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Патент USA US2407682

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Sept.
1946.
‘
J, s, PARENT|
v INTERNAL-COMBUSTION
'
2,407,6$1
ENGINE
Filed Nov. 16,‘ 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
75
3'765
56
INVENTOR
Jag-177% 1.9. Pare?fz'
_ ATTORNEYS
SePt- 17, 1.946-
2,407,681
J. s. PARENT!
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed Nov. 16, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet '2
‘I
lNVENTQR
‘
’ Jase/9% 5372,7176‘
.
£4211,
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.
1’
ATTORNEYS
Sept» 17, 1946-
J. 's. ‘PARENTI
2,407,681
'
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed No'v'. 16, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTOR
Jois'epz SEn-zzfc
B
'Pyévna'
,
ATTORNEYS
'
Sept. 17, 1946. >
-- J. sfPARENTI
'
2,407,681 \
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE
- Filed Nov. ‘16, 1942
_4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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YIVNVENTO'R '
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BY
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‘ATTORNEYS
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
2,407,681
UNITED STATES ‘PATENT OFFICE‘
2,407,681
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE
Joseph s. Parenti, Bu?alo, N. Y.
Application November 16, 1942, Serial No. 465,944
17 Claims.
(Cl. 123-56)
2
1
an engine having a pair of opposed pistons which
This invention relates to internal combustion
engines.
'
are alternately coupled to the shaft so that either
'
piston is always securely coupled to the shaft,
One of the objects of this invention is to pro
vide an internal combustion engine of improved
construction.
’
the pistons also being secured to each other. A
further object is to provide a coupling mecha-1
nism for'the engine by means of which the‘pis
tons may be reciprocated in their cylinders by
rotation of the engine shaft. It is also an object
of this invention to provide a coupling mechanism
,
Another object of this invention is to‘provide
an engine of this type with‘ cylinders of improved
and simpli?ed construction. A further object of
this invention is to‘provide anengine of this type
having the heads thereof formed integral with
the cylindrical portions thereof. A further ob
ject of this invention is to provide an‘ engine
frame having cylinders mounted thereon for ex
pansion and contraction independently of the en
gine frame. A further object is to provide the
. engine frame with jackets for a cooling fluid and
extending about the cylinders, and with ?exible
heads which permit the cylinders to expand and
contract with changes in temperature.
It is also an object of this invention to provide
an engine frame or-housing having cylinders with
integral heads mounted therein and to provide the
engine frame with ?exible heads of light metal
spaced‘ from the cylinder heads to form a jacket
for cooling the ?uid, the ?exible heads of the en
gine frame compensating for expansion and con
traction of the cylinders.
It is also an object of this invention to provide
10 for an engine which causes the pistons to be
moved through their entire strokes when the
shaft is turned.
15
,
a
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal central sectional eleva
tion of an internal combustion engine embodying
this invention.
20
.
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal elevation thereof, partly
in section, and taken at a right angle to the view
shown in Fig. 1.
v
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view thereof,
on line 3-3, Fig. 2.
25
_
Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view thereof, on
line 4--4, Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary transverse section
thereof, on line 5—5, Fig, 1, on an enlarged scale.
Figs. 6 and '7 are fragmentary sectional eleva
tions thereof, taken respectively on lines 6-6 and
which the two opposed pistons may be inserted
into the engine frame and after their cylinders
1--1, Fig. 5.
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view showing the cam
portion of one of the gear shafts and a portion
of the cam plate with which‘it cooperates, for
-
A further object of this invention is to provide
an improved mechanism for connecting the pis
tons of the engine with the shaft in such a man
ner that the piston is never in dead center rela
claims.
a In the accompanying drawings:
. an engine of this type of novel construction, in
have been assembled thereon.
'
Other objects and advantages of this invention
will appear from the following description and
35
alternately locking and releasing its gear against
and for rotation about its axis‘.
a
tion to the shaft. Another object of this inven
tion is to provide an engine of this type‘in which
The engine shown in the drawings incorporates
tently coupled to and uncoupled from the shaft.
cate, the pistons being securely fastened to’
one embodiment of this invention and is of the
two-cycle type having opposed cylinders in which
the pistons are connected to the shaft by means
of oscillatory rocker arms which are intermit 40 two pistons l0 and II are arranged to recipro
gether. These pistons are arranged to recipro
cate respectively in the cylinders [21 and I3
which, in the particular construction shown, are
shaft during a fraction of each rotation of the
shaft and to disconnect the rocker arm from the 45 made of relatively thin metal and provided with
integral heads l4. These cylinders are securely
shaft during another fraction of the rotation
fastened to an engine frame orhousing 15, which
thereof. It is also an object of this invention to
may be of .any suitable or usual construction,
provide the rocker arms with gear teeth which
and which may be provided with intake passages
mesh with pinions on the shaft, which pinions are
or openings l6, which register with corresponding
alternately rotated about their axes and held
openings I‘! in the cylinders l2 and [3. ‘The
against such rotation. A further object of this
intake openings I6 and I‘! are preferably con
invention is to provide improved means for alter
nected with suitable means for supplying air
nately holding the pinions against rotation about
under pressure to the cylinders at the ends of
their axes and releasing them.
