longitudinal axis of the craft is not hori
mitted by way of bevel gears |21 and shaft |23
zontal and therefore that the sight is not level,
to high and low speed gun elevation (Eg) trans
the rotation of knob §32 necessary to bring the
mitters |29 and |35, respectively. The relative
ball to a central position is transmitted by wal7
motion of these transmitters is in a ratio deter
of shaft |35 and bevel gears |3ä5 to mechanical
mined by the ratio of spur gears ISI, for exam
differential |31, where it is added to the gun ele
ple 36:1. These transmitters are preferably of
the self-synchronous type, that is “selsyn” trans
mitters, connected by transmission lines to self
synchronous receivers |29’ and |39’ by means
of which elevation data is indicated at the gun
vation (Eg) entering the differential from shaft
i218 before the combined motion is transmitted
to the ballistic cams by shaft |04 and thereby
nism 9| as the displacement of shaft lill and
three-dimensional cam |50 is rotated in accord
ance therewith. This cam is translated by cam
If the sight is not level as shown by the posi
tion of the ball of level indicator |33, the opera
tor ûrst introduces a correction for this condi
corrects the settings of these cams. It is assumed
as before noted that the craft’s longitudinal axis
For obtaining the ballistic correction in azi- ' coincides with the flight axis, which is the axis
. along which relative wind acts.
muth, the cross wind or wind component across
rl‘he operation of the device is as follows:
the line of fire is derived from resolving mecha
tion by rotating level knob |32 to bring the ball
indicator |34’ back to a central position, and
by this operation sets into the ballistic correction
computing mechanism a compensating displace
ment by way of shaft |35, bevel gears |36 and
differential |31.
Upon sighting the target, it is assumed the
operator will be able to identify the type of plane
may then be caused to remain stationary in the
iield of view by setting in the proper elevation
rate, from which ground speed may be calculated
when altitude is known.
As many changes could bc made in the above
construction and many apparently widely diiîer
ent embodiments of this invention could be made
without departing from the scope thereof, it is
and from a table of values furnished him the
intended that all matter contained in the above
wing spread will be found. This value of wing 10 description or shown in the accompanying draw
spread is set into the computing mechanism by
ings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not
rotation of knob 55. At this time a further nec
essary preliminary operation is the matching of
in a limiting sense.
Having described our invention, what we claim
the pointer on dial 88 with the pointer on dial
and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
89 of air speed indicator 9|). The operator then 15
1. Apparatus for compensating for the effect
estimates the target azimuth and elevation an
gles, or a iirst approximation of their values may
be obtained from the pilot of the craft Who has
before him crossed lines on the front window to
of wind on a shell ñred from an airplane mount
ed gun comprising sighting and computing means
for determining a line of ñre to a target which
consists of gun elevation and gun azimuth angles,
aid in estimating these angles. The approximate 20 means positioned according to indicated air
angles are set by means of elevation displace
ment knob l and azimuth displacement knob 9,
speed, resolving means actuated thereby and ac
cording to the indicated gun azimuth angle for
respectively, Upon looking through the sight,
obtaining a measure-of component airspeed in
the target should then be in the ñeld of view
a direction perpendicular to the vertical plane
which, in a preferred form of the invention, may 25 of the gun axis, means providing a measure of
have an angular value of 18°.
target range, a mechanism actuated in acord
rl‘he target will normally appear to be moving
ance with the elevation angle of the gun in said
across the field of view and in order to maintain
plane and said measures of component wind and
the image or images centralized, the operator will
range for computing a windage correction to the
normally ñnd it necessary to manipulate both 30 azimuth aiming angle of the gun, means for regu
displacement and rate knobs, which may be done
lating the windage correction in proportion to
in the present arrangement by “double gripping”
deviation of the airplane from a level course, and
owing to the proximity of these two knobs and
means automatically correcting the azimuth an
their coaxial arrangement, With practice, al
gle for the gun relative to the line of sight in
though manipulated by one hand, the tWo knobs 35 accordance with said regulated windage correc
may be turned independently to a limited but
suiiicient extent. If a target is moving at an
2. In apparatus for applying a Windage cor
apparently steady rate across the field of view,
rection to the indicated elevation aiming angle
the setting up of suitable elevation and azimuth
of a line of ñre of an airplane mounted gun dur
rates will maintain the image centralized once 40 ing substantially level flight of the plane, means
it has been brought to this position by manipu
positioned in accordance with the indicated azi
lation of t-he two displacement knobs, When the
muth aiming angle of the gun relative to a nor
target image remains centered with respect to
mally horizontal axis of the plane, means posi
the cross hairs of reticle E', the operator sets the
tioned in accordance with a measure of the air
range by operating range displacement knob 4l 45 speed of the plane as representing relative Wind
until the Wing tips of the two target images
velocity eiîective in deliecting a projectile fired
touch, as described in aforementioned applica
from the gun, means receiving azimuth angle
tion No. 211,550.
