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Патент USA US2407686

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Sept. 17, 1946.
> c. F. RUDOLPH
2,407,685
I FLUORESCENT LI.GHT CONTROL
Filed Aug. 3, 1943
2 Sheets-She'et 1
INVENTOR.
,
Corrie E Rudolph
BY
v
AttO/‘Jiff
V.
'
Sept. 17, 1946.
' c_ F, RUDQLPH
'
2,407,685
FLUORESCENT LIGHT CONTROL
Filed Aug. 3, 1945
I
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
/70
_ INVENTORL: '~
Corrie E’ Rudolph
BY
Attorney
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
2,407,685
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,685
FLUORESCENT LIGHT CONTROL
Corrie F. Rudolph, Washington, D. C.
Application August 3, 1943, Serial No. 497,275
8 Claims.‘ (Cl. 315-62)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757) V
1
.
This invention relates to a voltage control for
gaseous discharge lamps which are designed for
production of ?uorescent radiation for general
lighting.
.
The principal object of my invention is to pro
vide means in a ?uorescent tube to eliminate
from 125 to 325 Volts, depending on age, gas con
tent and temperature of tube for initial starting
and approximately 100 to 108 volts for running
condition. This change in voltage from 325 volts
to 100 volts should automatically follow the
changing resistance characteristics of the gas
within the ?uorescent lamp during the transition
sources of frequent failures to start, burned out
ballasts, blackened tubes and radio interference
from a cold gas to a completely ionized condi
due to failure to start.
tion. The required voltage regulation was ob
Another object of my invention is to provide 10 tained by utilizing the temperature resistance
an arrangement of ?uorescent illuminating tube
characteristics of the tungsten ?lament of an
system in which potentials may be established at
incandescent lamp incorporated in the control
opposite terminals internally of the tube with
circuit of the ?uorescent lamp, and in conjunc
out regard to the completeness of the conven
tion with an inductive device the windings of
tional cathode or ?lament circuit normally pro 15 which are so arranged to produce full line volt
vided in such fluorescent tubes.
age on the incandescent lamp, thus obtaining
Still another object of my invention is to pro
its full value as a light source and thereby reduc
vide a circuit arrangement for operating ?uores
ing the overall strob-oscopic eifect, This type of
cent tubes in a manner in which conventional
control will permit wide ?uctuations in line volt
?uorescent tubes having internal cathodes which 20 age, selective control of light intensity by means
have been burned out and which normally render
of switching connections or change in wattage of
such tubes worthless, may be so arranged in an
ballast lamps (incandescent lamp). In the cir
electrical power supply circuit as to enable the
cuit herein described the wattage and light in
?uorescent tube to be usefully employed through
tensity of the ?uorescent lamp varies directly
out an additional period of illuminating life.
25 with the wattage of the ballast lamps. The per
Other and further objects of my invention re
centage of watts lost in the inductive device de
side in the structural means by which conven
scribed herein is approximately 80% less than the
tional ?uorescent tubes may be converted for use
present commercial chokes used with starter but
ful operation over an additional period of illumi
ton type of controls.
nating life as set forth more fully in the speci?ca 30
The windings of the inductive device are so
tion hereinafter following by reference to the ac
arranged that the inductance of the primary and
companying drawings in which:
secondary practically cancel each other under
Fig. 1 is a circuit diagram showing the im
proved circuit arrangement for ?uorescent tubes
arranged in accordance with my invention; Fig. 2
running condition resulting in a near unity power
factor, neglecting the intermittent phase dis
placement due to distortion of the wave form by
the tube itself.
Since the starting current is less than running
current, failure of the lamp to start or neglect
is a schematic view showing a ?uorescent tube
mounted in a manner employing the principles
of my invention; Fig. 3 is a view through one of
the supporting tube socket members or cases
to replace a defective lamp cannot injure the con
showing the conversion means I employ for uti 40 trol. Maintenance costs are therefore substan
lizing ?uorescent tubes heretofore burned out and
tially limited to the item of lamp replacements.
The control described herein is designed to
discarded; and Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional
view substantially on line 4-4 of Fig. 2 showing
the portions of the tube cathode or ?lament which
are employed in the system of my invention
wholly as a discharge anode.
In order that the above objects may be realized
it is considered necessary to eliminate the usual
starter button, and its associated ?laments with
in the ?uorescent lamp, power factor correction .
condensers and all auxiliary breaks in the circuit
after having energized the circuit. With the
above devices eliminated, the voltage regulation
requirements for a standard commercial 40 watt
vfluorescent lamp with 115 volt A. C. line will range
operate present commercial general lighting
?uorescent tubes, having their ?laments short
circuited in the tube socket, thus functioning as
a cold electrode. Only one terminal is needed
and a simpli?ed equivalent electrode within the
?uorescent lamp may be used and accordingly
burned out ?laments will not make the lamp in—
operative. The inductive device described here
in consists of a closed iron core transformer, of
the low loss, non-saturated core type. The pri
mary and secondary winding are wound continu—
ously with tap as shown and when connected
as shown in the circuit diagram of Fig. 1 will
2,407,685
3
4
‘function as a step-up transformer in combination
with a gaseous discharge tube having a negative
resistance temperature coe?‘icient, entirely con
trolled by the resistance through the gaseous path
within the ?uorescent lamp. Success in starting
'
.
nected in the power supply circuit as represented
in Fig. 1.