a
,
A further object of this invention is to provide ' their‘power strokes to- scavenge‘ the burnt gases
A further object is to provide accurate and re
liable means for connecting a rocker arm to the
2,407,681
3
from the pistons, and since such means are well
-which the ends 3| of the bosses or ?anges 30
known, they are not shown in the drawings. The
can pass, and ?uid-tight connections are pro
engine frame is also provided with discharge or
vided between the disks 35 and these bosses'or
exhaust openings I9, which are in registration
?anges. This is done in the construction illus
with exhaust openings 20 formed in the engine
trated by screw threads on the parts 3| of these
cylinders I2 and I3.
bosses, with which nuts 38 cooperate, and suitable
The engine cylinders with their integral heads
packing washers 39 are provided which are com
are formed separately from the engine frame and
pressed When the nuts 38 are tightened. The
may be of a different metal or alloy from that of
disks 35 of the engine frame may be provided
which the engine frame is made. The cylinders 10 with bulged out middle portions which ensure
may be secured to the engine frame in any suit
ample space between the cylinder heads l4 and
able or desired manner, and in the construction
the disk 35 of the engine frame for the circula—
illustrated, portions of the cylinders remote from
tion of cooling ?uid. Since the closure disks 35
the heads are provided with screw threads 22.
are only required to withstand the pressure of '
which engage correspondingly threaded portions 15 the cooling ?uid circulated in the jackets of the
of the engine frame. The engine cylinders may
engine, they can be made of relatively thin ma
also be provided with stop shoulders or ?anges. 23
terial, which in turn facilitates the ?exing of
at which the threads terminate and which en
these, disks.
gage with shouldered portions of the engine frame
The pistons l0 and H may be of any suitable
to correctly position the cylinders on the engin 20 or usual‘ construction, those shown having their
outer‘ or head portions rounded or bulging to ex
tend into the correspondingly rounded or bulging
that the heads. of‘ the cylinders and‘. large por
head portions M of the cylinders. Each piston
tions‘of' the cylindricalv walls thereof are spaced
is preferably provided with means for de?ecting
' from the frame [5 of the engine in such a man 25 air entering the inlet l6 toward the head of the
her as to provide jackets 25 for a cooling ?uid
cylinder, such for example. as a grooved or re
which may be circulated in any suitable or de
cessed zone or part‘ 42. at the peripheral portion
sired’ manner (not shown), and the engine frame
of the head of the piston- This air de?ecting
may also be provided‘ with additional jackets 26
groove runctions'when the piston-is'iin the ex
extending about the threaded portions of the
haust position, as the one shown in the right;
frame.
’
As a result of this construction, it will be. noted
frame and cylinders. Consequently,‘ the portions.
of the cylinders which become heated to the
greatest extent during the operation of the engine
hand side of Fig. 1, and results in'thoroughly
scavenging the burntgases' out'through the ex
haust port l9, and prevents the air entering
are entirely out of contact with the engine frame
through the‘ intake 16 from passing directly
and are in direct contact with the cooling ?uid. 35 across the cylinder to- the. exhaust port 20. Any
The heads of the cylindersmay be provided
other means for acccmplishingthis result may
with suitable threaded holes to receive spark
be employed.
plugs 28 and fuel injection nozzles 29, the latter
The two pistons I l1 and l I are rigidly connected
receiving fuel under pressure from a conduit. or
to each other in any suitable manner.
For ex
tube 30 connected with suitable fuel supply means 40 ample, inner portions of’ the pistons may be pro
(not shown). The apertures in the cylinder
vided with bifurcated extensions, each forming a
heads for the spark plugs and fuel injection
pair of legs 43, the inner ends of which have
nozzles may be surrounded by annular ?anges
?anges or lateral extensions 4'4 and 45, the ad
or bosses 3|, the purpose of which will be more
jacent end faces of‘ which may be- secured to
fully explained. These bosses preferably have 45 each other. These ?anges may be providedon
outer portions 32 of reduced diameters.
their end faces with inter?tting shoulders 46‘
It will be obvious that because of the mount
formed so that the two pistons will be positioned
ing'of the cylinders l2 and I3, the outer or head
in correct relation to each other. The ?anges
portions of these cylinders will during the oper
are provided with apertures through which bolts
ation of the engine become heated tov a much 50 41- may pass for securing the pistons together.
greater extent than the walls of the engine frame
The bifurcated extensions of‘ the pistons also
which surround these outer portions of the cyl
receive between them the shaft 50 of the engine
inders, and consequently, the cylinders will ex
and these extensions of the pistons are, conse
pand outwardly to a greater extent than the
quently, of su?icient length so that the pistons
adjacentv portions 34 of- the engine frame which 55 may reciprocate in their'cylinders without inter
extend about the outer portions of the cylinders.
fering with the centrally located shaft 50 or the
For this. reason, the open ends of the portions
parts mounted thereon.
