Патент USA US2407686код для вставки
Sept. 17, 1946. > c. F. RUDOLPH 2,407,685 I FLUORESCENT LI.GHT CONTROL Filed Aug. 3, 1943 2 Sheets-She'et 1 INVENTOR. , Corrie E Rudolph BY v AttO/‘Jiff V. ' Sept. 17, 1946. ' c_ F, RUDQLPH ' 2,407,685 FLUORESCENT LIGHT CONTROL Filed Aug. 3, 1945 I 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 /70 _ INVENTORL: '~ Corrie E’ Rudolph BY Attorney Patented Sept. 17, 1946 2,407,685 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,407,685 FLUORESCENT LIGHT CONTROL Corrie F. Rudolph, Washington, D. C. Application August 3, 1943, Serial No. 497,275 8 Claims.‘ (Cl. 315-62) (Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757) V 1 . This invention relates to a voltage control for gaseous discharge lamps which are designed for production of ?uorescent radiation for general lighting. . The principal object of my invention is to pro vide means in a ?uorescent tube to eliminate from 125 to 325 Volts, depending on age, gas con tent and temperature of tube for initial starting and approximately 100 to 108 volts for running condition. This change in voltage from 325 volts to 100 volts should automatically follow the changing resistance characteristics of the gas within the ?uorescent lamp during the transition sources of frequent failures to start, burned out ballasts, blackened tubes and radio interference from a cold gas to a completely ionized condi due to failure to start. tion. The required voltage regulation was ob Another object of my invention is to provide 10 tained by utilizing the temperature resistance an arrangement of ?uorescent illuminating tube characteristics of the tungsten ?lament of an system in which potentials may be established at incandescent lamp incorporated in the control opposite terminals internally of the tube with circuit of the ?uorescent lamp, and in conjunc out regard to the completeness of the conven tion with an inductive device the windings of tional cathode or ?lament circuit normally pro 15 which are so arranged to produce full line volt vided in such fluorescent tubes. age on the incandescent lamp, thus obtaining Still another object of my invention is to pro its full value as a light source and thereby reduc vide a circuit arrangement for operating ?uores ing the overall strob-oscopic eifect, This type of cent tubes in a manner in which conventional control will permit wide ?uctuations in line volt ?uorescent tubes having internal cathodes which 20 age, selective control of light intensity by means have been burned out and which normally render of switching connections or change in wattage of such tubes worthless, may be so arranged in an ballast lamps (incandescent lamp). In the cir electrical power supply circuit as to enable the cuit herein described the wattage and light in ?uorescent tube to be usefully employed through tensity of the ?uorescent lamp varies directly out an additional period of illuminating life. 25 with the wattage of the ballast lamps. The per Other and further objects of my invention re centage of watts lost in the inductive device de side in the structural means by which conven scribed herein is approximately 80% less than the tional ?uorescent tubes may be converted for use present commercial chokes used with starter but ful operation over an additional period of illumi ton type of controls. nating life as set forth more fully in the speci?ca 30 The windings of the inductive device are so tion hereinafter following by reference to the ac arranged that the inductance of the primary and companying drawings in which: secondary practically cancel each other under Fig. 1 is a circuit diagram showing the im proved circuit arrangement for ?uorescent tubes arranged in accordance with my invention; Fig. 2 running condition resulting in a near unity power factor, neglecting the intermittent phase dis placement due to distortion of the wave form by the tube itself. Since the starting current is less than running current, failure of the lamp to start or neglect is a schematic view showing a ?uorescent tube mounted in a manner employing the principles of my invention; Fig. 3 is a view through one of the supporting tube socket members or cases to replace a defective lamp cannot injure the con showing the conversion means I employ for uti 40 trol. Maintenance costs are therefore substan lizing ?uorescent tubes heretofore burned out and tially limited to the item of lamp replacements. The control described herein is designed to discarded; and Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view substantially on line 4-4 of Fig. 2 showing the portions of the tube cathode or ?lament which are employed in the system of my invention wholly as a discharge anode. In order that the above objects may be realized it is considered necessary to eliminate the usual starter button, and its associated ?laments with in the ?uorescent lamp, power factor correction . condensers and all auxiliary breaks in the circuit after having energized the circuit. With the above devices eliminated, the voltage regulation requirements for a standard commercial 40 watt vfluorescent lamp with 115 volt A. C. line will range operate present commercial general lighting ?uorescent tubes, having their ?laments short circuited in the tube socket, thus functioning as a cold electrode. Only one terminal is needed and a simpli?ed equivalent electrode within the ?uorescent lamp may be used and accordingly burned out ?laments will not make the lamp in— operative. The inductive device described here in consists of a closed iron core transformer, of the low loss, non-saturated core type. The pri mary and secondary winding are wound continu— ously with tap as shown and when connected as shown in the circuit diagram of Fig. 1 will 2,407,685 3 4 ‘function as a step-up transformer in combination with a gaseous discharge tube having a negative resistance temperature coe?