I may provide a condenser 22 shown in shunt
0
connection with the terminals leading to the
?uorescent tube. This small condenser, arranged
as shown, eliminates the ?uorescent tube as a
and operating ?uorescent lamps which have
source of radio interference. "Some ?uorescent
failed in the :ordinary commercial control is at
tubes have a tendency to ‘emit radio frequency
tributed primarily to the continuous 60 cycle
energy with a 60 cycle modulation superimposed
starting current. The intermittent starting cycle
of the ordinary commercial control permits the 10 thereon. This is a continuous phenomenon un
related to radio interference due to starting con
gas within the ?uorescent lamp to cool between
ditions to which I have heretofore referred.
starting impulses, thus necessitating the prema
.By virtue of ‘the direct connection to the oath
ture discard of the lamp.
odes or ?laments in the opposite ends of the
Referring to the drawings in detail, the ?uo
rescent lamp of conventional construction is in
dicated by reference character I associated in
?uorescent tube, I am able to utilize ?uorescent
electrical circuit with an iron core transformer
or inductive device 2. The iron core transformer
or inductive device 2 includes an iron core which
carries an auto-transformer circuit including a 20
lamps which have already served their useful
life but in which the cathodes or ?laments have
burnedlopen. ‘Inasmuch as a series path through
the cathode or ?lament is unnecessary to the
operation of the tube system of my invention as
‘primary winding 3 and a secondary winding 4.
an illuminating means, I am able to economi
The primary ‘winding 53 ‘is connected ‘to the con
ventional power supply 'line 5. The power supply
cally extend the life of ?uorescent tubes almost
inde?nitely. Moreover burned out tubes here
‘line ‘is indicated as including an incandescent
tofore used in conventional circuits may now ‘be
lamp bank, ‘heater elements or motor represented 25 used in ‘the system of my invention over an i‘addi
tional period of useful life.
at 6. A switch is provided, including a switch
Switch con
While I have described my invention in one of
tact ‘I is arranged for low intensity light opera
tion. Switch contact 8 is arranged for high in
:its preferred embodiments, I desire that it ‘be
understood that modi?cations may be made and
arm 9, and switch contacts ‘I and 8.
‘tensity light ‘operation.
.
30 I intend no limitations upon my invention ‘other
than may be imposed by the scope of the ap
The conventional ?uorescent lamp which is
represented as having terminal posts I‘! and I8
projecting from each end thereof and normally
connected in circuit with the tube ?laments or
cathodes 2‘I arranged internally of each end of
the tube. An arc shield I9 is arranged in the
end of the tube on one side of the ?lament 2|
pended claims.
'
The invention described herein may be manu
factured and used by or for the Government of
the United States of America for governmental
purposes without the payment of any royalties
thereon or therefor.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
"and a complementary arc shield 20 is arranged
Letters Patent of the United States is as ‘follows:
‘in the end of the tube on the opposite side of
40
'1. A voltage control for a gaseous discharge
the ?lament 2| as represented in Fig. 4.
The ‘terminal posts I‘! and I8, projecting from
the opposite ends of the tube, are engageable in
socket members or cases I0 arranged to insulat
ingly mount the ?uorescent tube with respect to
'abase plate or ‘mounting ?xture II. Each of the 45
socket members or cases It! form housings for
tube having a negative resistance temperature
c'oe?icient, comprising in combination with a
gaseous discharge tube having a negative resist
"ance temperature coefficient, an inductive device
and. an incandescent lamp having a positive re
sistance temperature coe?icient for the purpose
of providing starting and running voltages for
said tube, said ‘inductive device being provided
‘with primary ‘and secondary windings arranged
I3 are mounted in the socket members or cases 50 ‘so that the primary winding will react ‘upon the
secondary winding during ‘starting to produce
I0 terminating in terminal posts It and I5 as
necessary starting voltages and the secondary
"shown.
‘
winding to react upon the primary winding dur
Ordinarily electric circuit connections are
taken from the separate and insulatingly sup
ing running 'to counteract the inductance of the
ported terminal posts l4 and IE to the starting 55 primary winding plus D. C. resistance of the
primary winding and thereby produce full line
and running circuit of the ?uorescent lamp. In
voltage on the incandescent lamp for the purpose
the ‘system of my invention, however, I entirely
of obtaining full illumination from the incan
depart from the conventional practice of estab
contact springs ‘I2 and I3 which are shaped for
engagement ‘with the terminal posts [I and I8 of
the ?uorescent tube. The contact springs I2 and
descent lamp and consequent reduction in over
lishing circuit connections to each of the ter
I
minal posts I4 and I5 for forming a series circuit 60 all stroboscopic effect.