34' of the engine frame are provided with heads
In order to provide access‘ to the pistons and
or closure disks which are su?iciently ?exible to
to the interior of the engine frame, this frame
compensate for the difference in expansion be 60 is provided at opposite sides thereof‘ with holes
tween the cylinders and the adjacent’ parts 34 of
or openings which are closed by means of suitable
the engine frame.
'
plates or. removable closure members 52 which
Any suitable ?exible closures for the engine
may be bolted or‘ otherwise secured to the engine
frame may be provided, and in the construction
frame about the openings therein. These plates
shown, I‘ have provided closure disks 35 which 65 or closure members also provide bearings for the
are made ofv relatively thin metal of‘ a nature
shaft 5|), the bearings being formed by means of
which will‘ permit ?exing of these disks to the
cylindrical portions‘ or extensions 53v of the‘ plates
extent required by the expansion and contraction
52'. The openings closed by the plates 52 are
of the cylinders. These disks are secured to the
made of a size large enough to permit the pistons
open endsv of the parts 34 of‘ the engine frame 70 to be inserted and withdrawn one at a time. In
in any suitable manner, for example, by means
order to remove the pistons from the engine, the
of bolts or screws 35, and gaskets 31 are pro
shaft 50 is’ ?rst removed‘ and the pistons‘ are then
vided to form ?uid-tight connections between the
separated :from each other by removing‘ the bolts
disks 35 and the parts'34 of the engine. The
47. One of the pistons is then moved as far as
closure disks are provided‘ with holes through
‘possible toward the head. of its‘ cylinder, and the
2,407,681
5
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other piston is moved partly into its cylinder and
then turned about its axis through about 90 de
6
bearings. Consequently, in engines as now com
monly employed, when the maximum pressure is
grees so that the legs 43 of the bifurcated portion
exerted on the piston, which is generally near
thereof can pass between the legs 43 of the other
the dead center position, comparatively little of
piston, thus permitting the' ?rst piston to_ be
this power-is converted into turning movement on
moved sidewise out of either one of the openings
the crank shaft, and when the piston reaches a
in the side of the engine frame or housing. The
position at which itspiston rod is nearly at a
other piston is then withdrawn from its cylinder
right angle to the crank, in which position it can
into a position to be moved sidewise from the
deliver the maximum torque to the shaft per
10 unit of pressure in the cylinder, this pressure in
opening in the engine frame.
In order to transmit the motion of the pistons
the cylinder has very materially decreased. By
to the shaft, a pairof rocker arms 55 and 5.6
means of the construction shown in the drawings,
are provided which extend in opposite directions
however, the pistons never occupy positions any
from the shaft and which are mounted to oscil
where near dead center with reference to ‘the
late about the axis of the shaft, the rocker arms 15 shaft 50, and consequently,.when a piston is sub—
jected to the maximum pressure, a large propor
being mounted on the shaft, one in advance of
the other lengthwise of the shaft. The outer
tion of this pressure is available for turning the
shaft. For example, in Fig. l, the piston I0 is in
ends of these rocker arms may be connected with
position to begin its power stroke and the explo
the pistons in any suitable or desired manner,
so that the straight line motion of the pistons is 20 sive mixture in the cylinder has been ignited.
The force ten-ding to move the piston ID to the
transferred to the rocker arms, the ends of which
In the construction
right in Fig. 1, consequently, delivers power ‘to
shown, the legs 43 .of the bifurcated extensions
of the pistons are slotted, as indicated at 51, to
the rocker arm 55 while the same occupies the,
position shown in Fig. 1, which is about 30 de
grees from a plane of the shaft 50 extending
move in arcs of a circle.
receive the rocker arms. The inner ends of the
bifurcated extensions of the pistons or the ‘legs
43 are provided at their meeting faces with reg
istering semi-cylindrical recesses in which bear
ings 58 may be arranged for the end portions 59
of connecting or eccentric pins. These pins have '
cylindrical portions 60 which are eccentric with
reference to the end portions 59 of the connect
ing pins. These larger cylindrical portions BB are
arranged in suitable bearings BI provided in the
ends of the rocker arms 55 and 56.
By means
of this construction, the straight line movement
of the pistons may be converted into oscillatory
swinging motion of the outer end of the con
necting rods. Any other means for transmitting
motion of the pistons to the connecting rods may 44)
be employed.
The rocker arms 55 and 56 are intermittently
connected with the shaft 50 in such a manner
transversely of the pistons and the movement of
the rocker arm 55 stops when the same has swung
to a, position 30 degrees at the opposite side of
this plane. Consequently, in this engine, the
dead center positions and all positions located
within 60 degrees of the dead center position are
eliminated, and the pistons vthus act on the shaft
in a highly advantageous manner so that a very
efficient transmission of power from the pistons
to the shaft results. While the rocker arms 55
in the construction illustrated in the drawings
move through angles of 60 degrees,it will be
obvious that it is not intended to limit this in
vention to engines operating at angles of 60 de
grees, since any angle of movement of the rocker
arms may be provided, of which 360 degrees is
the multiple. It will be noted that, in the con
struction illustrated, for each revolution of the
that during the power stroke of the piston H],
shaft, the pistons must make three reciproca~
the rocker arm 55 will be connected with the 45 tions.