and wind velocity from the first two means and
When the range has been set, the mechanism
supplying a measure of the horizontal component
is in a completely operative condition and correct 50 of wind velocity along the line of ñre, means posi
aiming data is supplied to the gun or guns from
tioned in accordance with the indicated gun ele
elevation transmitters |29 and |30 and azimuth
vation angle, means providing a measure of tar
transmitters M8 and |49, When range varies, a
get range, means receiving said horizontal com
constant rate of change of range is set by rotat
ponent of Wind velocity, gun elevation angle and
ing knob 52 and by “double gripping” the two 55 target range from said several means to eiiect
range knobs lll and 52, the operator will be able
automatically an offset of the indicated and gun
to keep the two images of the optical range finder
angle in elevation, which compensates for the
in their predetermined relative positions indica
joint effect of said last three received quantities,
tive of a _correct range setting.
and means for varying the gun elevation angle
Any error in the azimuth and elevation angles 60
received by the last-mentioned means in propor
transmitted to the gun or guns is directly re
tion to inclination of the longitudinal axis of the
flected in ñring errors, whereas an error in range
airplane to correct said oiïset when the airplane
introduces only a secondary error in the ballistic
is not on a truly horizontal course.
and prediction corrections.
3. An apparatus according to claim 1 in which
By suitable adjustment of the elevation, azi 65 said mechanism is actuated by means comprising
muth and range iinder controls, the apparatus
a dilîerential having a plurality of input arms,
of the present invention may be used to obtain
one of which is displaced in proportion to the in
a measure of ground speed and also to establish
dicated gun elevation angle, and another in pro
certain of the angular relationships necessary for
portion to the inclination of the longitudinal axis
aerial bombing, Thus, to use the apparatus as a 70 of the airplane.
ground speed measuring device the line of sight
4. In apparatus for applying a windage cor
is directed vertically downward by rotating prism`
| about its horizontal axis, and a suitable azi
rection to the indicated azimuth aiming angle
of a line of fire of an airplane mounted gun dur
muth angle is set in by rotating the prism about
ing substantially level -ilight of the plane, means
its vertical axis. Images of terrestrial objects 75 positioned in accordance with the indicated azi
muth angle of the gun relative to a normally
horizontal axis of the plane, means moved in
accordance with the airspeed of the plane as representing relative wind velocity effective in de
?lecting a projectile fired from the gun, means
receiving said azimuth angle and Wind velocity
from said ñrst two means and supplying as a
function or” said two quantities a measure of the
horizontal component of wind velocity across the
line of nre, means positioned in accordance with
indicated gun elevation angle, means providing
a measure of target range, a mechanism receiv
ing said wind component, gun elevation and tar
get range from said several means and actuating
wind correcting apparatus for altering the azi
muth- aiming angle of the gun in accordance with
a function of said three received quantities,
means for indicating the inclination of the lon
gitudinal axis of the airplane on departure from
level flight», and means adjustable according to
the inclination indicating rneans for Proportion
ately varying the gun elevation angle received by
said mechanism whereby a corresponding cor
rection in the azimuth aiming angle is effected.
5. In an inter-plane iire control device for an
airplane. mounted gun, a sight having members
determining a line o-f sight, means controllable at
the sight for simultaneously indicating the angles
for. guidance in positioning the gun- i-n azimuth
automatically relatively offsetting the indicated
gun elevation position angle and line of sight
in accordance with said computed correction an
gle, and means for regulating the magnitude of
the elevation angle in proportion to the inclina
tion of the longitudinal axis of the firing air
6. In an apparatus for directing fire from a
gun mounted on an aircraft and aimed at a tar
get thereby' deñning a line of fire, a computing
mechanism comprising a îirst three-dimensional
cam, means for positioning said cam in one di
mension controlled in part in accordance With
indicated gun elevation (Eg), means for con-tinuously positioning the cam in another dimeni
sion in accordance with slant range (D0), the
last-mentioned means including a variable speed
device and a control therefor for obtaining an
adjustable constant rate of change of range, a
follower for said cam, the cam being so laid out
that the lift of the follower is proportional to a
ballistic function of elevation and range, a re
solving uni-t having an output member, means
for adjusting the unit in one sense according to
a measure of wind velocity relative to the craft,
other means for adjusting the unit in a different
sense in accordance With indicated gun position
in azimuth whereby the output member is dis
placed in proportion to the horizontal component
of wind velocity across the line of ñre of the gun,
and elevation deíining a line of ñre and for 30
a second three-dimensional cam disposed so as
positioning the line of sig-ht in azimuth and ele
vation, means moved- in` accordance withv a meas
urev of airspeed of the ñring crait, a computing
mechanism having means controlled in accorde
ance with indicated gun` azimuth and elevation
angles and range and the means for setting wind
in accordance withv the measured airspeed, said
mechanism furtherl including means for deriving
from said azimuth and wind settings a head wind
component along the line of ñre and for comput
ingV a wind correction angle in indicated gun ele...
vation as a function of said head wind, range,
and said elevation angle, together with means
to 15e displaceable in one dimension by the fol
lower of the iirst cam, and in another dimension
by the output member of the resolving unit, a
follower for the second cam,l said cam being so
laid out that its follower is adjusted continuously
in proportion to the azimuth correction for the
wind component across the line of fire, and gun
angle transmitting means operatively connected
with the last-mentioned follower.
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