‘icient, entirely con trolled by the resistance through the gaseous path within the ?uorescent lamp. Success in starting ' . nected in the power supply circuit as represented in Fig. 1. I may provide a condenser 22 shown in shunt 0 connection with the terminals leading to the ?uorescent tube. This small condenser, arranged as shown, eliminates the ?uorescent tube as a and operating ?uorescent lamps which have source of radio interference. "Some ?uorescent failed in the :ordinary commercial control is at tubes have a tendency to ‘emit radio frequency tributed primarily to the continuous 60 cycle energy with a 60 cycle modulation superimposed starting current. The intermittent starting cycle of the ordinary commercial control permits the 10 thereon. This is a continuous phenomenon un related to radio interference due to starting con gas within the ?uorescent lamp to cool between ditions to which I have heretofore referred. starting impulses, thus necessitating the prema .By virtue of ‘the direct connection to the oath ture discard of the lamp. odes or ?laments in the opposite ends of the Referring to the drawings in detail, the ?uo rescent lamp of conventional construction is in dicated by reference character I associated in ?uorescent tube, I am able to utilize ?uorescent electrical circuit with an iron core transformer or inductive device 2. The iron core transformer or inductive device 2 includes an iron core which carries an auto-transformer circuit including a 20 lamps which have already served their useful life but in which the cathodes or ?laments have burnedlopen. ‘Inasmuch as a series path through the cathode or ?lament is unnecessary to the operation of the tube system of my invention as ‘primary winding 3 and a secondary winding 4. an illuminating means, I am able to economi The primary ‘winding 53 ‘is connected ‘to the con ventional power supply 'line 5. The power supply cally extend the life of ?uorescent tubes almost inde?nitely. Moreover burned out tubes here ‘line ‘is indicated as including an incandescent tofore used in conventional circuits may now ‘be lamp bank, ‘heater elements or motor represented 25 used in ‘the system of my invention over an i‘addi tional period of useful life. at 6. A switch is provided, including a switch Switch con While I have described my invention in one of tact ‘I is arranged for low intensity light opera tion. Switch contact 8 is arranged for high in :its preferred embodiments, I desire that it ‘be understood that modi?cations may be made and arm 9, and switch contacts ‘I and 8. ‘tensity light ‘operation. . 30 I intend no limitations upon my invention ‘other than may be imposed by the scope of the ap The conventional ?uorescent lamp which is represented as having terminal posts I‘! and I8 projecting from each end thereof and normally connected in circuit with the tube ?laments or cathodes 2‘I arranged internally of each end of the tube. An arc shield I9 is arranged in the end of the tube on one side of the ?lament 2| pended claims. ' The invention described herein may be manu factured and used by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon or therefor. What I claim as new and desire to secure by "and a complementary arc shield 20 is arranged Letters Patent of the United States is as ‘follows: ‘in the end of the tube on the opposite side of 40 '1. A voltage control for a gaseous discharge the ?lament 2| as represented in Fig. 4. The ‘terminal posts I‘! and I8, projecting from the opposite ends of the tube, are engageable in socket members or cases I0 arranged to insulat ingly mount the ?uorescent tube with respect to 'abase plate or ‘mounting ?xture II. Each of the 45 socket members or cases It! form housings for tube having a negative resistance temperature c'oe?icient, comprising in combination with a gaseous discharge tube having a negative resist "ance temperature coefficient, an inductive device and. an incandescent lamp having a positive re sistance temperature coe?icient for the purpose of providing starting and running voltages for said tube, said ‘inductive device being provided ‘with primary ‘and secondary windings arranged I3 are mounted in the socket members or cases 50 ‘so that the primary winding will react ‘upon the secondary winding during ‘starting to produce I0 terminating in terminal posts It and I5 as necessary starting voltages and the secondary "shown. ‘ winding to react upon the primary winding dur Ordinarily electric circuit connections are taken from the separate and insulatingly sup ing running 'to counteract the inductance of the ported terminal posts l4 and IE to the starting 55 primary winding plus D. C. resistance of the primary winding and thereby produce full line and running circuit of the ?uorescent lamp. In voltage on the incandescent lamp for the purpose the ‘system of my invention, however, I entirely of obtaining full illumination from the incan depart from the conventional practice of estab contact springs ‘I2 and I3 which are shaped for engagement ‘with the terminal posts [I and I8 of the ?uorescent tube. The contact springs I2 and descent lamp and consequent reduction in over lishing circuit connections to each of the ter I minal posts I4 and I5 for forming a series circuit 60 all stroboscopic effect. 