1
shaft 50. Since during the power stroke of the
The mechanism herein illustrated by way of
piston ill, the piston ll passes through its com
example for alternately coupling and uncoupling
pression stroke, the other rocker arm 56 will
the rocker arms from theshaft is constructed to
be disconnected from the shaft 50. Similarly,
positively connect one of the two rocker‘ arms to
when the piston H moves through its power 50 the shaft while one piston is moving through its
power stroke and for positively disconnecting this
stroke, the rocker arm 56 will be coupled to the
rocker arm from the pistons while this piston is
shaft 50 and the other rocker arm 55 will be
moving in the opposite direction, so that the
disconnected therefrom. Any suitable or desired
, rocker arms during the power strokes of the pis
mechanism may be provided for this purpose, and
one example of a mechanism of this type will be 55 tons will each impart rotation to the shaft in
the same direction of rotation. In the construc
described. ,To facilitate the understanding of
tion shown for this purpose, the rocker arms‘are
this mechanism, the rocker arm 55 may be con
connected to the shaft by means of gears which
sidered as cooperating with the piston l 0 and the
, are locked against rotation while the rocker arm
rocker arm 56 as cooperating with the piston H.
moves in a direction to transmit power to the
In the operation of the engine as thus far de
shaft, and are released‘ for turning when the
scribed, it will be noted that the pistons when
rocker arm is moved in the reverse direction.
starting through their power stroke transmit
their power to the rocker arms while the same
are at an angle of about 60 degrees from what
would be the dead center position in engines as
now commonly constructed. Consequently, in
such prior engines, the explosion in a, cylinder
takes place approximately when the piston is ‘in
dead center position, and consequently, when the
‘gas pressure in the cylinder is at its maximum,
the piston is still so near its dead center position
that it is able’ to deliver comparatively little
torque to the shaft, and most of this pressure
and the shock resulting from the explosion must
be absorbed and taken by the crank shaft and 75
For this purpose, the portion of each rocker arm
which extends about the shaft is provided with
internal gear teeth 65 which mesh with one or
more pinions 66, three such pinions being shown
in the drawings. These pinions are rotatably
mounted in the shaft 59. For this purpose, the
shaft 50 is preferably made in two parts, which
terminate near the longitudinal center line of '
the engine and the adjacent ends of these shafts
are provided with annular enlargements 6‘! and
68. The peripheral portions of the flanges or en-v
largements 61 and 68 are recessed to receive the
portions of the rocker arms 55 and 56 which ex
2,407,681
7
portions 83 of’the stationary cam-as indicated
tend; about the shaft, and to. space these rocker
arms from each- other, I preferably employ a
spacer or partition plate 69 which is placed be
tween the adjacent ends of the flanges or enlarge
ments and’ the peripheral portions of which ex
lay-broken linesin- Fig.6.,
'
I
~
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'
Each of the two stationary cam plates 80 is so
positioned relatively to the other stationary cam >
that when one set of pinions‘ is held, against. ro
tation by the cylindrical portion 82 of one cam
tendv between the two rocker arms 55 and 56.
End thrust bearing rings 69a are preferably pro—
plate 80, the other set. of pinions is free. to: r0.
vided‘ at. the outer faces of the annular portions
tate in a. recessed portion 83 of the other Sta
tionary cam. In other words, when the pinion
of the rocker arms 55 and 56. Any suitable
means may be provided for connectingthe two 10 cams 18 of one set of pinions geared to rocker
flanges or enlargements of the two partsof the
arm 55 are in sliding contact with the cylindri
cal portions 82 of one stationary cam plate so
shaft 50, such for example: as bolts or screws ‘It,
that these pinionsv are held against rotation, the
and one of the two parts of the shaft 50 may be
provided with a central or axial stud or integral
other set. of pinions geared to the other rocker
projection 12. which extends into. an accurately
arm 56, willbe free to, rotate, since their cams, 18
will have, slid. along the. cylindrical portions 82; 0f
formed axial hole in the other part of the shaft,
the cam plate so. as to be in, the recessed, portions
so; that the; two parts of the shaft will be accu
ratelyalined axially.
83 of the other stationary cam. It will, conse
quently, be obvious that one of the two rocker
The, pinions 55 are provided with shafts 14
which are suitably journalled in. the flanges til 20 arms 55v and 56 will. alwaysbe coupled to the. shaft
51!, so that in theparticul'ar construction illus
and 68 of the shaft, for example, in. bearings 15
formed’ in these ?anges, one set of pinions being
trated, in which the rocker arms swing, in,v arcs
provided for each flange. Preferably, additional
bearingv supports are provided. for the pinions,
this being done by means of bearing studs 16, Fig.