2. A gaseous discharge tube system comprising
through the cathodes or ?laments I2 at each
a gaseous discharge tube having a pair of pin
end of the ?uorescentv tube. In lieu of such sep
terminals projecting from each end thereof,
arate connection, I provide a short circuiting
cathodes disposed interiorly of the ends of said
bus connection between terminal posts i4 and
tube and connected with said pin terminals, sock
I5. I have shown this short circuiting connec
et devices for mechanically engaging ‘said pin
tion provided by means of lengths of wire 23
terminals, a pair of contact members in each of
and 24 which are fastened beneath the heads of
said socket devices for establishing electrical con
the screws forming the terminal posts I4 and I5
nection with said ‘pin terminals, a bus permanent- “
and brought up through the aperture 25 in the 70 1y connected between each of saidpai'r of con
base plate or support II and twisted together as
tact members for continuously short circuiting
represented at I6, forming a short circuit across
said contact members independently of whether
the ends of the ?laments or cathodes. The
the pin terminals of said tube are engaged in said
shunted ends of the ?lament through the short
‘socket device or not, ‘an alternating current power
circuit connection I6 are then electrically con 75 supply source, and a device having a positive
2,407,686
3
temperature coefficient of resistance, said device
being an inductive device connected in circuit
with said power supply source and connected
through said bus with the short circuited ter
minals of said gaseous discharge tube.
3. A gaseous discharge tube system comprising ,
tapped intermediate the ends thereof, an incan- ,
descent lamp load, a series path from said power
source through the tapped connection to said
reactor and through one end of said reactor to
said incandescent lamp load returning to said
power source, the ?uorescent lamp having an
electrode in each end thereof, a connection be
a gaseous discharge tube having a pair of‘ pin
tween one of said electrodes and the opposite‘
terminals projecting from each end thereof,
end of said reactor, a connection between the
cathodes disposed interiorly of the ends of said
tube and connected with said pin terminals, 10 other of-said electrodes to a selector switch and
contacts for said selector switch on opposite sides
socket devices for mechanically engaging said pin
of said incandescent lamp load for selectively
terminals, 2. pair of contact members in each of
establishing connection from the‘ last mentioned
said socket devices for establishing electrical con
electrode of said ?uorescent lamp with one side
nection with said pin terminals, a shunt connec
tion permanently interconnecting each of said 15 of said alternating current power source or with
the said side of said power source through said
pair of contact members, an alternating current
alternating current incandescent lamp load.
power supply source, a device having a positive
temperature coet?cient of resistance, an induc
6. A ?uorescent light control comprising a
?uorescent light circuit, an incandescent lamp
tive device including a pair of series connected.
windings, both of said devices being connected 20 designed for operation at full line voltage from
in circuit with said power supply source and
connected permanently ‘with said shunt con
'
an alternating current power supply source, an
impedance in series with said incandescent lamp
and with said alternating current power supply
nections
source, said impedance being automatically neu
4. A gaseous discharge tube system compris
ing a gaseous discharge tube having a pair of pin 25 tralized by the current in the ?uorescent light
circuit to cause the incandescent lamp to burn
terminals projecting from each end thereof,
at rated voltage, and to provide starting and
cathodes disposed interiorly of the ends of said
running voltage and current for the ?uorescent
tube and connected with said pin terminals, sock
light.
et devices for mechanically engaging said pin
7. A ?uorescent light control comprising a
terminals, a pair of contact members in each of 30
said socket devices for establishing electrical I ?uorescent light circuit, an incandescent lamp
designed for operation at full line voltage from
connection with said pin terminals, a shunt con
an alternating current power supply source, an
nection connected between each of said pair of
impedance in series with said incandescent lamp,
contact members, an alternating current power
said impedance being automatically‘neutralized
supply source, an inductive device including a
by the inductive effect of the current in the
pair of windings, a load, a connection between
?uorescent light circuit to cause the incandescent
said power supply source through said load to one
lamp to burn at rated voltage and to provide
end of one of the windings of said inductive de
starting and running voltage and current for the
vice, a connection from the other side of said
power supplyv source to the other end of said 40 ?uorescent light at substantially overall unity
power factor.
'
last mentioned winding of said inductive device,
8. A voltage control for a gaseous discharge
a circuit path from said last mentioned end of
said last mentioned winding through said other
winding to one of said shunt connections, a switch
device movable to either of two positions, a con
nection between said switch device and the other
of said shunt connections, and means for estab
tube having a negative resistance temperature
coe?icient, comprising in combination with a
gaseous discharge tube having a negative resist
ance temperature coe?icient, an inductive device
and an element having a positive resistance tem
lishing connection through said switch device
with the ?rst mentioned side of said power supply
source on either side of said load with respect
to the end of the winding with which said load is
connected.
5. A composite incandescent and ?uorescent
perature coe?icient for providing starting and
running voltages for said tube, said inductive de
vice being provided with primary and secondary
windings having substantially the same inductive
effect and disposed in inductance opposition to
illuminating structure comprising in combina
unity during normal operation.
effect an overall power factor approximating
tion with an alternating current power supply
source an iron core reactor including a, winding
CORRIE F. RUDOLPH.
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