2. A gaseous discharge tube system comprising through the cathodes or ?laments I2 at each a gaseous discharge tube having a pair of pin end of the ?uorescentv tube. In lieu of such sep terminals projecting from each end thereof, arate connection, I provide a short circuiting cathodes disposed interiorly of the ends of said bus connection between terminal posts i4 and tube and connected with said pin terminals, sock I5. I have shown this short circuiting connec et devices for mechanically engaging ‘said pin tion provided by means of lengths of wire 23 terminals, a pair of contact members in each of and 24 which are fastened beneath the heads of said socket devices for establishing electrical con the screws forming the terminal posts I4 and I5 nection with said ‘pin terminals, a bus permanent- “ and brought up through the aperture 25 in the 70 1y connected between each of saidpai'r of con base plate or support II and twisted together as tact members for continuously short circuiting represented at I6, forming a short circuit across said contact members independently of whether the ends of the ?laments or cathodes. The the pin terminals of said tube are engaged in said shunted ends of the ?lament through the short ‘socket device or not, ‘an alternating current power circuit connection I6 are then electrically con 75 supply source, and a device having a positive 2,407,686 3 temperature coefficient of resistance, said device being an inductive device connected in circuit with said power supply source and connected through said bus with the short circuited ter minals of said gaseous discharge tube. 3. A gaseous discharge tube system comprising , tapped intermediate the ends thereof, an incan- , descent lamp load, a series path from said power source through the tapped connection to said reactor and through one end of said reactor to said incandescent lamp load returning to said power source, the ?uorescent lamp having an electrode in each end thereof, a connection be a gaseous discharge tube having a pair of‘ pin tween one of said electrodes and the opposite‘ terminals projecting from each end thereof, end of said reactor, a connection between the cathodes disposed interiorly of the ends of said tube and connected with said pin terminals, 10 other of-said electrodes to a selector switch and contacts for said selector switch on opposite sides socket devices for mechanically engaging said pin of said incandescent lamp load for selectively terminals, 2. pair of contact members in each of establishing connection from the‘ last mentioned said socket devices for establishing electrical con electrode of said ?uorescent lamp with one side nection with said pin terminals, a shunt connec tion permanently interconnecting each of said 15 of said alternating current power source or with the said side of said power source through said pair of contact members, an alternating current alternating current incandescent lamp load. power supply source, a device having a positive temperature coet?cient of resistance, an induc 6. A ?uorescent light control comprising a ?uorescent light circuit, an incandescent lamp tive device including a pair of series connected. windings, both of said devices being connected 20 designed for operation at full line voltage from in circuit with said power supply source and connected permanently ‘with said shunt con ' an alternating current power supply source, an impedance in series with said incandescent lamp and with said alternating current power supply nections source, said impedance being automatically neu 4. A gaseous discharge tube system compris ing a gaseous discharge tube having a pair of pin 25 tralized by the current in the ?uorescent light circuit to cause the incandescent lamp to burn terminals projecting from each end thereof, at rated voltage, and to provide starting and cathodes disposed interiorly of the ends of said running voltage and current for the ?uorescent tube and connected with said pin terminals, sock light. et devices for mechanically engaging said pin 7. A ?uorescent light control comprising a terminals, a pair of contact members in each of 30 said socket devices for establishing electrical I ?uorescent light circuit, an incandescent lamp designed for operation at full line voltage from connection with said pin terminals, a shunt con an alternating current power supply source, an nection connected between each of said pair of impedance in series with said incandescent lamp, contact members, an alternating current power said impedance being automatically‘neutralized supply source, an inductive device including a by the inductive effect of the current in the pair of windings, a load, a connection between ?uorescent light circuit to cause the incandescent said power supply source through said load to one lamp to burn at rated voltage and to provide end of one of the windings of said inductive de starting and running voltage and current for the vice, a connection from the other side of said power supplyv source to the other end of said 40 ?uorescent light at substantially overall unity power factor. ' last mentioned winding of said inductive device, 8. A voltage control for a gaseous discharge a circuit path from said last mentioned end of said last mentioned winding through said other winding to one of said shunt connections, a switch device movable to either of two positions, a con nection between said switch device and the other of said shunt connections, and means for estab tube having a negative resistance temperature coe?icient, comprising in combination with a gaseous discharge tube having a negative resist ance temperature coe?icient, an inductive device and an element having a positive resistance tem lishing connection through said switch device with the ?rst mentioned side of said power supply source on either side of said load with respect to the end of the winding with which said load is connected. 5. A composite incandescent and ?uorescent perature coe?icient for providing starting and running voltages for said tube, said inductive de vice being provided with primary and secondary windings having substantially the same inductive effect and disposed in inductance opposition to illuminating structure comprising in combina unity during normal operation. effect an overall power factor approximating tion with an alternating current power supply source an iron core reactor including a, winding CORRIE F. RUDOLPH.