5,. which are preferably secured, to the spacing
of, 60 degrees, each reciprocation 0f the pistons
25
advances the shaft through 120 degrees.
‘
~ The cam face‘ 86 of the pinion shaft is prefer
ably also provided with a cam groove or depres.
sion 8.? which extends rearwardly from the axis
plate or disk 69 and these studs enter into holes
of rotation 88 of the pinion shaft, see, Fig. 8. This
bored-coaxially into. the shafts. ‘£4 with the pin
ions 66. The pinions 66 are preferably arranged
cam groove 87? is so formed thatfas the cam mem
in ‘pairs which are in axial ali-nement with each 30 ber ‘is swings out of a recessed portion. 83, of the
stationary cam 89, the edge portion ‘89. 0f the
other, one pinion of each pair meshing with the
stationary cam remainginv contact with the sur
internal gear, teeth of one. of the rocker arms,
and, the other pinion cooperating with the other
face of the cam groove until the cam surface 84
contacts with the concentric or cylindrical face
rocker arm, and» consequently, each stud ‘i5 may
enter into the adjacent ends of tWo pinions, one
82 of the stationary cam. 90 represents the axis
of. which pinionsis journalled in theflange 6?’, the
other pinion being journalled in the ?ange $8.
The outer ends of the shafts 14 connected with
the pinions B6 are provided, with cams 13 which,
of the shaft 58 in Fig. 8.
.
-In the operation of the mechanism described,
it will be noted that as a rocker arm begins its re
turn swing during, the compression stroke, of its
in, thev construction shown, are integral with the 40 piston, the cams T8 of the three pinion shafts con,
nected with this rocker arm begin their rotation
pinions and their shafts ‘l1! and these cams are
arranged to cooperate with stationary’ cam plates
Within the recesses 83, As the rocker arm ap
proaches the end of its compression swing, the
80 which, in, the construction shown, are secured
to thestationary closure members 52-of the en
edge portion 89 of the stationary cam enters the
gine frame, for example, by means of bolts or its groove 81 before this swing of the rocker arm, is
screws 8!. These. stationary cams have cylindri
completed. If there should be a tendency of the
piston not to return to its outermost position, or
cal» portions 82 which are concentric with the
shaft 50 and between these cylindrical portions
in other Words, if the piston tends to, stop before
of the. cams are recesses 83 extending inwardly
it has, reached the intended end of its compression
from the. inner peripheries of the cams. As
stroke, then pressure will be exerted by the edge
clearly shown in Figs. 6 to 8, the cam portions 18
portion. 89 against a portion of the groove 8.‘! to
of the pinion shafts 14 are each provided with
turn the cam 18 into position to have its face 84
one face. 84 which has, substantially the same ra
lie on the cylindrical face 82, of the stationary
dius of curvature as the cylindrical portionsg82
cam. This pressure willincrease as the edge 89
of the cam plate 80., so that the. face 84 of each 55 engages parts. of the groove 81 further removed
pinion cam 18 may engage with the cylindrical
from the center of rotation 88 ‘of the pinion shaft
portions 82 .of the stationary cam plate 80 and
and will force. the piston into its outermost posi
slide along these surfaces 82. It will be obvious
tion. vIf the piston tends to movev beyond this
that when. the cam faces 84 and 82 arev in sliding
position, then it will be stopped at its outermost
engagement, the pinions 66 will be held against 60 position by the engagement of the face 34 of the
cam 78 with the cylindrical portion 82 of the sta
rotation about their own axes, and when so held,
tionary cam. Other means for coupling and un
the rocker arm connected with these pinions is
coupling. the. rocker arms, to and from the shaft
coupled to the shaft 50 so as to transmit power
may be provided.
'
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'_
thereto from an engine piston, or if the engine
The engine may be lubricated in any desired
is being started or cranked by turning the shaft
manner, no lubricating means being shown in the
58, power will be transmitted from the shaft to
drawings. Also any suitable means ‘may be pro
the pistons.
.
.
vided for directing'a cooling, fluid, through the
When the cam portion 18 of thepinion shafts
move into positions at the cut-out portions 83 of 70 jackets of the engine and for cooling any parts
of the engine requiring cooling, such means being.
the stationary cam plateBU, it will be obvious
omitted
from the drawings to avoid confusion.
that the cam portions 78 then release their pin
By means of the mechanism described, it will
ions 66, so that the same may rotate about their
be obvious that the pistons will at all times be
axes and this rotation causes the cam portions .
coupled to the shaft either through the rocker
l8 of the piston shafts to swing into the recessed 75 arm 55 or through the rocker arm 56, and. this
2,407,681
10
coupling is positive so that the shaft 50 may be
rotated for ‘the purpose of starting or cranking
the engine, and so that the shaft ‘50 will at‘all
times be in synchronism with the pistons. This
ensures the positive stroke of each piston so that
uniform compression will result, Another advan
tage of this arrangement is that the timing mech
anisms for fuel injection, ignition, etc., may be
and provided at their adjacent portions with ‘
oppositely spaced legs, means for securing the
legs of one piston to the legs of the other pis
ton‘ for rigidly securing said pistons to each
other, a shaft extending between the legs of said
pistons, arms extending in opposite directions
from said shaft and connected with said pistons
to cause the reciprocatory motion of said pistons
to alternately swing said arms in opposite direc
driven from the engine shaft, as has heretofore
been customary in connection with crank shaft 10 tions about saidv shaft and in opposite directions ,
engines.
‘ ‘The engine described has the advantage that
power generated in the cylinders by the combus
to each other, and means for coupling said arms
to said sh'aft when they move in the direction
of rotation of said shaft and for uncoupling said
arms from said shaft when they move in the op
tion of the fuel will be transmitted to the shaft
50 much more efficiently than in engines hereto 15 posite direction.
5. An engine having oppositely disposed pis
fore in general use. As a result of this construc
tons and provided at their adjacent portions with
tion, a relatively short stroke may be employed,
oppositely spaced legs, means for securing the
and the movement of the pistons will be more re
legs of one piston. to the legs of the other piston
sponsive to the pressures of the burning gases,
since movement of the pistons will not be delayed 20 for rigidly securing said pistons to each other,
a shaft extending between the legs of said ‘pis
by the crank shaftrpositions at and near dead
tons, rocker arms arranged about said shaft, one
center. The more rapid travel of the pistons and
of said rocker arms being connected with said
the shorter stroke will result in the discharge of
piston at one side of said shaft and th'eother
the burned gases more rapidly so that less of the
heat will be transmitted to the parts of the en 25 rocker arm being connected with said piston at
the other side of said shaft, to cause reciproca
gine. As a result of these various features, the
tion of said pistons to swing said arms about said
engine herein described is more efficient than
shaft, and means for operatively connecting one
engines of the type now commonly used.
of said arms to said shaft during‘ the power stroke
It will, of course, be obvious that the coupling
and uncoupling mechanisms herein described may 30 of one piston and for operatively connecting the
other arm to said shaft during the power stroke
be used in connection with engines of different
of the other piston, said means disconnecting
construction from the one herein illustrated.
said arms from said shaft when their pistons
V I claim as my invention:
move in their compression strokes.
'
1. An engine including a pair of oppositely dis
6.
An
internal
combustion
engine
having
op-,
posed pistons rigidly connected with each other,
posed cylinders, a, piston in each‘ cylinder, said
pistons being secured to each other, a shaft lo
cated intermediate of said pistons, and two con
one end thereof mounted to oscillate about said
nections between said shaft and said pistons, one
shaft and having the other end connected to said
pistons, means for coupling one of said rocker 40 connection being coupled with said shaft during
the power stroke of one piston and the other
arms to said shaft during the power strokes of one
connection being connected with said shaft dur
of said pistons and for coupling the other rocker
ing the power stroke of said other piston, said
‘arm to said shaft during the power stroke of the
connections being uncoupled from said shaft
other piston, and means for uncoupling said
a shaft, a pair of rocker arms extending in oppo
site directions from said shaft and each having
rocker arms from said shaft during the compres
sion strokes of their pistons,
2. An engine including a pair of oppositely dis
posed pistons having their adjacent ends bifur
45 when their pistons move through their compres
sion strokes, and turning said shaft through less
than one-half revolution during each power
stroke.
7. An internal combustion engine including a
frame, a pair of opposed cylinders mounted on
cated and secured together, a shaft extending
through said bifurcated ends of said pistons, 50
said frame, pistons arranged to reciprocate in
rocker arms mounted to swing about said shaft
said-cylinders and having the ends adjacent to
and extending in opposite directions therefrom
each other bifurcated to form a pair‘of legs on
and having their outer ends connected with said
each piston, means for securing said legs to
pistons, and coupling means for alternately cou
pling and ‘uncoupling said rocker arms to said 55 gether, a shaft extending between said legs, a
driving connection between said pistons and said
shaft, one rocker arm being coupled to said shaft
shaft, said frame being provided with openings
when said pistons move in one direction and the
at opposite sides thereof, and closure members
other rocker, arm being coupled to the shaft when
removably secured to said frame for closing said
said pistons move in the other direction.
' 3. An engine having oppositely disposed pistons 60 openings and having, bearings for said shaft.
and provided at their adjacent portions with op
8. An internal combustion engine including a
positely spaced legs, means for securing the legs
frame, a pair of opposed cylinders mounted on
of one piston to the legs of the other piston for
said frame, and having heads formed integral
rigidly securing said pistons to ‘each other, a shaft
therewith, pistons arranged to reciprocate in said
extending between the legs of said pistons, arms 65 cylinders and having the ends adjacent to each
extending in opposite directions from said shaft
other bifurcated to form a pair of legs on each
and connected with said pistons to cause the re
piston, means for securing said legs together, a
ciprocatory motion of said pistons to alternately
shaft extending between said legs, a driving con
swing said arms in opposite directions about said
shaft and in opposite directions to each other, 70 nection between said pistons and said shaft, said
frame being‘ provided with openings at opposite
and means for alternately coupling said arms to
sides thereof, of sufficient size to permit said pis
said shaft and uncoupling said arms from said
tons when separated from each other to be re
shaft, one of said arms being coupled to the.
moved th'rough said openings, and closure mem
shaft while the other arm is uncoupled therefrom.
4. An engine having oppositely disposed pistons 75 bers removably secured to said frame for closing
11
.
said openings and through which said snaite'x
tends.
'
9. An internal combustion engine having a pair
of opposed pistons, a shaft, a pair of arms mount
ed to oscillate about said, 'shaft'a‘nd connected
with said pistons to be oscillated thereby, and
7‘ coupling means alternately positively connecting
and disconnecting said arms from said shaft to
transmit movement of the pistons to said shaft,
whereby turning of said shaft produces recipro 10
catory movement of said pistons.
,
.
.
1'2
,
.
153."Th‘e combination with an internal combus
tion engine having opposed 're'ciprocatory ‘pistons
-
havmg spaced legs ‘secured to each "other, a ‘shaft
extending between said. spaced legs, a pair for
rocker arms mounted to oscillate about said vshaft
and extending from opposite sides of saids'lraft
and connected with ‘saidpistons for oscillation
of said rocker arms by said pistons, gears ?xed
on said ‘rocker arms, pinions ‘j-ournalled ‘on said
shaft, one of said pinions meshing with th'ejgear
of one rocker arm and the other ,pinion meshing
with the gear of ‘the ‘other rocker 'arm, cams
10.’ In an internal combustion engine, ‘the com
bination of a pair of opposed ‘pistons, said pis
tons having legs at the portions adjacent to each
other and which are secured toge‘ther't'o ‘rigidly
connect said pistons with each other, a shaft
‘extending into said frame and passing between
cooperating with ‘said pinions 'for alternately
holding said pinions against rotation about their
axes'a‘nd‘for releasing said ‘pinions to rotate about
their axes, said cams being timed to cause one
pinion to be locked while the other is released,
a pinion being locked While the‘rocker ‘arm con
neoted therewith is actuated by the poweristroke
extending from one side of said shaft and being 20 of one piston and the other ‘pinion being locked
connected for cooperation with one ‘or said pis
while the other arm is actuated by the power
tons and‘the other ‘rocker arm extending from
stroke of the other piston.
the other side of ‘said shaft and being connected
14. The combination with an internal combus
for codperation‘with the other piston for oscil
tion engine having opposed reciprocatory pistons
lation of said rocker armsby the reciprocation
having spaced legs secured to each other, a shaft
of said pistons, and a cam actuated mechanism
extending between said spaced legs, a pair of
said legs, a ‘pair of rocker arms arranged ‘to ‘os
cillate about said shaft, one of said rocker arms
‘for alternately coupling ‘said rocker arms to said
shaft and ‘for simultaneously coupling one rocker
arm and uncoupling the other rocker arm, for
transmitting power from said pistons "to said
shaft.
’
'
’
.
rocker arms mounted to oscillate about said shaft
and extending from opposite sides of said shaft
and connected with ‘said pistons for oscillation
30 of said rocker arms by said .pistons, said rocker
arms being provided with internal gear teeth ar
'
'11‘. 'The' combination with an :internal com
ranged ‘in ?xed relation thereto, pinions jour
bustion engine having opposed 'reciprocatory pis
tons having spaced legs ‘secured to each other, a
shaft extending‘ between said spaced legs, a pair
of ‘rocker arms inbu‘nted ‘to oscillate about said
shaft and extending 'froi'n ~opposite ‘sides of said
shaft ‘and cdnheoted'with said pistons ‘for oscil
lation of said rocker arms by said pistons, ‘gears
on said'reeksr ‘arms concentric with 's‘aid’sha'ft,
pinions iournaued onsaid shaft and meshing
with said gears, and ‘means'for alternately stop
ping the rotation of said pinions about their
nalled on said shaft in eccentric relation thereto,
one of said pinions meshing with the teeth of one
rocker arm, and the ‘other pinion meshing with
the teeth of the other rocker arm, and cam means
for alternately locking one pinion against rota
tion about its axis ‘while the other pinion is free
to rotate about its axis, said ‘cam means being
40 timed .to lock ‘the pinion connected with one
rocker arm againstrotation While one of said
pistons moves through its power stroke and for
axes and re1easi'ng them "for said rotation, the
pinions driven‘by one ro'ciker arm being held
against ‘said ‘rotation ‘while one or ‘said lpist'ons
a.
whereby said rocker arms are alternately cou
pled to said shaft through said gear teeth and
is moving “through its power stroke and the "pin
pinion.“
ions driven by the other rocker arm being "held
against rotation when “the ‘other piston is'moving
through its power stroke, to transmit power 'frem
saidfro‘ck‘er arms through ‘said gears and ‘pinions
to ‘said shaftvduring the power strokes of said
pistons.
locking the other pinion against rotation when
the other piston moves through its power stroke,
7
15. The combination with an internal combus
tion ‘engine having opposed reciprocatory pistons
having-spaced legs secured to each other, a shaft
extending between said spaced legs, a pair of
rocker arms mounted to oscillate about said shaft
'
and extending from opposite sides of said shaft
and connected with said pistons for oscillation
12.‘ The combination with an ‘internal combus
tion engine having opposed re'ciproc'atory pistons 55 of said rocker arms by saidpistons, each of said
having spaced ‘legs ‘secured to each other, a shaft
rocker arms having vagear ?xed thereto, pinions
extending'between- said spaced legs, a pair ‘of
journalled ‘on said shaft, in eccentric relation
thereto, one'of said pinions meshing iwith'the gear
rocker arms mounted 'to-oscillate about said shaft
and extending from opposite sides of said shaft
of one of said‘ rocker arms, and the other pinion
and connected with said pistons for oscillation 60 meshing with the gear of .the other rocker arm, a
of said rocker arms by said pistons, a gear ?xed
cam ‘arranged in ?xed relation to reach ‘of said
on each rocker arm, a pinion journalled on said
pinions to ‘rotate therewith, a pair of stationary
shaft and, meshing with one of said gears, and
cams, one of which cooperates with the cam of
another pinion journalled on said shaft and
‘one of said pinions and the other of which :00
meshing with the other gear, means for locking 65 operates with the cam of the other pinion, said
the pinion connected with one of said rocker
stationary and pinion cams operating to inter
arms against rotation while the pinion connected
mittently lock said pinions against rotation about
with the other rocker ‘arm is free to revolve and
their axesandfto ‘release said pinions for rotation
while one of said pistons is moving through its
about their axes, said {cams being timed to lock
power stroke, and means ‘for reversing .the locking‘
the pinion connected‘with vonefo‘f-said arms While
and releasing of said pinions while the ‘other pis
one of said pistons moves through its power
ton islmoving through its power stroke,‘ whereby
sai'dpistons are at'all times positively connected
stroke anjdto lock'theothje'r pinion against ‘rota;
tion "while ‘the other piston ‘movesthrough ‘it's
in .driving relation to saidjshaftgthrough said
pinions when locked. '
'
“
'
75
p'dweristroke;
V
j
‘j
.,
._
.
16. An internal combustionengine#havin'g'op
13
2,407,681
posed cylinders, pistons arranged to reciprocate
therein and secured to each other, a rotary shaft,
a pair of arms arranged to swing about said shaft
and extending in opposite directions therefrom
and connected with said pistons to convert re
ciprocatory motion of said pistons to oscillatory
14
therein and secured to each other, a rotary shaft,
a pair of arms arranged to swing about said shaft
and extending in opposite directions therefrom
and connected with said pistons to convert re
5 ciprocatory motion of said pistons to oscillatory
swinging motion of said arms, each of said arms
swinging motion of said arms, each of said arms
having a gear arranged in ?xed relation thereto,
having a gear arranged in ?xed relationthereto,
pinions journalled on said shaft to‘rotate about
pinions journalled on said shaft to rotate about
axes spaced from the axis of rotation of said
axes spaced from the axis of rotation of said
shaft, one pinion meshing with the gear of one
shaft, one pinion meshing with one gear of one
of said arms and the other pinion meshing with
of said arms and the other pinion meshing with
the gear of the other arm, each pinion having a
the gear of the other arm, each pinion having a
cam rotatable therewith, a pair of ?xed cams,
cam rotatable therewith, a, pair of ?xed cams,
one of said cams cooperating with one of ‘said
one of said cams cooperating with the one of said 15
pinions
and the other cam cooperating with the
pinions and the other cam cooperating with
other pinion, the faces of said stationary cams
the other pinion, the faces of said stationary
and of the pinion cams cooperating therewith
cams and of the pinion cams cooperating
being formed to hold said pinions against rota
therewith being formed to hold said pinions
tion about their axes while the arms geared‘
_ against rotation about their axes while the arms 20 thereto are moved by the power strokes of the
geared thereto are moved by the power strokes
pistons, and to permit rotation of said pinions
of the pistons and to permit rotation of said
while the arms geared thereto are moved by the
pinions while the arms geared thereto are moved
compression strokes of said pistons, a cam groove
by the compression strokes of said pistons, and
on each pinion cam arranged near and at one
additional faces on said stationary and ?xed cams 25
side of the axis of rotation thereof, and a pro
which engage during rotation of said shaft, to
rotate ‘said pinions during the ?nal portion of
the movement of said pistons in their compres
sion strokes in a direction to move said pistons
jection on each stationary cam which enters said
cam groove during the ?nal rotation of the pinion
cam to exert pressure on the pinion cam in a
direction to positively force the pinion to com
. through said portions of their compression 30
plete its rotation and thereby ensure the move
strokes.
ment of the piston connected therewith to the
17. An internal combustion engine having op
end of its compression stroke.
posed cylinders, pistons arranged to reciprocate
I
JOSEPH S. PARENTI.
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